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Journal Article
Hosni, H., F. Taha, H. Darweesh, H. Elwi, and M. Elbasel, "Association of Urotensin II Gene Polymorphism with Disease Pattern in Systemic Sclerosis Patients", Rheumatology: Current Research, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 1-7, 2015. rheumatology__current_research.pdf
Abdel-Aziz, M., N. Azab, B. Khalifa, and M. Rashed, "The association of Varicella zoster virus reactivation with Bell's palsy in children", International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 79, issue 3, pp. 328-331, 2015. bells_palsy_7395_e_offprint.pdf
Abdel-Aziz, M., N. A. Azab, B. Khalifa, M. Rashed, and N. Naguib, "The association of Varicella zoster virus reactivation with Bell's palsy in children.", International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, vol. 79, issue 3, pp. 328-31, 2015 Mar. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Bell's palsy is considered the most common cause of facial nerve paralysis in children. Although different theories have been postulated for its diagnosis, reactivation of the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has been implicated as one of the causes of Bell's palsy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of Varicella-zoster virus infection with Bell's palsy and its outcome in children.

METHODS: A total of 30 children with Bell's palsy were recruited and were assayed for evidence of VZV infection. The severity of facial nerve dysfunction and the recovery rate were evaluated according to House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading Scale (HB FGS). Paired whole blood samples from all patients were obtained at their initial visit and 3 weeks later, and serum samples were analyzed for VZV IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA.

RESULTS: A significantly higher percentage of Bell's palsy patients were seropositive for VZV IgM antibodies than controls (36.6% of patients vs 10% of controls) while for VZV IgG antibodies the difference was statistically nonsignificant. HB FGS in Bell's palsy patients with serologic evidence of VZV recent infection or reactivation showed a statistiacally significant less cure rate than other patients.

CONCLUSIONS: VZV reactivation may be an important cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis in children. The appropriate diagnosis of VZV reactivation should be done to improve the outcome and the cure rate by the early use of antiviral treatment.

Kamal, A., K. A. E. Einen, and I. Siam, "Association of vascular endothelial growth factor - 634G/C and receptor for advanced glycation end products G82S gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy", Int J. Ophthalmol, vol. 9, issue 8, pp. 1106-1111, 2016. Abstract

·AIM: To investigate the association of receptor for
advanced glycation end products (RAGE) G82S and
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -634 G/C gene
polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR).
· METHODS: Our case -control study included 61
diabetic patients, 12 of them had proliferative diabetic
retinopathy (PDR), 15 had non proliferative diabetic
retinopathy (NPDR), 34 had no diabetic retinopathy (NDR)
and 61 healthy controls. Participants were tested for
RAGE G82S and VEGF -634 G/C polymorphisms by
polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length
polymorphism.
·RESULTS: We found a significant association between
VEGF -634 G/C polymorphism and PDR as PDR patients
had increased incidence of VEGF -634 CC genotype
compared to NDR patients [odds ratio for CC (GC+
GG)=6.5, 95% CI=1.5-27.8, =0.021]. Also VEGF -634 CC
genotype and C allele were significantly higher in the
PDR than in NPDR patients, which is a novel finding in
our study ( =0.024, 0.009 respectively). The mean
triglycerides level was significantly higher in diabetic
patients with CC genotype ( =0.01) as compared to
patients with other genotypes. All cases and control
subjects were of the same heterozygous RAGE 82G/S
genotype.

Kamal, A., K. A. Eleinen, and I. Siam, "Association of vascular endothelial growth factor-634G/C and receptor for advanced glycation end products G82S gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy", International Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 9, no. 8: International Journal of Ophthalmology (c/o Editorial Office), pp. 1106-1111, 2016. AbstractWebsite

{AIM: To investigate the association of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) G82S and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-634 G/C gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR). • METHODS: Our cross-sectional study included 61 diabetic patients, 12 of them had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), 15 had non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 34 had no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) and 61 healthy controls. Participants were tested for RAGE G82S and VEGF-634 G/C polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. • RESULTS: We found a significant association between VEGF-634 G/C polymorphism and PDR as PDR patients had increased incidence of VEGF-634 CC genotype compared to NDR patients [odds ratio for CC vs (GC+ GG)=6.5, 95% CI=1.5-27.8

