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Amr, S. M., A. Gouda, W. T. Koptan, A. A. Galal, D. S. Abdel-Fattah, L. A. Rashed, H. M. Atta, and M. T. Abdel-Aziz, "Bridging defects in chronic spinal cord injury using peripheral nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold and enhancing regeneration through them by co-transplantation with bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: case series of 14 patient", The journal of spinal cord medicine, vol. 37, issue 1, pp. 54-71, 2014. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of bridging defects in chronic spinal cord injury using peripheral nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold and enhancing regeneration through them by co-transplantation with bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

METHODS: In 14 patients with chronic paraplegia caused by spinal cord injury, cord defects were grafted and stem cells injected into the whole construct and contained using a chitosan-laminin paste. Patients were evaluated using the International Standards for Classification of Spinal Cord Injuries.

RESULTS: Chitosan disintegration leading to post-operative seroma formation was a complication. Motor level improved four levels in 2 cases and two levels in 12 cases. Sensory-level improved six levels in two cases, five levels in five cases, four levels in three cases, and three levels in four cases. A four-level neurological improvement was recorded in 2 cases and a two-level neurological improvement occurred in 12 cases. The American Spinal Impairment Association (ASIA) impairment scale improved from A to C in 12 cases and from A to B in 2 cases. Although motor power improvement was recorded in the abdominal muscles (2 grades), hip flexors (3 grades), hip adductors (3 grades), knee extensors (2-3 grades), ankle dorsiflexors (1-2 grades), long toe extensors (1-2 grades), and plantar flexors (0-2 grades), this improvement was too low to enable them to stand erect and hold their knees extended while walking unaided.

CONCLUSION: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural stem cell-like cell transplantation enhances recovery in chronic spinal cord injuries with defects bridged by sural nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold.

Abou Bakr, H. E., M. M. El Husseini, and A. I. Merdan, "Breeding water and mosquito strain as factors influencing susceptibility of Culex pipiens L. to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Serotype H-14 formulations", J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol., vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 235 -241, 1986.
Hassan, A. A., Breeding vegetable crops. (In Arabic)., : Al-Dar Al-Arabiah Lil Nashr Wa Al-Tawsia, Cairo., 1993. Abstract
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Al-Naggar, A. M. M., A. M. A. Abdalla, A. M. A. Gohar, and E. H. M. Hafez, "Breeding Values of 254 Maize (Zea mays L.) Doubled Haploid Lines under Drought Conditions at Flowering and Grain Filling", Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology , vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 1-15, 2016. breeding_values_of_254_maize_zea_mays_l._doubled.pdf
Hassan, A. A., Breeding Plants for disease and pest resistance. (In Arabic)., : Al-Dar Al-Arabiah Lil Nashr Wa Al-Tawsia, Cairo., 1993. Abstract
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El-Menoufy, A. A., M. M. El-Tayeb, M. M. Ayoub, H. I. Yousef, and M. S. S. Abdou, "Breeding performance in buffaloes and Friesian cows in Egypt", Egyptian Journal of Animal Production (Egypt), 1984. Abstract
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Shabana, R., "Breeding for a synthetic sunflower cultivar using land and introduced varieties", 11th Inter. Con. Stat,Computer Sci. and demo.Res., vol. 5, pp. 1–20, 1986. Abstract
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Darwish, D. S., "Breeding faba bean, Vicia faba L. for drought tolerance. In: ‘ Management of agricultural drought’.", (ed. N.P. Saxena). Science Publishers, Enfield (NH) USA, pp. 189-201, 2003. Abstract
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Abdalla, M. M. F., and D. S. Darwish, "Breeding Faba Bean for Orobanche Tolerance using the Concept for Uniform Resistance", Advances in Parasitic Weed Control at On-Farm Level: Supra-Regional Project Ecology and Management of Parasitic Weeds, vol. 2, pp. 205-213, 1999. Abstract
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Abdalla, M. M. F., and D. S. Darwish, "Breeding Faba Bean for Orobanche Tolerance using the Concept for Uniform Resistance", Advances in Parasitic Weed Control at On-Farm Level: Supra-Regional Project Ecology and Management of Parasitic Weeds, vol. 2, pp. 205–213, 1999. Abstract
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Abdalla, M. M. F., and D. S. Darwish, "Breeding faba bean for Orobanche tolerance at Cairo University", Biology and Management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and Related Striga Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Royal Tropical Institute, pp. 450-454, 1994. Abstract
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Abdalla, M. M. F., and D. S. Darwish, "Breeding faba bean for Orobanche tolerance at Cairo University", Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and Related Striga Research, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, pp. 450–454, 1994. Abstract
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Sadek, R. R., A. A. Seida, A. A. Nigm, and A. M. Ghallab, "Breeding efficiency and milk production of Brown Swiss and Friesian cattle in Egypt", EAAP Publication: Pudoc, 1989. Abstract
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Sadek, R. R., A. A. Seida, A. A. Nigm, and A. M. Ghallab, "Breeding efficiency and milk production of Brown Swiss and Friesian cattle in Egypt", EAAP Publication: Pudoc, 1989. Abstract
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Tarek Tawfik Amin, Amira Gamal Abdulrahman, N. O. A. A. H., "Breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge among future female physicians and teachers in Saudi Arabia.", Health Science Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, 2014. Abstract
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SOLIMAN, D. R. S. H. E. H. A. B., "Breast: Deformities after Massive Weight Loss: Statistical Analysis and Clinical Application", Egyptian Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery,, vol. 38, issue 1, 2014.
El-Rabbat, M., M. Shawky, and M. Ghobashi, "Breast Self Examination (BSE) among Egyptian females", Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 122-124, 1996.
S, B., N. S. Gadallah M, M. M. A. B. I. Youssef A, Costa A, and E. E, "Breast screening in the emerging world: high prevalence of breast cancer in Cairo", Breast., vol. 2005 Oct, issue Oct;14(5), pp. 340-6, 2005.
SOLIMAN, D. R. S. H. E. H. A. B., "Breast Recontouring after Massive Weight Loss (MWL)", Egyptian Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery,, vol. 38, issue 1, 2014.
Youssef, O., "Breast Reconstruction With Pedicled TRAM Flap: Long-Term Oncological and Cosmetic Results From a Developing Country", ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, vol. 17, no. 2: SPRINGER 233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA, pp. S194–S194, 2010. Abstract
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shehab soliman, safwat A.M, and R. A. ali, "breast reconstruction after massive weight loss ", egyptian journal of plastic and reconstructive suregry, 2013.
Abo-Madyan, Y., M. M. Aly, L. Jahnke, F. Wenz, and G. Glatting, "Breast Radiation Therapy (RT) Using Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB): Which Is the Optimal Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT) Technique?", International Journal of Radiation Oncology• Biology• Physics, vol. 90, no. 1: Elsevier, pp. S227–S228, 2014. Abstract
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