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EL-FAR, A. H. M. E. D. A., M. A. G. D. I. M. MASHALY, and G. A. M. A. L. A. KAMAR, "Bursectomy and in vitro response of adrenal gland to adrenocorticotropic hormone and testis to human chorionic gonadotropin in immature male chickens", Poultry science, vol. 73, issue 1: Elsevier, pp. 113-117, 1994. Abstract
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Bin Dahmash, A., F. K. Alorfi, A. Alharbi, A. Aldayel, A. M. Kamel, and M. Almoaiqel, "Burnout Phenomenon and Its Predictors in Radiology Residents", Academic Radiology, vol. 27, no. 7: Elsevier USA, pp. 1033-1039, 2020. AbstractWebsite

{Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and its associated risk factors in radiology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2019, and all radiology residents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were invited to complete a survey that contained a validated measure of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) alongside possible predictors of burnout. Results: A total of 108 responses were received, for a response rate of 49.7%. High overall burnout was reported by 24.1% of respondents, high emotional exhaustion (EE) by 56.5%, high depersonalization by 31.5%, and low sense of personal accomplishment (PA) by 64.8%. The significant predictors of burnout included satisfaction with work/life balance (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.43

Dahmash, A. B., F. K. Alorfi, A. Alharbi, A. Aldayel, A. M. Kamel, and M. Almoaiqel, "Burnout phenomenon and its predictors in radiology residents", Academic radiology, vol. 27, no. 7: Elsevier, pp. 1033–1039, 2020. Abstract
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Abusanad, A., A. Bensalem, E. Shash, L. Mula-Hussain, Z. Benbrahim, S. Khatib, N. Abdelhafiz, J. Ansari, H. Jradi, K. Alkattan, et al., "Burnout in oncology: Magnitude, risk factors and screening among professionals from Middle East and North Africa (BOMENA study).", Psycho-oncology, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Burnout (BO) among oncology professionals (OP) is increasingly being recognized. Early recognition and intervention can positively affect the quality of care and patient safety. This study investigated the prevalence, work and lifestyle factors affecting BO among OPs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

METHODS: An online survey was conducted among MENA OPs between 10 February and 15 March 2020, using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA), including questions regarding demography/work-related factors and attitudes towards oncology. Data were analysed to measure BO prevalence and risk factors and explore a screening question for BO.

RESULTS: Of 1054 respondents, 1017 participants (64% medical oncologists, 77% aged less than 45 years, 55% female, 74% married, 67% with children and 40% practiced a hobby) were eligible. The BO prevalence was 68% with high levels of EE and DP (35% and 57% of participants, respectively) and low PA scores (49%). BO was significantly associated with age less than 44 years, administrative work greater than 25% per day and the thought of quitting oncology (TQ). Practising a hobby, enjoying oncology communication and appreciating oncology work-life balance were associated with a reduced BO score and prevalence. North African countries reported the highest BO prevalence. Lack of BO education/support was identified among 72% of participants and TQ-predicted burnout in 77%.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest BO study in MENA. The BO prevalence was high and several modifiable risk factors were identified, requiring urgent action. TQ is a simple and reliable screening tool for BO.

Ahmed, M. M. A., and M. Birouk, "Burner geometry effect on coherent structures and acoustics of a confined swirling partially premixed methane flame", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 105, pp. 85 - 99, 2019. AbstractWebsite

The effect of the mixing tube length and fuel nozzle geometry on coherent structures and acoustics’ characteristics of partially premixed swirling methane flame is experimentally studied. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to document the flowfield inside the transparent confinement tube. Proper orthogonal decomposition along with phase averaging are used to capture coherent structures. High-speed imaging is carried out to shed light on the flame front dynamics within the outer shear layer (OSL). The acoustic waves are measured using a Bruel & Kjaer type 4189 microphone. A radial-type swirl generator with a swirl number (S) of 1.15 is adopted. Two different lengths of the mixing tube and two different geometries of the fuel nozzle with a similar equivalent diameter are tested. The swirling airflow and fuel flowrates are kept constant. The results showed a significant difference in the energy of coherent structures between the two central nozzle geometries with the same mixing length. Both, the mixing length and central nozzle geometry, are found to alter the integral length scale and the central recirculation zone (CRZ). The mixing length is found to alter the amplitude of the acoustics modes when using the same central nozzle geometry. However, keeping the same mixing tube and varying the central nozzle geometry has the same effect. The flame front dynamics within the outer recirculation zone (ORZ) is found to depend on both the central nozzle geometry and mixing tube length (i.e., level of mixing). High amplitude coherent structures are found to contribute to flame roll-up within the outer shear layer. The results showed that the mixing length is not the only parameter to mitigate combustion instabilities. That is, combustion stability can be improved using a single-orifice nozzle with a long mixing length or a multi-orifice nozzle with a short mixing length.