Kamal, A., K. A. Eleinen, and I. Siam, "Association of vascular endothelial growth factor-634G/C and receptor for advanced glycation end products G82S gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy", International Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1106-1111, 2016. AbstractWebsite
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Kamal, A., S. M. Gamal, F. T. Elgengehy, A. Alkemary, and I. Siam, "Association of VDR ApaI and TaqI Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk of Scleroderma and Behçet's Disease.", Immunol Invest., vol. 45, issue 6, pp. 531-42, 2016. AbstractWebsite

Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been reported in autoimmune diseases. However, their role in Behçet's disease (BD) and scleroderma remains inconclusive. Our aim was to evaluate vitamin D receptor (ApaI, TaqI) gene polymorphisms in relation to Behçet's disease and scleroderma in Egyptians. The study was conducted on 54 patients with BD, 30 scleroderma patients, and 60 healthy control subjects. VDR (ApaI, TaqI) gene polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The "a" allele of ApaI (A/a) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased BD risk (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.18-3.71, p = 0.011), while the TaqI "tt" genotype was significantly lower in BD patients as compared to control subjects (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13-0.9, p = 0.026). Carriage of "aT" VDR haplotype was significantly associated with higher BD risk (OR = 2.28, 95% = 1.14-4.56, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our findings suggest that VDR gene polymorphisms have a significant association with BD in Egyptian patients.

Kamal, A., S. M. Gamal, F. T. Elgengehy, A. K. Alkemary, and I. Siam, "Association of VDR ApaI and TaqI Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk of Scleroderma and Behçet's Disease.", Immunological investigations, vol. 45, issue 6, pp. 531-42, 2016 Aug. Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been reported in autoimmune diseases. However, their role in Behçet's disease (BD) and scleroderma remains inconclusive. Our aim was to evaluate vitamin D receptor (ApaI, TaqI) gene polymorphisms in relation to Behçet's disease and scleroderma in Egyptians. The study was conducted on 54 patients with BD, 30 scleroderma patients, and 60 healthy control subjects. VDR (ApaI, TaqI) gene polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The "a" allele of ApaI (A/a) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased BD risk (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.18-3.71, p = 0.011), while the TaqI "tt" genotype was significantly lower in BD patients as compared to control subjects (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13-0.9, p = 0.026). Carriage of "aT" VDR haplotype was significantly associated with higher BD risk (OR = 2.28, 95% = 1.14-4.56, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our findings suggest that VDR gene polymorphisms have a significant association with BD in Egyptian patients.

Kamal, A., S. M. Gamal, F. T. Elgengehy, A. K. Alkemary, and I. Siam, "Association of VDR ApaI and TaqI Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk of Scleroderma and Behçet’s Disease", Immunological Investigations, vol. 45, no. 6: Taylor and Francis Ltd, pp. 531-542, 2016. AbstractWebsite

{Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been reported in autoimmune diseases. However, their role in Behçet’s disease (BD) and scleroderma remains inconclusive. Our aim was to evaluate vitamin D receptor (ApaI, TaqI) gene polymorphisms in relation to Behçet’s disease and scleroderma in Egyptians. The study was conducted on 54 patients with BD, 30 scleroderma patients, and 60 healthy control subjects. VDR (ApaI, TaqI) gene polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The “a” allele of ApaI (A/a) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased BD risk (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.18–3.71

Kamel, A. M., S. F. Farid, A. S. Attia, and M. E. Raziky, "Association of vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms with response to therapy in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients", The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 781–790, 2017. Abstract
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Kamel, A. M., S. F. Farid, A. S. Attia, and M. E. Raziky, "Association of vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms with response to therapy in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.", Journal of infection in developing countries, vol. 11, issue 10, pp. 781-790, 2017. Abstract8830-1-60988-2-10-20171106.pdf

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is a potential modulator of immune response and is associated with clinical progression of many diseases. Our aim was to assess influence of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and VDBP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4588 (C > A) and rs7041 (G > T), on baseline clinical parameters and response to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

METHODOLOGY: Genotyping was performed by RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) in 112 treatment naïve hepatitis C patients and 50 healthy controls. Vitamin D levels were assessed by ELISA. HCV RNA quantification was performed by PCR to assess therapy outcome.

