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Hassan, D. M., R. H. A. Yousef, W. A. A. Elhamed, A. A. Ali, and L. A. Madkour, Candidemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Insights on Epidemiology and Antifungal Drug Susceptibility Patterns, , 2019.
Helal, M., N. Hany, M. Maged, M. Abdelaziz, N. Osama, Y. W. Younan, Y. Ismail, R. Abdelrahman, and M. Ragab, "Candidate genes for marker-assisted selection for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits", Animal Biotechnology: Taylor & Francis, pp. 1–20, 2021. Abstract
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Ibrahim, A. M., M. M. Said, A. M. Hilal, A. M. Medhat, and I. A. M. Esalam, "Candidate circulating microRNAs as potential diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for the monitoring of locally advanced breast cancer patients", Tumor Biology, vol. 42 , issue 10, pp. 1–13, 2020. 1.pdf
Bisping, W., M. Refai, and G. Trautwein, "Candida parapsilosis als Ursache eines Rinderabortes.", Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wschr. , vol. 77, pp. 260-262, 1964. Abstractcandida_parapsilosis_as_a_cause_of_bovine_abortion.pdf

In a retrospective study, four cases of yeast-associated abortion were found among 1,323 bovine abortions during a 5-year period at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine. Tissues were examined histologically, and results of virological testing and microbiological culture were reviewed. Candida parapsilosis was the only pathogenic agent demonstrated in these four cases. Placental lesions consisted of necrotizing placentitis with large numbers of yeasts within trophoblasts. Secondary fetal infection occurred in all four cases, with histological lesions or isolation of Candida from the lung, liver, intestines, abomasum, and heart. A tentative diagnosis of Candida parapsilosis-induced abortion in cattle can be made on the characteristic intracytoplasmic yeasts in placental trophoblasts.

Ibrahim, S. A., A. Kulshrestha, G. K. Katara, V. Riehl, M. Sahoo, and K. D. Beaman, "Cancer-associated V-ATPase induces delayed apoptosis of protumorigenic neutrophils.", Molecular oncology, vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 590-610, 2020 Mar. Abstract

Tumors and neutrophils undergo an unexpected interaction, in which products released by tumor cells interact to support neutrophils that in turn support cancer growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. A key protein that is highly expressed by cancer cells in tumors is the a2 isoform V-ATPase (a2V). A peptide from a2V (a2NTD) is secreted specifically by cancer cells, but not normal cells, into the tumor microenvironment. This peptide reprograms neutrophils to promote angiogenesis, cancer cell invasiveness, and neutrophil recruitment. Here, we provide evidence that cancer-associated a2V regulates the life span of protumorigenic neutrophils by influencing the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human cancer tissue sections collected from four different organs shows that levels of a2NTD and neutrophil counts are increased in cancer compared with normal tissues. Significant increases in neutrophil counts were present in both poorly and moderately differentiated tumors. In addition, there is a positive correlation between the number of neutrophils and a2NTD expression. Human neutrophils treated with recombinant a2NTD show significantly delayed apoptosis, and such prolonged survival was dependent on NF-κB activation and ROS generation. Induction of antiapoptotic protein expression (Bcl-xL and Bcl-2A1) and decreased expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax, Apaf-1, caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-7) were a hallmark of these treated neutrophils. Autocrine secretion of prosurvival cytokines of TNF-α and IL-8 by treated neutrophils prolongs their survival. Our findings highlight the important role of cancer-associated a2V in regulating protumorigenic innate immunity, identifying a2V as a potential important target for cancer therapy.

