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Wahba, M. E., D. El Wasseef, A. S. Saad, and M. E. Draz, "Calixarene based portable sensor for the direct assay of indiscriminate ephedrine content of weight loss herbal preparations", RSC Advances, vol. 11, issue 21: Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 12833 - 12844, 2021///. AbstractWebsite

A novel potentiometric sensor was developed and optimized for the quantitative analysis of ephedrine in non-prescribed herbal supplements used as adjunctive therapy for weight loss. An initial optimization study aimed to reach the optimum membrane composition, sensor assembly, and experimental conditions. The study evaluated the effect of several factors on the sensor performance including different ion-exchangers, plasticizers, ionophores, membrane thicknesses, soaking solution concentrations, soaking time intervals, and pH. The optimized polyvinyl chloride membrane included tungstophosphoric acid hydrate as a cation exchanger, tricresyl phosphate as a plasticizer, and calix[8]arene as an ionophore to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor. The polyvinyl chloride membrane was drop-casted over a polyaniline modified glassy carbon electrode surface to form a solid-state sensor. The proposed membrane succeeded to quantify ephedrine over a linear range of 6 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2M with a LOD of 3.60 × 10−6M, acceptable selectivity, and fast response time. The IUPAC characterization of sensor response and International Conference on Harmonization validation parameters were calculated. The method successfully determined ephedrine concentration in spiked herbal mixtures and determined labeled and undeclared ephedrine content of weight loss herbal preparations.

, "Calixarene-doped PVC polymeric films as size-selective optical sensors, Monitoring of salicylate in real samples", Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , vol. 201, pp. 98-104, 2018.
Zahran, A. H., and B. Liang, "Call Admission Control Analysis in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks", 3rd International Computer Engineering Conference Smart Applications for the Information Society, ICENCO 07, Cairo, Egypt , [C14] December , 2007. Abstract

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Perros, H. G., and K. M. Elsayed, "Call admission control schemes: a review", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 82–91, 1996. Abstract
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Nadeem, N., "A Call for a Collaborative Approach to Understanding Textual Coherence in Quran", Quranica, vol. 7, issue 1, pp. 55-74, 2015.
Winkler, A. S., S. Knauss, E. Schmutzhard, M. Leonardi, A. Padovani, F. Abd-Allah, A. Charway-Felli, J. V. Emmerich, T. Umapathi, and P. Satishchandra, "A call for a global COVID-19 Neuro Research Coalition", The Lancet Neurology, vol. 19, issue 6: Elsevier, pp. 482-484, 2020. Abstract
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Radwan, N. M., and H. Schneider, "Call Repertory and variation in the calls of the pool frog, Rana Lessonea (Anura: Ranidae)e developing chick brain", Amphibia - Reptilia, vol. 9, pp. 329-351, 1988.
Abdo, W., A. Hirata, M. Shukry, T. Kamal, E. Abdel-Sattar, E. Mahrous, and T. Yanai, "Calligonum comosum extract inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats", Oncology letters, vol. 10, no. 2: Spandidos Publications, pp. 716–722, 2015. Abstract
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Shehabeldine, A. M., R. M. Ashour, M. M. Okba, and F. R. Saber, "Callistemon citrinus bioactive metabolites as new inhibitors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2020.
, "Caloric Test and Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Findings in Patients with Vestibular Neuritis", The Medical Journal of The Cairo university, vol. 79, issue 2, pp. 173-176, 2011.
Saad, G. R., "Calorimetric and Dielectric Study of the Segmented Biodegradable Poly(ester-urethane)s Based on Bacterial Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]", Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 1, issue 9, pp. 387 - 396, 2001. AbstractWebsite

Two series of segmented poly(ester-urethane)s were synthesized from bacterial poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-diol (PHB-diol), as hard segments, and either poly(ε-caprolactone)-diol (PCL-diol) or poly(butylene adipate)-diol (PBA-diol), as soft segments, using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as a chain extender. The hard-segment content varied from 0 to 50 wt.-%. These material were characterized using 1H NMR spectroscopy and GPC. The polymers obtained were investigated calorimetrically and dielectrically. DSC showed that the Tg of either the PCL or PBA soft segments are shifted to higher temperatures with increasing PHB hard-segment content, revealing that either the PCL or PBA are mixed with small amounts of PHB in the amorphous domains. The results also showed that the crystallization of soft or hard segments was physically constrained by the microstructure of the other crystalline phase, which results in a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of either the soft or hard segments upon increase of the other component. The dielectric spectra of poly(ester-urethane)s, based on PCL and PHB, showed two primary relaxation processes, designate as aS and aH, which correspond to glass-rubber transitions of PCL soft and PHB hard segments, respectively. Whereas in the case of other poly(ester-urethane)s, derived from PBA and PHB, only one relaxation process was observed, which broadens and shifts to higher temperature with increasing PHB hard-segment content. It was concluded from these results that our investigated materials exhibit micro-phase separation of the hard and soft segments in the amorphous domains.

