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Tohda, C., N. Matsumoto, K. Zou, M. R. Meselhy, and K. Komatsu, "Aβ (25–35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, A metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins", Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, issue 5: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 860, 2004. Abstract
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Saied, A., "Azza Saied Household Location Models and the Environment". Proceeding of the Regional Conference and International Symposium on Environmental Hydrology", ". Proceeding the Regional Conference and International Symposium on Environmental Hydrology, 1995.
Hozayn, M., M. F. El-Dahshouri, A. M. Salama, R. E. Abdelraou, and A. Z. Ahmed, "azza", Plant Archives, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. . 8271-8278, 2020.
Zahran, S. A., M. Ali-Tammam, A. G. M. Hashem, R. K. Aziz, and A. E. Ali, "Azoreductase activity of dye-decolorizing bacteria isolated from the human gut microbiota", Scientific Reports, vol. 9, no. 1: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 5508, 2019. Abstract
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Abdel-Rahman, M. H. M., S. M. M. Shanab, E. F. Shabana, S. N. Shaalan, and M. A. I. Tawwab, "Azolla performances and the effect of its natural cover on water quality and phytoplankton abundance in Abbasa area - Sharkia governorate (Egypt)", Egypt. J. Biotech., vol. 11, pp. 365-383, 2002. 5.pdf
Abdelatty, A. M., M. I. Mandouh, S. A. Mohamed, S. Busato, O. A. M. Badr, M. Bionaz, A. A. Elolimy, M. M. A. Moustafa, O. A. A. Farid, and A. K. Al-Mokaddem, "Azolla leaf meal at 5% of the diet improves growth performance, intestinal morphology and p70S6K1 activation, and affects cecal microbiota in broiler chicken.", Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, vol. 15, issue 10, pp. 100362, 2021. Abstract

With growing concern about including unconventional dietary protein sources in poultry diets to substitute the protein sources that are essential for human consumption such as soybean meal, Azolla leaf meal (ALM) has grown in popularity. In our prior experiment, ALM was used at inclusion rates of 5 and 10%. Five per cent inclusion of ALM increased broiler chicken growth performance, the concentration of cecal propionic acid, and activation of skeletal muscle p70S6 Kinase1 (p70S6K1) without having detrimental effects on the meat quality. Those results prompted us to further evaluate the effect of the same inclusion rates of ALM on phase feeding and intestine and liver health of the broiler chicks. The current study hypothesis is that dietary ALM positively affects phase feeding, intestinal morphology and p70S6K1 activation, cecal microbial gene expression, and improves the liver energy status. For this, we enrolled 135 one-day-old broiler chicks and collected growth performance data (starter, grower, and finisher stages) and samples of the gastrointestinal tract to analyse the morphology of the villi, immune-related organs, mucin, and abundance of intestinal p70S6K1. Cecal bacterial species were analysed using qPCR and liver samples were collected to analyse adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and ATP content and selected oxidative stress biomarkers. ALM increased BW and feed intake during the starter and grower phases but did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Liver oxidative stress and AMP: ATP ratio increased in chickens fed on a diet containing 10% ALM (AZ10; P < 0.05). Jejunum villi length and abundance of duodenal neutral mucin increased but villi of the ileum decreased in chickens fed on a diet containing 5% ALM (AZ5), while lymphoid follicle areas of the cecal tonsils decreased with both doses of ALM. Activation of p70S6K1 increased with AZ10 in the duodenum and AZ5 in the jejunum. In the gut, the family of Enterobacteriaceae decreased with both ALM doses. In conclusion, our results indicate an overall positive effect of dietary inclusion of ALM in the broiler chicken diet via its positive effect on intestinal morphology and function; however, a negative effect on the liver was observed with 10% ALM.

Abdelatty, A. M., M. I. Mandouh, S. A. Mohamed, S. Busato, O. A. M. Badr, M. Bionaz, A. A. Elolimy, M. M. A. Moustafa, O. A. A. Farid, and A. K. Al-Mokaddem, "Azolla leaf meal at 5% of the diet improves growth performance, intestinal morphology and p70S6K1 activation, and affects cecal microbiota in broiler chicken.", Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, vol. 15, issue 10, pp. 100362, 2021. Abstract

With growing concern about including unconventional dietary protein sources in poultry diets to substitute the protein sources that are essential for human consumption such as soybean meal, Azolla leaf meal (ALM) has grown in popularity. In our prior experiment, ALM was used at inclusion rates of 5 and 10%. Five per cent inclusion of ALM increased broiler chicken growth performance, the concentration of cecal propionic acid, and activation of skeletal muscle p70S6 Kinase1 (p70S6K1) without having detrimental effects on the meat quality. Those results prompted us to further evaluate the effect of the same inclusion rates of ALM on phase feeding and intestine and liver health of the broiler chicks. The current study hypothesis is that dietary ALM positively affects phase feeding, intestinal morphology and p70S6K1 activation, cecal microbial gene expression, and improves the liver energy status. For this, we enrolled 135 one-day-old broiler chicks and collected growth performance data (starter, grower, and finisher stages) and samples of the gastrointestinal tract to analyse the morphology of the villi, immune-related organs, mucin, and abundance of intestinal p70S6K1. Cecal bacterial species were analysed using qPCR and liver samples were collected to analyse adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and ATP content and selected oxidative stress biomarkers. ALM increased BW and feed intake during the starter and grower phases but did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Liver oxidative stress and AMP: ATP ratio increased in chickens fed on a diet containing 10% ALM (AZ10; P < 0.05). Jejunum villi length and abundance of duodenal neutral mucin increased but villi of the ileum decreased in chickens fed on a diet containing 5% ALM (AZ5), while lymphoid follicle areas of the cecal tonsils decreased with both doses of ALM. Activation of p70S6K1 increased with AZ10 in the duodenum and AZ5 in the jejunum. In the gut, the family of Enterobacteriaceae decreased with both ALM doses. In conclusion, our results indicate an overall positive effect of dietary inclusion of ALM in the broiler chicken diet via its positive effect on intestinal morphology and function; however, a negative effect on the liver was observed with 10% ALM.