AbuBakr, H. O., S. H. Aljuaydi, S. M. Abou-Zeid, and A. El-Bahrawy, "Burn-Induced Multiple Organ Injury and Protective Effect of Lutein in Rats", Inflammation, 2018.
AbuBakr, H. O., S. H. Aljuaydi, S. M. Abou-Zeid, and andAmanallah El-Bahrawy, "Burn-Induced Multiple Organ Injury and Protective Effect of Lutein in Rats", inflammation, vol. 41, issue 3, pp. 760-772, 2018. first_burn.pdf
zizi m. ibrahim, and H. M. Mohamady, "Burn wound healing response to helium neon versus gallium arsenide laser irradiation ", Energy for health , vol. 11, pp. 20-25, 2014. energyforhealt_11_zizi.pdf
zizi m. ibrahim, and H. M. Mohamady, "Burn wound healing response to helium neon versus gallium arsenide laser irradiation", ENERGY FOR HEALTH, vol. 11, pp. 20–25, 2014. Abstract
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asmaa hamoda, samah semary, E. Moussa, and omnia hassanien, Burkitts lymphoma is second preinduction phase in critically ill patients important, , dublin, 24/5/2016, Submitted.
Diab, A., M. Kord, B. M, and S. Sami, "Burkholderia cepacia MSA47, A New Strain Isolated from the Rhizosphere of an Egyptian Salt Marsh Plant, Produced Potent Biosurfactant Applied for the Bioremediation of Oil Sludge-Polluted Soil", International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 40-53, 2018. ijser172535.pdf
Hawash, M. B. F., M. A. El-Deeb, R. Gaber, and K. S. Morsy, "The buried gems of disease tolerance in animals: Evolutionary and interspecies comparative approaches: ", BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, vol. 44, issue 10, pp. e2200080, 2022. Abstract

Host defense mechanisms are categorized into different strategies, namely, avoidance, resistance and tolerance. Resistance encompasses mechanisms that directly kill the pathogen while tolerance is mainly concerned with alleviating the harsh consequences of the infection regardless of the pathogen burden. Resistance is well-known strategy in immunology while tolerance is relatively new. Studies addressed tolerance mainly using mouse models revealing a wide range of interesting tolerance mechanisms. Herein, we aim to emphasize on the interspecies comparative approaches to explore potential new mechanisms of disease tolerance. We will discuss mechanisms of tolerance with focus on those that were revealed using comparative study designs of mammals followed by summarizing the reasons for adopting comparative approaches on disease tolerance studies. Disease tolerance is a relatively new concept in immunology, we believe combining comparative studies with model organism study designs will enhance our understanding to tolerance and unveil new mechanisms of tolerance.

El-Sherif, R. A. M., A. H. Shaban, F. A. Abbas, and S. A. Alsirafy, "Burden, Depression and Quality of Life in Carers of Newly Diagnosed Advanced Cancer Patients in Egypt", Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. e403-e408, 2024. AbstractWebsite

Context The goal of palliative care (PC) is to improve the quality of life (QoL) of patients with life-limiting illnesses as well as their families. Ideally, PC is integrated early in the course of life-limiting illnesses. Less attention has been paid to the need for early PC for family caregivers (FCs) in lower-income settings. Objectives This observational cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the burden experienced by FCs of newly diagnosed incurable cancer patients in Egypt and characterize its relation to depression and QoL. Methods Ninety-five adult FCs of adult patients with newly diagnosed incurable cancer completed the 22-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-22), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Short Form 12 (SF-12) to assess caregiving burden, depression, and QoL among FCs, respectively. Results The median (IQR) ZBI-22 score was 17(11–24) and 34% of FCs had significant burden (ZBI-22 score > 20). Assistance with late loss activities of daily living and availability for longer caregiving duration were associated significantly with higher caregiving burdens (P = 0.004 and 0.047, respectively). FCs with significant burden had significantly higher PHQ-9 scores (P = 0.0003). There was a significant negative correlation between ZBI-22 scores and the bodily pain, general health, mental health, physical function, role emotional, and social function subscales/items of SF-12. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Egyptian FCs of incurable cancer patients experience significant burden early in the course of the disease. This burden is associated with depressive symptoms and worse QoL dimensions, physical, psychological, and social. In a lower-income setting, early PC interventions for FCs of incurable cancer patients are needed.

Crews, D. C., A. K. Bello, and G. Saadi, "Burden, access, and disparities in kidney disease.", Kidney international, vol. 95, issue 2, pp. 242-248, 2019.
Abd-Allah, F., and R. R. Moustafa, "Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.", International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society, vol. 9, issue 8, pp. 1105-8, 2014 Dec. Abstract

Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System.

Afifi, R., and M. Nabih, "The burden of Rotavirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized pediatric patients in a tertiary referral hospital in Jeddah", Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3: King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, pp. 241–246, 2013. Abstract
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Afifi, R., and M. Nabih, "The burden of Rotavirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized pediatric patients in a tertiary referral hospital in Jeddah", Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3: King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, pp. 241–246, 2013. Abstract
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Azzam, A., H. Khaled, N. Refaey, S. Mohsen, O. A. El-Emam, N. Dawood, H. A. Ahmed, O. A. Soliman, S. Mostafa, H. Ramadan, et al., "The burden of persistent symptoms after COVID-19 (long COVID): a meta-analysis of controlled studies in children and adults", Virology Journal, vol. 21, no. 1: Springer, pp. 16, 2024. Abstract
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El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.", World journal of gastroenterology, vol. 19, issue 44, pp. 7880-8, 2013 Nov 28. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained virologic response varies depending on the viral load, genotype, duration of infection, degree of aminotransferase elevation, adiposity and single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-28B locus. The goals of treatment in individual patients are virus eradication, prevention of cirrhosis and HCC, and removing stigmatization; meanwhile the overall goal is decreasing the global burden of HCV. IL-28B polymorphisms have been also associated with spontaneous clearance of vertically acquired HCV infection. The worldwide economic burden of HCV for children, families and countries is estimated to be hundreds of millions of US dollars per year. The United States, alone, is estimated to spend 199-336 million dollars in screening, monitoring and treatment during one decade. The emotional burden of having an HCV infected child in a family is more difficult to estimate.

El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C", World journal of gastroenterology: WJG, vol. 19, no. 44: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Ltd., pp. 7880, 2013. Abstract

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