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menna magdy, B, : cairo universty, 2013.
Elela, M. A., H. I. GAWDAT, R. A. HEGAZY, M. M. Fawzy, R. A. M. Hay, D. Saadi, and O. Shaker, "B cell activating factor and T-helper 17 cells: possible synergistic culprits in the pathogenesis of Alopecia Areata", Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 308, issue 2: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 115-21. , 2016. Abstract

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Elela, M. A., H. I. Gawdat, R. A. Hegazy, M. Fawzy, R. A. N. I. A. ABDEL HAY, D. Saadi, and O. Shaker, "B cell activating factor and T-helper 17 cells: possible synergistic culprits in the pathogenesis of Alopecia Areata.", Archives of Dermatologic Research, vol. 308, issue 2, pp. 115-121, 2016.
SM, A. - H., and A. - L. HN, "B cell activating factor gene polymorphisms in patients with risk of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.", Am J Med Sci., vol. 342, issue 1, pp. 9-14, 2011. CU-PDF.pdf
Fattah, E. A., H. Y. A. Girgis, K. el Khashab, Z. A. Ashour, and G. M. Ezzat, "B type Natriuretic peptide as an index of symptoms and severity of chronic rheumatic Mitral regurgitation", Heart Views, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 7-12, 2016.
Zayed, R. A., H. F. Sheba, M. A. A. K. Elazaem, Z. A. Elsaadany, L. O. Elmessery, J. A. Mahmoud, D. A. R. Rahman, and F. R. Abdou, "B- Cell Activating Factor Promoter Polymorphisms in Egyptian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.", Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, vol. 43, issue 3, pp. 111-116, 2013. Abstract

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogonous autoimmune disease involving
most immune cells. Studies have revealed a number of cytokine pathways that play important roles in
the disease process. Among these are B- cell activating factor (BAFF), which regulates B-cell maturation,
survival, and function. Objective: To study the association between BAFF promoter polymorphism and
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BAFF promoter
region; -2841 (T>C), -2701 (T>A), -871 (C>T) were investigated by PCR-RFLP genotyping in fifty Egyptian
SLE patients and thirty normal controls. Results: The frequency of mutant alleles of both -871C>T
and -2701 T>A was higher among SLE patients than controls (p-value <0.001 and 0.000 respectively).
There was a highly significant relationship between -871 C>T polymorphism and SLE (P<0.001), with the
sensitivity and the specificity of the test being 100 %, and 70%, respectively. Patients expressing the -2701
T>A allele were seven times more prone to SLE than those with the T/T wild genotype (sensitivity of the
test = 78%, specificity = 66.7%, odds ratio = 7.09, C.I at 95% = 2.29-22.64). Conclusion: Polymorphisms
in the regulatory region of the BAFF gene do contribute to the susceptibility to SLE in Egyptian patients,
which indicates BAFF as a potential therapeutic target.

Shater, H., M. Fawzy, A. Farid, A. El-Amir, S. Fouad, and N. Madbouly, "B-cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand in relation to intima-media thickness as biomarkers of premature atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients", The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 2022.
Shater, H., M. Fawzy, A. Farid, A. El-Amir, S. Fouad, and N. Madbouly, "B-cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand in relation to intima-media thickness as biomarkers of premature atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus …", The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 2022, 2022.
Abbassy, A. H. F., R. Wesam, H. El-Azizy, and S. M. el-Mashed, "B-Flow, Power Doppler and Color Doppler Ultrasound in the Assessment of Carotid Stenosis: Comparison with 64-MD-CT Angiography", Med. J. Cairo Univ, vol. 85, issue 2, pp. 805-809,, 2017.
Abbassy, A. H. F., R. Wesam, H. El-Azizy, and S. M. el-Mashed, "B-Flow, Power Doppler and Color Doppler Ultrasound in the Assessment of Peripheral Arterial Stenosis: Comparison with 64-MD-CT Angiography", Med. J. Cairo Univ, vol. 85, issue 2, pp. 801-804, 2017.
Wafy, M. N., E. A. Hassan, A. A. M. El-Maaty, and A. M. Abu-Seida, "B-Scan Biometry and Color Doppler Ultrasound Imaging of the Eye in Clinically Normal Donkeys (Equus asinus) : Effect of Laterality, Maturity and Gender", Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, vol. 101, issue 6, pp. 1-7, 2021. occular_biometry.pdf
WAFY, M. N., E. A. Hassan, A. M. A. El-Maaty, and A. M. Abu-Seida, "B-Scan Biometry and Color Doppler Ultrasound Imaging of the Eye in Clinically Normal Donkeys (Equus asinus): Effect of Laterality, Maturity and Gender", Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, vol. 101, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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El-sayed, S. M., M. R. Abonazel, and M. M. Seliem, "B-spline Speckman Estimator of Partially Linear Model", International Journal of Systems Science and Applied Mathematics, vol. 4, issue 4, pp. 53-59, 2019. Abstractb-spline_speckman_estimator_of_partially_linear_model.pdf