M.M.Hady, and M. A. Essa, "Azolla and lemna in Nile Tilapia diets. Maha M.Hady and Manal A.Essa", The 1st Scientific Conference on Environment and Natural Resources. (SCENR), Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen., April, 2000.
Kheder, N. A., S. M. Riyadh, and A. M. Asiry, "Azoles and bis-Azoles: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Antimicrobial and Anti-cancer Agents.", Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 504–510, 2013. Abstract

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Kheder, N. A., S. M. Riyadh, and A. M. Asiry, "Azoles and bis-Azoles: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Antimicrobial and Anti-cancer Agents.", Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 504–510, 2012. Abstract

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Dawood, K. M., A. M. Farag, and H. A. Abdel-Aziz, "Azoles and Azolo-azines via 3-(3-Methylbenzofuran-2-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile.", J. Chem. Res., issue 6, pp. 378-381, 2005.
Dawood, K. M., A. M. Farag, and H. A. Abdel-Aziz, "Azoles and azolo-azines via 3-(3-methylbenzofuran-2-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile", Journal of Chemical Research, vol. 2005, issue 6, pp. 378-381, 2005.
Alaasar, M., "Azobenzene-containing bent-core liquid crystals: an overview", Liquid Crystals, vol. 43, issue 13-15, pp. 2208-2243, 2016.
Alaasar, M., J. - C. Schmidt, A. F. Darweesh, and C. Tschierske, "Azobenzene-based supramolecular liquid crystals: The role of core fluorination", Journal of Molecular Liquids: Elsevier, pp. 113252, 2020. Abstract
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Alaasar, M., J. C. Schmidt, A. F. Darweesh, and C. Tschierske, "Azobenzene-based supramolecular liquid crystals: The role of core fluorination", Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 310, pp. 113252, 2020.
Shivanna, J. M., M. Alaasar, and G. Hegde, "Azobenzene-based polycatenars: Investigation on photo switching properties and optical storage devices", Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 341, pp. 117341, 2021.
Farghaly, T. A., M. A. Abdallah, and M. A. R. Aziz, "Azo-Hydrazone Tautomerism and Antimicrobial activity of New substituted Imidazolines and Perimidines", Journal of Advances in Chemistry, vol. 10, issue 5, pp. 2694-2704, 2014.
Saad, H., N. F. A. El-Dien, N. E. A. El-Gamel, and A. A. S. Dena, "Azo-functionalized superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: an efficient adsorbent for the removal of bromocresol green from contaminated water", RSC Advances, vol. 12, pp. 25487-25499, 2022.
Viscardi, R. M., A. A. Othman, H. E. Hassan, N. D. Eddington, E. Abebe, M. L. Terrin, D. A. Kaufman, and K. B. Waites, "Azithromycin to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ureaplasma-infected preterm infants: pharmacokinetics, safety, microbial response, and clinical outcomes with a 20-milligram-per-kilogram single intravenous dose.", Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, vol. 57, issue 5, pp. 2127-33, 2013 May. AbstractWebsite

Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Previously, we demonstrated that a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of azithromycin (10 mg/kg of body weight) is safe but inadequate to eradicate Ureaplasma spp. in preterm infants. We performed a nonrandomized, single-arm open-label study of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of intravenous 20-mg/kg single-dose azithromycin in 13 mechanically ventilated neonates with a gestational age between 24 weeks 0 days and 28 weeks 6 days. Pharmacokinetic data from 25 neonates (12 dosed with 10 mg/kg i.v. and 13 dosed with 20 mg/kg i.v.) were analyzed using a population modeling approach. Using a two-compartment model with allometric scaling of parameters on body weight (WT), the population PK parameter estimates were as follows: clearance, 0.21 liter/h × WT(kg)(0.75) [WT(kg)(0.75) indicates that clearance was allometrically scaled on body weight (in kilograms) with a fixed exponent of 0.75]; intercompartmental clearance, 2.1 liters/h × WT(kg)(0.75); central volume of distribution (V), 1.97 liters × WT (kg); and peripheral V, 17.9 liters × WT (kg). There was no evidence of departure from dose proportionality in azithromycin exposure over the tested dose range. The calculated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC90 (AUC24/MIC90) for the single dose of azithromycin (20 mg/kg) was 7.5 h. Simulations suggest that 20 mg/kg for 3 days will maintain azithromycin concentrations of >MIC50 of 1 μg/ml for this group of Ureaplasma isolates for ≥ 96 h after the first dose. Azithromycin was well tolerated with no drug-related adverse events. One of seven (14%) Ureaplasma-positive subjects and three of six (50%) Ureaplasma-negative subjects developed physiologic BPD. Ureaplasma was eradicated in all treated Ureaplasma-positive subjects. Simulations suggest that a multiple-dose regimen may be efficacious for microbial clearance, but the effect on BPD remains to be determined.

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