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Ahmed, M. M. A., and M. Birouk, Burner geometry effect on coherent structures and acoustics of a confined swirling partially premixed methane flame, , vol. 105, pp. 85 - 99, 2019. AbstractWebsite

The effect of the mixing tube length and fuel nozzle geometry on coherent structures and acoustics’ characteristics of partially premixed swirling methane flame is experimentally studied. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to document the flowfield inside the transparent confinement tube. Proper orthogonal decomposition along with phase averaging are used to capture coherent structures. High-speed imaging is carried out to shed light on the flame front dynamics within the outer shear layer (OSL). The acoustic waves are measured using a Bruel & Kjaer type 4189 microphone. A radial-type swirl generator with a swirl number (S) of 1.15 is adopted. Two different lengths of the mixing tube and two different geometries of the fuel nozzle with a similar equivalent diameter are tested. The swirling airflow and fuel flowrates are kept constant. The results showed a significant difference in the energy of coherent structures between the two central nozzle geometries with the same mixing length. Both, the mixing length and central nozzle geometry, are found to alter the integral length scale and the central recirculation zone (CRZ). The mixing length is found to alter the amplitude of the acoustics modes when using the same central nozzle geometry. However, keeping the same mixing tube and varying the central nozzle geometry has the same effect. The flame front dynamics within the outer recirculation zone (ORZ) is found to depend on both the central nozzle geometry and mixing tube length (i.e., level of mixing). High amplitude coherent structures are found to contribute to flame roll-up within the outer shear layer. The results showed that the mixing length is not the only parameter to mitigate combustion instabilities. That is, combustion stability can be improved using a single-orifice nozzle with a long mixing length or a multi-orifice nozzle with a short mixing length.

AbuBakr, H. O., S. H. Aljuaydi, S. M. Abou-Zeid, and A. El-Bahrawy, "Burn-Induced Multiple Organ Injury and Protective Effect of Lutein in Rats", Inflammation, 2018.
AbuBakr, H. O., S. H. Aljuaydi, S. M. Abou-Zeid, and andAmanallah El-Bahrawy, "Burn-Induced Multiple Organ Injury and Protective Effect of Lutein in Rats", inflammation, vol. 41, issue 3, pp. 760-772, 2018. first_burn.pdf
zizi m. ibrahim, and H. M. Mohamady, "Burn wound healing response to helium neon versus gallium arsenide laser irradiation ", Energy for health , vol. 11, pp. 20-25, 2014. energyforhealt_11_zizi.pdf
zizi m. ibrahim, and H. M. Mohamady, "Burn wound healing response to helium neon versus gallium arsenide laser irradiation", ENERGY FOR HEALTH, vol. 11, pp. 20–25, 2014. Abstract
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asmaa hamoda, samah semary, E. Moussa, and omnia hassanien, Burkitts lymphoma is second preinduction phase in critically ill patients important, , dublin, 24/5/2016, Submitted.
Diab, A., M. Kord, B. M, and S. Sami, "Burkholderia cepacia MSA47, A New Strain Isolated from the Rhizosphere of an Egyptian Salt Marsh Plant, Produced Potent Biosurfactant Applied for the Bioremediation of Oil Sludge-Polluted Soil", International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 40-53, 2018. ijser172535.pdf
Crews, D. C., A. K. Bello, and G. Saadi, "Burden, access, and disparities in kidney disease.", Kidney international, vol. 95, issue 2, pp. 242-248, 2019.
Abd-Allah, F., and R. R. Moustafa, "Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.", International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society, vol. 9, issue 8, pp. 1105-8, 2014 Dec. Abstract

Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System.

El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.", World journal of gastroenterology, vol. 19, issue 44, pp. 7880-8, 2013 Nov 28. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained virologic response varies depending on the viral load, genotype, duration of infection, degree of aminotransferase elevation, adiposity and single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-28B locus. The goals of treatment in individual patients are virus eradication, prevention of cirrhosis and HCC, and removing stigmatization; meanwhile the overall goal is decreasing the global burden of HCV. IL-28B polymorphisms have been also associated with spontaneous clearance of vertically acquired HCV infection. The worldwide economic burden of HCV for children, families and countries is estimated to be hundreds of millions of US dollars per year. The United States, alone, is estimated to spend 199-336 million dollars in screening, monitoring and treatment during one decade. The emotional burden of having an HCV infected child in a family is more difficult to estimate.

El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C", World journal of gastroenterology: WJG, vol. 19, no. 44: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Ltd., pp. 7880, 2013. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C", World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 19, issue 44, pp. 7880-7888, 2013. hcv_burden.pdf
Mokdad, A. H., "The burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 1990-2015: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study.", International journal of public health, 2017 Aug 03. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders are among the leading causes of nonfatal burden of disease globally.