RESULTS: Patients with VDBP WT+ diplotype (3 or 4 VDBP major alleles) had higher viral response rates at weeks 12, 48, and 72 (p = 0.046, 0.034 and 0.029, respectively) and lower base line viral load (p = 0.016). Multivariate logistic regression identified VDBP WT+ diplotype as an independent predictor of sustained viral response (SVR; p = 0.014, RR = 4.716, 95% CI = 1.371 - 16.609). Interestingly, WT- diplotype (less than 3 VDBP major alleles) was associated with significant liver fibrosis (p = 0.045).

CONCLUSIONS: VDBP WT+ diplotype is associated with lower baseline viral load and better therapy outcome in HCV treatment naïve patients. The rs4588 genotype is associated with SVR in the Egyptian population.

Kamel, A. M., S. F. Farid, A. S. Attia, and M. E. Raziky, "Association of vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms with response to therapy in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.", Journal of infection in developing countries, vol. 11, issue 10, pp. 781-790, 2017. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is a potential modulator of immune response and is associated with clinical progression of many diseases. Our aim was to assess influence of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and VDBP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4588 (C > A) and rs7041 (G > T), on baseline clinical parameters and response to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

METHODOLOGY: Genotyping was performed by RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) in 112 treatment naïve hepatitis C patients and 50 healthy controls. Vitamin D levels were assessed by ELISA. HCV RNA quantification was performed by PCR to assess therapy outcome.

RESULTS: Patients with VDBP WT+ diplotype (3 or 4 VDBP major alleles) had higher viral response rates at weeks 12, 48, and 72 (p = 0.046, 0.034 and 0.029, respectively) and lower base line viral load (p = 0.016). Multivariate logistic regression identified VDBP WT+ diplotype as an independent predictor of sustained viral response (SVR; p = 0.014, RR = 4.716, 95% CI = 1.371 - 16.609). Interestingly, WT- diplotype (less than 3 VDBP major alleles) was associated with significant liver fibrosis (p = 0.045).

CONCLUSIONS: VDBP WT+ diplotype is associated with lower baseline viral load and better therapy outcome in HCV treatment naïve patients. The rs4588 genotype is associated with SVR in the Egyptian population.

Raslan, E., S. A. S. Soliman, Z. A. Nour, D. Ahmed, and N. E. S. Saad, "Association of Vitamin D Deficiency with Chronic Stable Angina: A Case Control Study", High Blood Pressure {&} Cardiovascular Prevention, Dec, 2018. AbstractWebsite

Coronary heart disease is a major cause of death worldwide. Although the relationship between vitamin D status and cardiovascular diseases is not clearly understood, vitamin D deficiency could be a potentially modifiable and underestimated risk factor for ischemic heart diseases. This study aims to assess and compare vitamin D status between patient group with chronic stable angina and matched control group.

Raslan, E., S. A. S. Soliman, Z. A. Nour, D. Ahmed, and N. E. S. Saad, "Association of Vitamin D Deficiency with Chronic Stable Angina: A Case Control Study.", High blood pressure & cardiovascular prevention : the official journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension, 2018 Dec 26. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Coronary heart disease is a major cause of death worldwide. Although the relationship between vitamin D status and cardiovascular diseases is not clearly understood, vitamin D deficiency could be a potentially modifiable and underestimated risk factor for ischemic heart diseases. This study aims to assess and compare vitamin D status between patient group with chronic stable angina and matched control group.

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on chronic stable angina patients and matched controls attending family medicine/internal medicine clinics at Cairo University Hospitals. Forty two adult patients with chronic stable angina and forty two matched controls were studied. Detailed medical history, examination, and laboratory tests (vitamin D, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar) were collected from study participants of both groups.

RESULTS: Severe vitamin D deficiency was found in 78.6% and 7.1% of cases and controls, respectively. Vitamin D level was found to be a significant predictor of chronic stable angina. Every unit (ng/ml) increase in vitamin D level decreases the chance of the subject to have chronic stable angina by 0.30 times.

CONCLUSION: There is a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and the occurrence of chronic stable angina.

