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Taha, Y. M., M. I. Ali, H. M. El-Mofty, and M. M. Ahmed, "Awareness of diabetic retinopathy in Egyptian diabetic patients attending Kasr Al-Ainy outpatient clinic: A cross-sectional study", world family medicine journal, vol. 13, issue 5, 2015.
Abdel-Qader, D. H., A. Albassam, N. S. Ismael, A. A. El-Shara’, A. Shehri, F. S. Almutairi, D. M. Al-Harbi, M. M. Al Zahrani, L. - C. Chen, N. Al Mazrouei, et al., "Awareness of Antibiotic Use and Resistance in Jordanian Community", Journal of Primary Care and Community Health, vol. 11, 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: The public awareness toward the causes and consequences of antibiotic resistance (AR) is crucial to mitigate the inappropriate use of antibiotics (ABs), particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. There was no previous study that assessed the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about antibiotic use and AR among the Jordanian public in affluent and deprived areas. Objective: This study aimed to assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about antibiotic use and AR in affluent and deprived areas in Jordan. Setting: The survey was conducted in November 2019 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire was used to survey households in their areas in each of West Amman (affluent region) and East Amman (deprived region), Households were selected using proportionate random sampling method. Results: A total of 620 householders (310 per area) completed the questionnaire. Pharmacists were perceived as strong influencers on householders’ decision, as 80.32% (n = 465/580) of those who used antibiotics in the last year follow pharmacists’ advice. Our results showed poor understanding of antibiotic usage among the Jordanian public, as only 14.2% (n = 44/310) of the sample in West Amman and 2.9% (n = 9/310) in East Amman disagreed with the statement “Antibiotics work on most coughs and colds.” Householders in West Amman showed much better understanding of AR compared to those in East Amman; 82.3% (n = 255/310) of West Amman respondents agreed with the statement “Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of the antibiotic.” compared to 31.9% (n = 99/310) of East Amman respondents on the same statement (P <.05). Conclusion: The Jordanian community generally had poor knowledge and awareness toward antibiotics use and AR. Socio-economic factors could influence the public’s attitude toward antibiotics use and AR. © The Author(s) 2020.

Ghoneim, A. A., M. S. Azer, H. Z. Ghobrial, and M. E. A. Beltagy, "Awakening properties of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in pediatric patients after craniotomy for supratentorial tumours.", Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthetisology, vol. 27, issue 1, pp. 1 - 6, 2015.
Ghobrial, H. Z., "Awakening Properties of Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, and Desflurane in Pediatric Patients After Craniotomy for Supratentorial Tumours", Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 27, issue 1, pp. 1-6, 2015.
Isaac, S. K., "Awakening Inter-Regionalism? The EU and Regional Arab Organizations Post 2011", GR:EEN Working Paper Series, No. 49, 2014.
Fawzy, A., W. Taha, A. Ebade, and S. Rizk, "Awake versus combined general and epidural technique for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: A retrospective comparative study", Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 56-62, Submitted. paper_6.pdf
Fawzy, A., W. S. Taha, A. Ebade, and sherry n risk, "Awake versus combined general and epidural technique for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: A retrospective comparative study", The Egyptian Journal Of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 56-62, 2013.
Elbardissy, A. D. E. L. A., and F. Elshahaby, "Avulsed permanent incisors: knowledge of primary school care givers regarding emergency management", Cairo Dental Journal, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 11-14, 2006.
Mohamed, S. F., Y. A. Fahmy, and A. E. H. Zekry, "Avoiding {WIMAX} Interference on Ultra Wide Band {MB-OFDM} System by Cognitive Radio", International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 11–15, 2013. Abstract

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Ginsburg, K. B., A. Elshafei, C. Yu, S. J. Jones, and M. L. Cher, "Avoidance of androgen deprivation therapy in radiorecurrent prostate cancer as a clinically meaningful endpoint for salvage cryoablation.", The Prostate, 2017 Aug 29. Abstract

BACKGROUND: To investigate the ability of salvage cryoablation of the prostate (SCAP) to delay the need for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in local recurrence after radiation therapy to the prostate using the Cryo-On-Line Database (COLD) registry.