Saad, G. R., "Calorimetric and dielectric study of the segmented biodegradable poly(ester-urethane)s based on bacterial poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]", Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 202, issue 18, pp. 387 - 396, 2001. AbstractWebsite

Two series of segmented poly(ester-urethane)s were synthesized from bacterial poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-diol (PHB-diol), as hard segments, and either poly(ε-caprolactone)-diol (PCL-diol) or poly(butylene adipate)-diol (PBA-diol), as soft segments, using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as a chain extender. The hard-segment content varied from 0 to 50 wt.-%. These materials were characterized using 1H NMR spectroscopy and GPC. The polymers obtained were investigated calorimetrically and dielectrically. DSC showed that the Tg of either the PCL or PBA soft segments are shifted to higher temperatures with increasing PHB hard-segment content, revealing that either the PCL or PBA are mixed with small amounts of PHB in the amorphous domains. The results showed that the crystallization of soft or hard segments was physically constrained by the micro-structure of the other crystalline phase, which results in a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of either the soft or hard segments upon increase of the other component. The dielectric spectra of poly(ester-urethane)s, based on PCL and PHB, showed two primary relaxation processes, designated as αs and αH, which correspond to glass-rubber transitions of PCL soft and PHB hard segments, respectively. Whereas in the case of other poly(ester-urethane)s, derived from PBA and PHB, only one relaxation process was observed, which broadens and shifts to higher temperature with increasing PHB hard-segment content. It was concluded from these results that our investigated materials exhibit micro-phase separation of the hard and soft segment in the amorphous domains.

El Shafee, E., G. R. Saad, and M. Zaki, "Calorimetric and dielectric study on poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/ polycarbonate blends", Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 15, issue 1, pp. 47 - 58, 2008. AbstractWebsite

Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/polycarbonate (PC) blends with different compositions were prepared by melt blending. The miscibility and phase behavior of melt-quenched and cold-crystallized blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The blends of all compositions display only one glass transition (T g ) in both states. The melting temperature and the crystallinity of PTT in the blend decrease with increasing PC content. The dielectric results for the melt-quenched blends, for PC content up to 60 wt.%, exhibited two merged relaxation peaks during the heating scan; the lower temperature relaxation peak represent the normal glass-transition (α) relaxation of the mixed amorphous phase and the higher temperature relaxation due to the new-constrained mixed amorphous phase after crystallization. Cold-crystallized blends displayed only one glass transition α-relaxation whose temperatures varied with composition in manner similar to that observed by DSC. The dielectric α-relaxation of cold crystallized blends has been analyzed. Parameters relating to relaxation broadening, dielectric relaxation strength, and activation energy were quantified and were found to be composition dependent. The PTT/PC blends could be considered as two-phase system, a crystalline PTT phase and a mixed amorphous phase consisting of a miscible mixture of the two polymers. However, the crystallinity was only detected for blends containing greater than 40 wt.% PTT. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mahmoud, K. H., Z. M. El-Bahy, and A. I. Hanafy, "Calorimetric, optical and catalytic activity studies of europium chloride-polyvinyl alcohol composite system", Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 72, no. 9: Pergamon, pp. 1057–1065, 2011. Abstract
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Mahmoud, K. H., Z. M. El-Bahy, and A. I. Hanafy, "Calorimetric, optical and catalytic activity studies of europium chloride-polyvinyl alcohol composite system", Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 72, no. 9: Pergamon, pp. 1057–1065, 2011. Abstract
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Mahmoud, K. H., Z. M. El-Bahy, and A. I. Hanafy, "Calorimetric, optical and catalytic activity studies of europium chloride-polyvinyl alcohol composite system", Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 72, no. 9: Pergamon, pp. 1057–1065, 2011. Abstract
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Hilali, M., A. M. Nassar, and A. El-Ghaysh, "Camel (Camelus dromedarius) and sheep (Ovis aries) meat as a source of dog infection with some coccidian parasites.", Veterinary parasitology, vol. 43, issue 1-2, pp. 37-43, 1992 Jun. Abstract

Experimental infection of dogs with camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat resulted in infection of the dogs with Isospora canis, Hammondia heydorni and Sarcocystis cameli. The dogs fed sheep (Ovis aries) meat passed oocysts of Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis and sporocyts of Sarcocystis spp. Extraintestinal stages were detected in the intestinal lymph node of a rabbit killed 4 days following inoculation with Isospora ohioensis oocysts. Dogs fed the rabbit (killed 4 days after inoculation with I. ohioensis) passed I. ohioensis oocysts in their faeces 8 days post-infection.