The partially linear model (PLM) is one of semiparametric regression models; since it has both parametric (more than one) and nonparametric (only one) components in the same model, so this model is more flexible than the linear regression models containing only parametric components. In the literature, there are several estimators are proposed for this model; where the main difference between these estimators is the estimation method used to estimate the nonparametric component, since the parametric component is estimated by least squares method mostly. The Speckman estimator is one of the commonly used for estimating the parameters of the PLM, this estimator based on kernel smoothing approach to estimate nonparametric component in the model. According to the papers in nonparametric regression, in general, the spline smoothing approach is more efficient than kernel smoothing approach. Therefore, we suggested, in this paper, using the basis spline (B-spline) smoothing approach to estimate nonparametric component in the model instead of the kernel smoothing approach. To study the performance of the new estimator and compare it with other estimators, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study. The results of our simulation study confirmed that the proposed estimator was the best, because it has the lowest mean squared error.

nawar, A., H. Elassar, W. Samy, and S. Mokhtar, "B-type natriuretic peptide to predict and follow up response to cardiac resynchronization therapy", Heart Failure 2015, Secille Spain, 24 may, 2015.
Badawy, A. M., and N. M. Mostafa, "B. Abd El-Aleem and N. T Lamie", Intern. J. Comprehensive Pharmacy, vol. 2, pp. 1, 2011. Abstract
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Tharwat;, A., A. E. Hassanien;, and B. E. Elnaghi, "A BA-based algorithm for parameter optimization of support vector machine", Pattern recognition letter, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Support Vector Machine (SVM) parameters such as kernel parameter and penalty parameter (C) have a great impact on the complexity and accuracy of predicting model. In this paper, Bat algorithm (BA) has been proposed to optimize the parameters of SVM, so that the classification error can be reduced. To evaluate the proposed model (BA-SVM), the experiment adopted nine standard datasets which are obtained from UCI machine learning data repository. For verification, the results of the BA-SVM algorithm are compared with grid search, which is a conventional method of searching parameter values, and two well-known optimization algorithms: Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The experimental results proved that the proposed model is capable to find the optimal values of the SVM parameters and avoids the local optima problem. The results also demonstrated lower classification error rates compared with PSO and GA algorithms.

Alaa Tharwat, A. E. Hassanien, and B. E. Elnaghi, "A BA-based algorithm for parameter optimization of Support Vector Machine", Pattern Recognition Letters: North-Holland, 2016. Abstract
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Nasr, A. S., A. A. A. Aal, R. Afify, and N. Y. Ibrahim, "BAALC and ERG Expression in Egyptian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Relation to Survival and Response to Treatment", open access mecedonian journal of medical sciences, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 264-270, 2016.
Soliman, A., A. Abdelaal, R. Afify, and N. Ibrahim, "BAALC and ERG Expression in Egyptian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Relation to Survival and Response to Treatment", Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 264-270, 2016. oamjms-4-264.pdf
Soliman, A., A. Abdelaal, R. Afify, and N. Ibrahim, "BAALC and ERG Expression in Egyptian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Relation to Survival and Response to Treatment", Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 264-270, 2016. oamjms-4-264.pdf
Hussein, H., G. bohaliga, wendell Johnson, N. Taus, and M. ueti, "Babesia bigemina gene expression during parasite development within adult female tick Rhipicephalus microplus ", Washington state VMP Research symposium, Pullman, WA, USA, 31 October 2017. gamila_poster.pdf