METHODS: The COLD registry is comprised of a combination of retrospectively and prospectively collected data on patients undergoing primary and SCAP. Patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate ADT-free survival.

RESULTS: We identified 898 patients that have undergone SCAP in the COLD registry. Overall, the calculated 5-year ADT-free survival probability was 0.713. When stratified by D'Amico risk group, 264 high-risk patients (71.9%), 234 intermediate-risk (86.7%),and 228 low-risk (87.7%) were free of ADT post-SCAP. This correlates with a 5-year ADT-free survival of 60.7, 73.9, and 82.4%, respectively. Patients with post-SCAP PSA nadir of <0.2 ng/mL had a 5 year ADT-free survival of 87.1% compared to 48.7% with a PSA nadir ≥0.2 ng/mL. Pre-operative ADT use or full versus partial gland SCAP did not have an effect on ADT use post-operatively. In 118 (55.4%) of patients with post-operative biochemical recurrence, ADT was not used.

CONCLUSION: For patients with local recurrence after radiation, SCAP is an option that provides a high chance of avoiding or delaying ADT. The potential to delay ADT and its associated side effects should be a part of counseling sessions with the patient when discussing treatment options for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation. Avoidance of ADT is more clinically relevant than PSA elevation.

Badawy, A., "Avoidance in the Use of L1 Idioms in Translation Tasks by Egyptian Language Learners", Cairo Studies in English, issue April 2003, pp. 1-19, 2003.
Kapiel, T., "Avoid alcohol completely تجنب الكحول نهائيًا", Arab Scientific Community Organization, 2018. avoid_alcohol_completely.pdf
Rizk, G., A. H. Zahran, and M. H. Ismail, "AVIS: an Adaptive VIdeo Simulation Framework for Scalable Video", in Proc. 8th International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies (NGMAST 2014), Oxford, UK, September 2014.
Kc, M., J. M. Ngunjiri, J. Lee, J. Ahn, M. Elaish, A. Ghorbani, M. E. C. Abundo, K. Lee, and C. W. Lee, "Avian Toll-like receptor 3 isoforms and evaluation of Toll-like receptor 3-mediated immune responses using knockout quail fibroblast cells", Poult Sci, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 6513-6524, 2020. AbstractWebsite

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) induces host innate immune response on recognition of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although several studies of avian TLR3 have been reported, none of these studies used a gene knockout (KO) model to directly assess its role in inducing the immune response and effect on other dsRNA receptors. In this study, we determined the coding sequence of quail TLR3, identified isoforms, and generated TLR3 KO quail fibroblast (QT-35) cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 system optimized for avian species. The TLR3-mediated immune response was studied by stimulating the wild-type (WT) and KO QT-35 cells with synthetic dsRNA or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] or infecting the cells with different RNA viruses such as influenza A virus, avian reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. The direct poly(I:C) treatment significantly increased IFN-β and IL-8 gene expression along with the cytoplasmic dsRNA receptor, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), in WT cells, whereas no changes in all corresponding genes were observed in KO cells. We further confirmed the antiviral effects of poly(I:C)-induced TLR3-mediated immunity by demonstrating significant reduction of virus titer in poly(I:C)-treated WT cells, but not in TLR3 KO cells. On virus infection, varying levels of IFN-β, IL-8, TLR3, and MDA5 gene upregulation were observed depending on the viruses. No major differences in gene expression level were observed between WT and TLR3 KO cells, which suggests a relatively minor role of TLR3 in sensing and exerting immune response against the viruses tested in vitro. Our data show that quail TLR3 is an important endosomal dsRNA receptor responsible for regulation of type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine, and affect the expression of MDA5, another dsRNA receptor, most likely through cytokine-mediated communication.

Rohaim, M. A., E. L. Gardiner, R. F El Naggar, M. A. Abdelsabour, Y. M. Madbouly, M. O. Atasoy, K. A. Ahmed, M. M. El-Safty, and M. Munir, "Avian sarcoma/leukosis virus (RCAS)-mediated over-expression of IFITM3 protects chicks from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.", Microbes and infection, pp. 105231, 2023. Abstract

Broad-spectrum antiviral activities of interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are primarily attributed to in vitro inhibition of viral entry. Here, we used an avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (RCAS)-based gene transfer system and successfully generated chicks that constitutively express chicken IFITM3 (chIFITM3). The chIFITM3-overexpressing chicks showed significant protection and disease tolerance against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (Clade 2.2.1.2). The chicks, overexpressing chIFITM3, also showed delayed onset of clinical symptoms, reduced viral shedding, and alleviated histopathologic alterations compared to control and challenged chicks. These findings highlight that overexpression of chIFITM3 provide a substantial defense against zoonotic H5N1 in vivo.