Ibrahim, S. A., A. Kulshrestha, G. K. Katara, V. Riehl, M. Sahoo, and K. D. Beaman, "Cancer-associated V-ATPase induces delayed apoptosis of protumorigenic neutrophils.", Molecular oncology, vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 590-610, 2020. Abstract

Tumors and neutrophils undergo an unexpected interaction, in which products released by tumor cells interact to support neutrophils that in turn support cancer growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. A key protein that is highly expressed by cancer cells in tumors is the a2 isoform V-ATPase (a2V). A peptide from a2V (a2NTD) is secreted specifically by cancer cells, but not normal cells, into the tumor microenvironment. This peptide reprograms neutrophils to promote angiogenesis, cancer cell invasiveness, and neutrophil recruitment. Here, we provide evidence that cancer-associated a2V regulates the life span of protumorigenic neutrophils by influencing the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human cancer tissue sections collected from four different organs shows that levels of a2NTD and neutrophil counts are increased in cancer compared with normal tissues. Significant increases in neutrophil counts were present in both poorly and moderately differentiated tumors. In addition, there is a positive correlation between the number of neutrophils and a2NTD expression. Human neutrophils treated with recombinant a2NTD show significantly delayed apoptosis, and such prolonged survival was dependent on NF-κB activation and ROS generation. Induction of antiapoptotic protein expression (Bcl-xL and Bcl-2A1) and decreased expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax, Apaf-1, caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-7) were a hallmark of these treated neutrophils. Autocrine secretion of prosurvival cytokines of TNF-α and IL-8 by treated neutrophils prolongs their survival. Our findings highlight the important role of cancer-associated a2V in regulating protumorigenic innate immunity, identifying a2V as a potential important target for cancer therapy.

Kassem, N., "Cancer Stem Cells: from Identification to Eradication (review article)", Egyptian National Cancer Institute , vol. 20, issue 3, 2008.
Sedrak, A. S., Y. S. Galal, and T. T. Amin, "Cancer Screening Knowledge and Attitudes of Under- and Post-Graduate Students at Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.", Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol. 17, issue 8, pp. 3809-16, 2016. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Increasing knowledge and awareness of cancer screening significantly influence health promotion behavior which could markedly reduce incidence rates. In many countries, health care providers are the principal source of information concerning cancer screening. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge concerning cancer screening among medical students, house officers and residents and to explore their attitude towards cancer screening practices.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kasr Al Ainy Medical School at Cairo University in Egypt, with 300 undergraduate medical students and 150 postgraduates (interns and residents) enrolled. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the study participants regarding personal and education-related information, knowledge about cancer screening and its sources, and attitude towards cancer screening.

RESULTS: More than 64% of participants had knowledge scores of ≤ 10 points (out of 24). The total knowledge score (out of 6 points) for breast cancer screening increased from 1.9±1.0 to 2.3±1.2 and 2.4±1.1 for 4th, 5th and 6th year respectively, interns showed the highest score of 2.6 ±1.1, P= 0.001. Year of enrollment at medical school was a significant positive predictor of acquiring knowledge about cancer screening (post graduate vs. undergraduate students) (OR= 1.30, C.I =1.01-1.63), lack of or none receiving of orientation/training about cancer screening was the sole negative significant predictor for proper knowledge about cancer screening (OR=0.50, C.I=0.31-0.82). Over 92% of students agreed that they had insufficient knowledge about cancer screening, 88.2% appraised the need to have enough knowledge in order to direct/advice patients, relatives and friends, and 93.7% required that the faculty should emphasize the importance of cancer screening in the delivered curricula at medical school.

CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low to moderate level of knowledge about cancer screening was detected among the selected medical students regardless of their year of enrollment at medical school or their graduation status, which may implicate a negative impact on early cancer detection especially in a low resource country like Egypt.

Sedrak, A. S., Y. S. Galal, and T. T. Amin, "Cancer Screening Knowledge and Attitudes of Under- and Post-Graduate Students at Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.", Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol. 17, issue 8, pp. 3809-16, 2016. Abstractlbhth_lrb_cancer_screening_knowledge_and_attitudes_of_under.pdf

BACKGROUND: Increasing knowledge and awareness of cancer screening significantly influence health promotion behavior which could markedly reduce incidence rates. In many countries, health care providers are the principal source of information concerning cancer screening. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge concerning cancer screening among medical students, house officers and residents and to explore their attitude towards cancer screening practices.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kasr Al Ainy Medical School at Cairo University in Egypt, with 300 undergraduate medical students and 150 postgraduates (interns and residents) enrolled. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the study participants regarding personal and education-related information, knowledge about cancer screening and its sources, and attitude towards cancer screening.