Shawki, A. K., M. A. El-Desouky, S. M. Fouad, A. E. - F. M. Ahmed, B. E. Aboulhoda, and W. A. Ahmed, "Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk Antibodies Ameliorated Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Wistar Rats", Egyptian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 64, issue 8, pp. 4611-4623, 2021.
Ghoneim, N. H., K. A. Abdel-moein, and H. Zaher, "Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars", Pathogens and global health, vol. 111, issue 3, pp. 143-147, 2017.
Ghoneim, N. H., K.A.Abdel-Moein, and H.M.Zaher, "Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars", Pathogens and global Health, vol. 111, issue 13, pp. 143-147, 2017.
Fayed, R. H., and M. Y. Matoock, "Camel behaviour: A review on sexual and maternal behaviour", Journal of Egypt. Vet. Medicine Assoc., vol. 56, issue 4, pp. 479 – 488, 1996. camel_behaviour_paper.pdf
El-hassan, D. A. G., and M. A. El-Dubaib, Camel Disease أمراض الإبل, : Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, 2012. Abstract
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Arab, H. H., S. A. Salama, and I. A. Maghrabi, "Camel Milk Ameliorates 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Renal Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathways.", Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, vol. 46, issue 4, pp. 1628-1642, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The clinical utility of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Camel milk (CM) has previously displayed beneficial effects in toxicant-induced nephropathies. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of CM to attenuate 5-FU-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

METHODS: Renal tissues were studied in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The levels of renal injury markers, inflammatory cytokines along with NOX-1, Nrf-2 and HO-1 were assessed by ELISA. The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, NF-κBp65, p53, Bax and PCNA were detected by Immunohistochemistry. To gain an insight into the molecular signaling mechanisms, we determined the effect of CM on MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways by Western blotting.

RESULTS: CM lowered 5-FU-triggered increase of creatinine, BUN, Kim-1 and NGAL renal injury biomarkers and attenuated the histopathological aberrations. It suppressed oxidative stress and augmented renal antioxidant armory (GSH, SOD, GPx, TAC) with restoration of NOX-1, Nrf-2 and HO-1 levels. CM also suppressed renal inflammation as indicated by inhibition of MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and MCP-1 proinflammatory mediators and downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression with boosting of IL-10. Regarding MAPKs signaling, CM suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 and inhibited NF-κB activation. For apoptosis, CM downregulated p53, Bax, CytC and caspase-3 proapoptotic signals with enhancement of Bcl-2 and PCNA. It also enhanced PI3K p110α, phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS levels with augmentation of renal NO, favoring cell survival. Equally important, CM preconditioning enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity in MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, thus, justifying their concomitant use.

CONCLUSION: The current findings pinpoint, for the first time, the marked renoprotective effects of CM that were mediated via ROS scavenging, suppression of MAPKs and NF-κB along with activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

Arab, H. H., S. A. Salama, and I. A. Maghrabi, "Camel milk attenuates methotrexate-induced kidney injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling and intervention with oxidative aberrations.", Food & function, vol. 9, issue 5, pp. 2661-2672, 2018. Abstract

Methotrexate (MTX) is a classical chemotherapeutic agent with nephrotoxicity as the most disturbing adverse effect. So far, its underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly PI3K/Akt/eNOS transduction, are inadequately explored. Several antioxidant modalities have been characterized to ameliorate MTX-induced renal injury. In this regard, Camel milk (CM) is a natural product with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential ameliorating effects of CM in MTX-induced kidney injury in rats. Renal tissues were studied in terms of renal injury markers, histopathology, oxidative stress, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling. CM was orally administered (10 ml kg-1) and the renal injury was induced by a single i.p. injection of MTX (20 mg kg-1). Interestingly, CM dose-dependently attenuated MTX-triggered increase of BUN and serum creatinine and renal Kim-1 expression and mitigated the renal histopathological changes. CM counteracted renal oxidative stress as manifested by lowering of lipid peroxides, restoration of NOX-1 levels and augmentation of the antioxidant defenses e.g., GSH, SOD, GPx and total antioxidant capacity. With respect to apoptosis, CM curbed the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, downregulated p53, Bax and Cyt C proapoptotic signals and enhanced Bcl-2 and PCNA levels. In the same context, CM activated the prosurvival PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway via enhancing PI3K p110, phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS levels. Equally important, CM preconditioning did not interfere with MTX cytotoxicity in TK-10 or PC-3 cancer cells. Together, the current findings demonstrate, for the first time, the renoprotective effects of CM in MTX-induced kidney injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling and combating oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Arab, H. H., S. A. Salama, T. M. Abdelghany, H. A. Omar, E. - S. A. Arafa, M. M. Al Robaian, and I. A. Maghrabi, "Camel Milk Attenuates Rheumatoid Arthritis Via Inhibition of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.", Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, vol. 43, issue 2, pp. 540-552, 2017. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Camel milk (CM) has shown beneficial anti-inflammatory actions in several experimental and clinical settings. So far, its effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been previously explored. Thus, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of CM in Adjuvant-induced arthritis and air pouch edema models in rats, which mimic human RA.

METHODS: CM was administered at 10 ml/kg orally for 3 weeks starting on the day of Freund's adjuvant paw inoculation. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA while the protein expression of NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting.

RESULTS: CM attenuated paw edema, arthritic index and gait score along with dorsal pouch inflammatory cell migration. CM lowered the TNF-α and augmented the anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. It also attenuated the expression of activated NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS in the lining of the dorsal pouch. Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. Additionally, CM administration lowered the lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels and boosted glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity in sera and exudates of animals.

CONCLUSION: The observed CM downregulation of the arthritic process may support the interest of CM consumption as an adjunct approach for the management of RA.