Rohaim, M. A., E. L. Gardiner, R. F El Naggar, M. A. Abdelsabour, Y. M. Madbouly, M. O. Atasoy, K. A. Ahmed, M. M. El-Safty, and M. Munir, "Avian sarcoma/leukosis virus (RCAS)-mediated over-expression of IFITM3 protects chicks from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.", Microbes and infection, pp. 105231, 2023. Abstract

Broad-spectrum antiviral activities of interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are primarily attributed to in vitro inhibition of viral entry. Here, we used an avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (RCAS)-based gene transfer system and successfully generated chicks that constitutively express chicken IFITM3 (chIFITM3). The chIFITM3-overexpressing chicks showed significant protection and disease tolerance against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (Clade 2.2.1.2). The chicks, overexpressing chIFITM3, also showed delayed onset of clinical symptoms, reduced viral shedding, and alleviated histopathologic alterations compared to control and challenged chicks. These findings highlight that overexpression of chIFITM3 provide a substantial defense against zoonotic H5N1 in vivo.

Vilela, J., M. A. Rohaim, and M. Munir, "Avian Orthoavulavirus Type-1 as Vaccine Vector against Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Animal and Human.", Vaccines, vol. 10, issue 2, 2022. Abstract

Avian orthoavulaviruses type-1 (AOaV-1) have recently transitioned from animal vaccine vector to a bona fide vaccine delivery vehicle in human. Owing to induction of robust innate and adaptive immune responses in mucus membranes in both birds and mammals, AOaVs offer an attractive vaccine against respiratory pathogens. The unique features of AOaVs include over 50 years of safety profile, stable expression of foreign genes, high infectivity rates in avian and mammalian hosts, broad host spectrum, limited possibility of recombination and lack of pre-existing immunity in humans. Additionally, AOaVs vectors allow the production of economical and high quantities of vaccine antigen in chicken embryonated eggs and several GMP-grade mammalian cell lines. In this review, we describe the biology of AOaVs and define protocols to manipulate AOaVs genomes in effectively designing vaccine vectors. We highlighted the potential and established portfolio of AOaV-based vaccines for multiple respiratory and non-respiratory viruses of veterinary and medical importance. We comment on the limitations of AOaV-based vaccines and propose mitigations strategies. The exploitation of AOaVs vectors is expanding at an exciting pace; thus, we have limited the scope to their use as vaccines against viral pathogens in both animals and humans.

El-Ghany, W. A. A., "Avian metapneumovirus infection in poultry flocks: A review of current knowledge", Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, vol. 46, issue 3, pp. 971 - 1002, 2023. pert_j_agric_sci_pneumovirus_2023.pdf
El-Ghany, W. A. A., "Avian macrorhabdosis (Macrorhabdus ornithogaster) causing proventriculitis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and control.", Veterinary Integrative Sciences, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 921-931, 2024. vet_integ_sci.pdf
El-Sanousi, A., "Avian Influenza: Historical, Virological and Epidemiological Aspects. A Review Article", Egyptian J. Virol., vol. 2, pp. 1-12, 2005.
El-Sayed, A., W. Awad, A. Fayed, H. - P. Hamann, and M. Zschöck, Avian influenza prevalence in pigs, Egypt, , vol. 16, issue 4: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pp. 726, 2010. Abstract
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El-Sayed, A., W. Awad, A. Fayed, H. - P. Hamann, and M. Zschöck, "Avian influenza prevalence in pigs, Egypt", Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 4: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pp. 726, 2010. Abstract
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Hussein, A. Hay, and Kaoud, "Avian Influenza in Egypt", Poult Dairy & Vet Sci. 1(4). APDV.000519. 2017., vol. 1, issue 4, pp. 000519, 2017.
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