RESULTS: More than 64% of participants had knowledge scores of ≤ 10 points (out of 24). The total knowledge score (out of 6 points) for breast cancer screening increased from 1.9±1.0 to 2.3±1.2 and 2.4±1.1 for 4th, 5th and 6th year respectively, interns showed the highest score of 2.6 ±1.1, P= 0.001. Year of enrollment at medical school was a significant positive predictor of acquiring knowledge about cancer screening (post graduate vs. undergraduate students) (OR= 1.30, C.I =1.01-1.63), lack of or none receiving of orientation/training about cancer screening was the sole negative significant predictor for proper knowledge about cancer screening (OR=0.50, C.I=0.31-0.82). Over 92% of students agreed that they had insufficient knowledge about cancer screening, 88.2% appraised the need to have enough knowledge in order to direct/advice patients, relatives and friends, and 93.7% required that the faculty should emphasize the importance of cancer screening in the delivered curricula at medical school.

CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low to moderate level of knowledge about cancer screening was detected among the selected medical students regardless of their year of enrollment at medical school or their graduation status, which may implicate a negative impact on early cancer detection especially in a low resource country like Egypt.

Sedrak, A. S., Y. S. Galal, and T. T. Amin, "Cancer screening knowledge and attitudes of under- and post-graduate students at Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt", Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 17, issue 8, pp. 3807-3814, 2016.
EL-SHEMY, H. A., A. E. - M. M. R. Afify, S. A. Fayed, and E. A. Shalaby, "Cancer Science & Therapy", Cancer Science, vol. 2011, pp. 247, 2011. Abstract
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Alsirafy, S. A., and S. M. Brown, "Cancer pain control in the Eastern Mediterranean region: many steps behind.", The European Cancer Conference, Paris, France, European Journal of Cancer; 3(2, Suppl), pp. 373, 2005.
Wafaie, A., K. Moussa, and E. Ebeid, "Cancer of unknown primary origin: Can FDG PET/CT have a role in detecting the site of primary?", Egyptian Journal Of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, vol. 49, 2018.
Kapiel, T., "Cancer Medication Defeats Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) Resistance", http://www.scidev.net, 2015. Abstractcancer_medication_defeats_bilharzia_schistosomiasis_resistance.pdf

توصل فريق بحثي مصري إلى دواء محتمل، أثبت فاعلية في علاج داء البلهارسيا المعوية، التي تُبدي مقاومةً للعقار الوحيد المستخدم حاليًّا ضدها.

ويشير موقع منظمة الصحة العالمية على شبكة الإنترنت إلى أن الصومال والسودان وجنوب السودان هي أكثر البلدان الموبوءة بالإقليم، وتحقق انخفاض في توطن المرض بمصر والعراق والأردن وليبيا وعمان والمملكة العربية السعودية والجمهورية العربية السورية.

- See more at: http://www.scidev.net/mena/disease/news/Cancer-medication-defeat-Bilharzia-resistant.html#sthash.Vsvz5bDb.dpuf

Aboul-Enein, A. M., E. A. Shalaby, F. A. El-Ella, A. A. Nassrallah, and H. El-Shemy, "The cancer inhibition actions of phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables grown in Egypt", The 8th International Conference Proceeding: Functional Foods and Chronic Diseases: Science and Practice, UNLV, Las Vegas, USA, 15-17 Marc, 2011.
Bahnassy, A. A., M. S. Abdellateif, and A. - R. N. Zekri, "Cancer in Africa: Is It a Genetic or Environmental Health Problem?", Frontiers in oncology, vol. 10, pp. 604214, 2020. Abstract

Patients of African ancestry have the poorest outcome and the shortest survival rates from cancer globally. This could be attributed to many variables including racial, biological, socioeconomic and sociocultural factors (either single, multiple or combined), which may be responsible for this major health problem. We sought to assess the most common types of cancer that endanger the health of the African people, and tried to investigate the real differences between African and other Non-African patients regarding incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of different cancers. Therefore, identifying the underlying aetiological causes responsible for the increased incidence and mortality rates of African patients will allow for changing the current plans, to make optimized modalities for proper screening, diagnosis and treatment for those African patients, in order to improve their survival and outcomes.