Abouzeid, H., N. E. M. Abdelaal, M. A. Abdou, A. A. A. Mosabah, M. T. Zakaria, M. M. Soliman, A. M. Sherif, M. E. Hamed, A. A. Soliman, M. A. Noah, et al., "Association of vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism and susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children: a multicenter study.", Pediatric research, vol. 84, issue 5, pp. 639-644, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of child deaths around the world. Recently, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has emerged as a susceptibility gene for CAP.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of the VDR gene Fok I polymorphism with susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children.

METHODS: This was a multicenter case-control study of 300 patients diagnosed with CAP, and 300 well-matched healthy control children. The VDR Fok I (rs2228570) polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), meanwhile serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25D) level was assessed using ELISA method.

RESULTS: The frequencies of the VDR FF genotype and F allele were more common in patients with CAP than in our control group (OR = 3.6; (95% CI: 1.9-6.7) for the FF genotype; P = 0.001) and (OR: 1.8; (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) for the F allele; P = 0.01). Patients carrying the VDR FF genotype had lower serum (25D) level (mean; 14.8 ± 3.6 ng/ml) than Ff genotype (20.6 ± 4.5 ng/ml) and the ff genotype (24.5 ± 3.7 ng/ml); P < 0.01.

CONCLUSION: The VDR gene Fok I (rs2228570) polymorphism confers susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children.

EL-SHORBAGY, H. A. I. D. A. N. M., N. H. Mahmoud, and S. Sabet, "Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in an Egyptian population.", Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine, vol. 39, issue 10, pp. 1010428317727738, 2017 Oct. Abstract

This study aimed to explore whether genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor are correlated to the breast cancer prevalence in an Egyptian population. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism was used to genotype three frequently analyzed vitamin D receptor gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236) and were identified by sequencing analysis. This is the first study that recorded a new single-nucleotide polymorphism in ApaI genotype within an Egyptian population and was registered with the accession number KY859868. The authors found that TC in rs731236, and TG in KY859868 single-nucleotide polymorphism showed significant distribution differences with an increased risk of breast cancer ( p < 0.05, odds ratio = 3.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-13.28 and p < 0.001, odds ratio = 7.05, 95% confidence interval: 2.02-24, respectively) compared with the wild-type TT genotype carriers in both single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, the distribution frequencies of haplotypes ACT, GTT, and ATT in the patients group were significant, where ATT haplotype was associated with the highest breast cancer risk among all other haplotypes in the patients group ( p = 0.0023, odds ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-2.437). In conclusion, vitamin D receptors ApaI and TaqI confer high breast cancer susceptibility, particularly in Egyptians females carrying haplotype ATT. However, further studies focusing on the vitamin D receptor variants and haplotypes effects on vitamin D and vitamin D receptor concentrations, activities, and functionalities are needed.

EL-SHORBAGY, H. A. I. D. A. N. M., N. H. Mahmoud, and S. Sabet, "Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in an Egyptian population.", Tumor Biology, pp. 1– 9, 2017.
El-Badrawy, E. - S., Z. S. Ibrahim, A. A. Aziz, M. M. Kamel, G. M. Shehab, and A. Kamal, "Association of Vitamin D Receptors Genes Polymorphism (Apa I, and Taq I) with type 1 diabetes in Saudi Arabia (KSA)", Life Science Journal, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 1555-1562, 2013.
El-Tayeb, S., M. A. Harith, and M. Z. Gheith, "The association pf tooth lead content in ancient and contemporary via LIBS technique", Life Science, vol. 11, issue 10, pp. 1215-1219, Submitted. 181_27162life111014_1215_1219.pdf
Omran, S. M., Z. K. Mohamed, Z. A. I. N. A. B. ZAKARIA, Y. M. Abd-Elmonem, and K. E. E. Gayar, "Association study of single nucleotide polymorphism of human Toll like receptor 9 and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Egyptian population", Afr. J. Microbiol. Res, vol. 10, issue 20, pp. 717-724 , 2016.
Haase, O., R. Alneebari, M. A. El Darouti, M. Abd El Hady, D. Dorgham, E. El-Nabarawy, S. B. El Din Mahmoud, H. Mosaad El Sayed, M. Darwish, F. Abbas, et al., "Association with HLA-DRB1 in Egyptian and German pemphigus vulgaris patients", Tissue antigens: Wiley Online Library, 2015. Abstract
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