METHODS: We used the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2015 to examine the burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). We defined mental disorders according to criteria proposed in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV and the 10th International Classification of Diseases.

RESULTS: Mental disorders contributed to 4.7% (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 3.7-5.6%) of total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), ranking as the ninth leading cause of disease burden. Depressive disorders and anxiety disorders were the third and ninth leading causes of nonfatal burden, respectively. Almost all countries in the EMR had higher age-standardized mental disorder DALYs rates compared to the global level, and in half of the EMR countries, observed mental disorder rates exceeded the expected values.

CONCLUSIONS: The burden of mental disorders in the EMR is higher than global levels, particularly for women. To properly address this burden, EMR governments should implement nationwide quality epidemiological surveillance of mental disorders and provide adequate prevention and treatment services.

Charara, R., M. Forouzanfar, M. Naghavi, M. Moradi-Lakeh, A. Afshin, T. Vos, F. Daoud, H. Wang, C. El Bcheraoui, I. Khalil, et al., "The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013.", PloS one, vol. 12, issue 1, pp. e0169575, 2017. Abstract

The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of diseases in the region.

Eknoyan, G., N. Lameire, R. Barsoum, K. - U. Eckardt, A. Levin, N. Levin, F. Locatelli, A. MacLeod, R. Vanholder, R. Walker, et al., "The burden of kidney disease: improving global outcomes.", Kidney international, vol. 66, issue 4, pp. 1310-4, 2004 Oct. Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. There is an increasing incidence and prevalence of patients with kidney failure requiring replacement therapy, with poor outcomes and high cost. There is an even higher prevalence of patients in earlier stages of CKD, with adverse outcomes such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Patients at earlier stages of CKD can be detected through laboratory testing and their treatment is effective in slowing the progression to kidney failure and reducing cardiovascular events. The science and evidence-based care of these patients are universal and independent of their geographic location. There is a clear need to develop a uniform and global public health approach to the worldwide epidemic of CKD. It is to this end that a new initiative "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" has been established. Its stated mission is "Improve the care and outcomes of kidney disease patients worldwide through promoting coordination, collaboration and integration of initiatives to develop and implement clinical practice guidelines."

Mohamed, M. K., S. Deuffic-Burban, F. Carrat, G. Esmat, A. Ismail, H. El Makhzangy, B. Larouze, I. Abdelbar, A. - R. El-Zayadi, and A. - J. Valleron, "Burden of hepatitis C-related HCC mortality in Egypt due to pre-2000 infections", JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. A184, MAR, 2006. Abstract
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Barsoum, R., "Burden of end-stage kidney disease: North Africa", Clinical nephrology 86 (13), 14, vol. 86, issue 13, pp. 14-18, 2016.
El-Shabrawi, M., M. Salem, maha Abou-Zekri, S. El-Naghi, F. Hassanin, T. El-Adly, and A. El-Shamy, "The burden of different pathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes among a cohort of Egyptian children less than five years old.", Przeglad gastroenterologiczny, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 173-80, 2015. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea continues to cause significant morbidity in Egypt.

AIM: To determine the frequency and distribution of different enteropathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes, utilising an expanded testing regimen, and to correlate clinical signs and symptoms associated with the detected pathogens.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The case-control study enrolled 356 patients < 5 years old with acute diarrhoea and 356 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Both cases and controls underwent a full history and physical examination, and provided two rectal swab specimens and a stool sample. Laboratory analysis included stool culture, microscopy, and indirect methods.

RESULTS: Rotavirus was detected in 11% of patients. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella were detected in 7%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of patients, respectively; and in 11.1%, 3.1%, 0.6%, and 0.6% of controls, respectively, with no significant statistical difference. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.9% of cases. Mixed infection was detected in 5.9% of cases and 0.9% of controls, with a significant difference (p < 0.001). No pathogen was detected in 66.3% of cases and in 83.5% of controls. Rotavirus infection was associated with recurrent vomiting, dehydration, and hospitalisation. Bacterial diarrhoea was associated with vomiting (52%) in ETEC infections, fever (80%) in Salmonella infections, mucus (100%) and blood (50%) in stools of Shigella infections, and convulsions (15%) in Campylobacter infections.

CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus is a prominent cause of diarrhoea among Egyptian children. Despite utilising an expanded testing regimen, more work is still needed for identification of other enteropathogens that constitute other causative agents of diarrhoea.

, "The burden of different pathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes among a cohort of Egyptian children less than five years old", Przegląd Gastroenterologiczny (Gastroenterology Review), vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 173-80, 2015.
Khalil, I., D. V. Colombara, M. H. Forouzanfar, C. Troeger, F. Daoud, M. Moradi-Lakeh, C. El Bcheraoui, P. C. Rao, A. Afshin, R. Charara, et al., "Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.", The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. 95, issue 6, pp. 1319-1329, 2016 Dec 07. Abstract

Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.

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