Eguchi, T., M. Sheta, M. Fujii, and S. K. Calderwood, "Cancer extracellular vesicles, tumoroid models, and tumor microenvironment.", Seminars in cancer biology, 2022. Abstract

Cancer extracellular vesicles (EVs), or exosomes, promote tumor progression through enhancing tumor growth, initiating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, remodeling the tumor microenvironment, and preparing metastatic niches. Three-dimensionally (3D) cultured tumoroids / spheroids aim to reproduce some aspects of tumor behavior in vitro and show increased cancer stem cell properties. These properties are transferred to their EVs that promote tumor growth. Moreover, recent tumoroid models can be furnished with aspects of the tumor microenvironment, such as vasculature, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix. This review summarizes tumor tissue culture and engineering platforms compatible with EV research. For example, the combination experiments of 3D-tumoroids and EVs have revealed multifunctional proteins loaded in EVs, such as metalloproteinases and heat shock proteins. EVs or exosomes are able to transfer their cargo molecules to recipient cells, whose fates are often largely altered. In addition, the review summarizes approaches to EV labeling technology using fluorescence and luciferase, useful for studies on EV-mediated intercellular communication, biodistribution, and metastatic niche formation.

Soliman, A. S., S. S. Nasser, O. El-Hattab, T. Sobeih, and R. M. Chamberlain, "Cancer education in medical, nursing, and pharmacy schools in Egypt: features applicable to other countries", J Cancer Educ, vol. 18, issue 1, 2003.
Amgad, M., E. Shash, and R. Gaafar, "Cancer education for medical students in developing countries: Where do we stand and how to improve?", Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, vol. 84, no. 1: Elsevier, pp. 122–129, 2012. Abstract
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Alsirafy, S. A., S. S. Abdel-Kareem, N. Y. Ibrahim, M. A. Abolkasem, and D. E. Farag, "Cancer diagnosis disclosure preferences of family caregivers of cancer patients in Egypt.", Psycho-oncology, vol. 26, issue 11, pp. 1758-1762, 2017. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients are frequently seen as a barrier to honest communication with patients in Egypt. This study was conducted to investigate the attitude of FCs of cancer patients toward cancer diagnosis disclosure (CDD) and its determinants.

METHODS: A structured interview was used to assess the preferences of 288 FCs regarding CDD.

RESULTS: According to the FCs, 85% of patients were aware of their diagnosis. The majority (81%) of FCs preferred CDD to patients. In case they developed cancer, 92% of FCs wanted to know their diagnosis and 88% wanted to inform their families. In a univariate analysis, factors associated with FCs' negative attitude toward CDD to patients were as follows: patient's lower level of education (P = .001), patient's rural residence (P < .001), hematological malignancies (P < .001), FC's belief that the patient is unaware of diagnosis (P < .001), FC's unwillingness to know his/her own cancer diagnosis (P < .001), and FC's unwillingness to inform his/her family about his/her cancer diagnosis (P < .001). Only 2 factors predicted independently the negative attitude of FCs toward CDD, the FC's belief that the patient is unaware of diagnosis (P < .001), and the FC's unwillingness to know his/her own cancer diagnosis (P = .049).

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the majority of FCs of Egyptian cancer patients prefer CDD to patients. The finding that the vast majority of FCs of aware patients preferred CDD suggests that the reaction of Egyptian patients to CDD is acceptable by FCs. Family caregivers with a negative attitude toward CDD may be reflecting their own fears.

Alsirafy, S. A., S. S. Abdel-Kareem, N. Y. Ibrahim, M. A. Abolkasem, and D. E. Farag, "Cancer diagnosis disclosure preferences of family caregivers of cancer patients in Egypt", Psycho-Oncology, vol. 26, issue 11, pp. 1758-1762, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Objective Family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients are frequently seen as a barrier to honest communication with patients in Egypt. This study was conducted to investigate the attitude of FCs of cancer patients toward cancer diagnosis disclosure (CDD) and its determinants. Methods A structured interview was used to assess the preferences of 288 FCs regarding CDD. Results According to the FCs, 85% of patients were aware of their diagnosis. The majority (81%) of FCs preferred CDD to patients. In case they developed cancer, 92% of FCs wanted to know their diagnosis and 88% wanted to inform their families. In a univariate analysis, factors associated with FCs' negative attitude toward CDD to patients were as follows: patient's lower level of education (P = .001), patient's rural residence (P < .001), hematological malignancies (P < .001), FC's belief that the patient is unaware of diagnosis (P < .001), FC's unwillingness to know his/her own cancer diagnosis (P < .001), and FC's unwillingness to inform his/her family about his/her cancer diagnosis (P < .001). Only 2 factors predicted independently the negative attitude of FCs toward CDD, the FC's belief that the patient is unaware of diagnosis (P < .001), and the FC's unwillingness to know his/her own cancer diagnosis (P = .049). Conclusions The results suggest that the majority of FCs of Egyptian cancer patients prefer CDD to patients. The finding that the vast majority of FCs of aware patients preferred CDD suggests that the reaction of Egyptian patients to CDD is acceptable by FCs. Family caregivers with a negative attitude toward CDD may be reflecting their own fears.

Alsirafy, S. A., S. S. Abdel-Kareem, N. Y. Ibrahim, M. A. Abolkasem, and D. E. Farag, "Cancer diagnosis disclosure preferences of family caregivers of cancer patients in Egypt", Psycho-oncology, vol. 26, issue 11, pp. 1758–1762, 2017. disclosure_pdf.pdf
Ibrahim, S. A., A. Kulshrestha, G. K. Katara, M. A. Amin, and K. D. Beaman, "Cancer derived peptide of vacuolar ATPase 'a2' isoform promotes neutrophil migration by autocrine secretion of IL-8.", Scientific reports, vol. 6, pp. 36865, 2016 Nov 15. Abstractibrahim_2016.pdf

Neutrophils play significant regulatory roles within the tumor microenvironment by directly promoting tumor progression that leads to poor clinical outcomes. Identifying the tumor associated molecules that regulate neutrophil infiltration into tumors may provide new and specific therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. The a2-isoform of vacuolar ATPase (a2V) is uniquely and highly expressed on cancer cell plasma membrane. Cancer cells secrete a peptide from a2V (a2NTD) that promotes the pro-tumorigenic properties of neutrophils. This provides a2V the propensity to control neutrophil migration. Here, we report that the treatment of human neutrophils with recombinant a2NTD leads to neutrophil adherence and polarization. Moreover, a2NTD treatment activates surface adhesion receptors, as well as FAK and Src kinases that are essential regulators of the migration process in neutrophils. Functional analysis reveals that a2NTD can act as a chemo-attractant and promotes neutrophil migration. In addition, a2Neuɸ secrete high levels of IL-8 via NF-κB pathway activation. Confirmatory assays demonstrate that the promoted migration of a2Neuɸ was dependent on the autocrine secretion of IL-8 from a2Neuɸ. These findings demonstrate for the first time the direct regulatory role of cancer associated a2-isoform V-ATPase on neutrophil migration, suggesting a2V as a potential target for cancer therapy.

Tarek, S., R. A. Elwahab, and M. Shoman, "Cancer classification ensemble system based on gene expression profiles", 2016 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications (ICEDSA): IEEE, pp. 1–4, 2016. Abstract
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