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Journal Article
El-Rouby, D. H., "Association of macrophages with angiogenesis in oral verrucous and squamous cell carcinomas", J Oral Pathol Med , vol. 39, pp. 559–564 , 2010.
Radwan, A. F., O. G. Shaker, N. A. El-Boghdady, and M. A. Senousy, "Association of MALAT1 and PVT1 Variants, Expression Profiles and Target miRNA-101 and miRNA-186 with Colorectal Cancer: Correlation with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 22, pp. 6147, 2021.
Radwan, A. F., O. G. Shaker, N. A. El-Boghdady, and M. A. Senousy, "Association of MALAT1 and PVT1 Variants, Expression Profiles and Target miRNA-101 and miRNA-186 with Colorectal Cancer: Correlation with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.", International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 22, issue 11, 2021. Abstract

The influence of and variants on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility and their impact on //epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and //EMT axes in CRC are unknown. We investigated the influence of and on the risk of CRC and adenomatous polyps (AP), their impact on the long noncoding RNAs and expression and their target , /E-cadherin pathways, along with their potential as early CRC biomarkers. Overall, 280 individuals were recruited: 140 patients with CRC, 40 patients with AP, and 100 healthy volunteers. Genotyping and serum expression profiles were assessed using qPCR. The EMT biomarker, E-cadherin, was measured by ELISA. was associated with increased CRC risk, whereas was protective. Serum and were upregulated in CRC and AP patients versus healthy controls, whereas, , and E-cadherin were downregulated in CRC versus non-CRC groups. showed superior diagnostic potential for CRC and predicted CRC risk among non-CRC groups in the multivariate logistic analysis. , , and levels were correlated with E-cadherin, tumor stage, lymph node and distant metastasis. E-cadherin was lost in metastatic vs. non-metastatic CRC. genotype carriers showed higher E-cadherin levels than carriers. was correlated with lymph node status. For the first time, and are potential genetic CRC predisposition markers, with possibly impacting the EMT process. Serum , , and are novel non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers that could improve the clinical outcome of CRC.

Koofy, N. E., G. M. Anwar, M. E. Razeki, and A. E. Hennawi, "The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children", Saudi J Gastroenterol., vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 44-9, 2012.
El-Koofy, N. M., G. M. Anwar, M. S. El-Raziky, A. M. El-Hennawy, F. M. El-Mougy, H. M. El-karaksy, F. M. Hassanin, and H. M. Helmy, "The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children.", Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 44-9, 2012 Jan-Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children with clinical hepatomegaly and/or raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three overweight and obese children, aged 2-13 years, presenting with hepatomegaly and/or raised ALT, were studied for the prevalence of MS, IR and NAFLD. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver biochemical profile, in addition to liver ultrasound and liver biopsy.

RESULTS: Twenty patients (60.6%) were labeled with MS. IR was present in 16 (48.4%). Fifteen (44%) patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients with MS were more likely to have NAFLD by biopsy (P=0.001). Children with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG, fasting insulin, and lower HDL-c compared to patients with normal liver histology (P< 0.05) and fitted more with the criteria of MS (80% vs. 44%). IR was significantly more common among NAFLD patients (73% vs. 28%).

CONCLUSION: There is a close association between obesity, MS, IR and NAFLD. Obese children with clinical or biochemical hepatic abnormalities are prone to suffer from MS, IR and NAFLD.

El-Koofy, N. M., G. M. Anwar, M. S. El-Raziky, A. M. El-Hennawy, F. M. El-Mougy, H. M. El-karaksy, F. M. Hassanin, and H. M. Helmy, "The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children.", Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 44-9, 2012 Jan-Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children with clinical hepatomegaly and/or raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three overweight and obese children, aged 2-13 years, presenting with hepatomegaly and/or raised ALT, were studied for the prevalence of MS, IR and NAFLD. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver biochemical profile, in addition to liver ultrasound and liver biopsy.

RESULTS: Twenty patients (60.6%) were labeled with MS. IR was present in 16 (48.4%). Fifteen (44%) patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients with MS were more likely to have NAFLD by biopsy (P=0.001). Children with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG, fasting insulin, and lower HDL-c compared to patients with normal liver histology (P< 0.05) and fitted more with the criteria of MS (80% vs. 44%). IR was significantly more common among NAFLD patients (73% vs. 28%).

CONCLUSION: There is a close association between obesity, MS, IR and NAFLD. Obese children with clinical or biochemical hepatic abnormalities are prone to suffer from MS, IR and NAFLD.

El-Koofy, N. M., G. M. Anwar, M. S. El-Raziky, A. M. El-Hennawy, F. M. El-Mougy, H. M. El-karaksy, F. M. Hassanin, and H. M. Helmy, "The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children.", Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 44-9, 2012 Jan-Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children with clinical hepatomegaly and/or raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three overweight and obese children, aged 2-13 years, presenting with hepatomegaly and/or raised ALT, were studied for the prevalence of MS, IR and NAFLD. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver biochemical profile, in addition to liver ultrasound and liver biopsy.

RESULTS: Twenty patients (60.6%) were labeled with MS. IR was present in 16 (48.4%). Fifteen (44%) patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients with MS were more likely to have NAFLD by biopsy (P=0.001). Children with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG, fasting insulin, and lower HDL-c compared to patients with normal liver histology (P< 0.05) and fitted more with the criteria of MS (80% vs. 44%). IR was significantly more common among NAFLD patients (73% vs. 28%).

CONCLUSION: There is a close association between obesity, MS, IR and NAFLD. Obese children with clinical or biochemical hepatic abnormalities are prone to suffer from MS, IR and NAFLD.

El-Koofy, N. M., G. M. Anwar, M. S. El-Raziky, A. M. El-Hennawy, F. M. El-Mougy, H. M. El-karaksy, F. M. Hassanin, and H. M. Helmy, "The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children.", Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 44-9, 2012 Jan-Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children with clinical hepatomegaly and/or raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three overweight and obese children, aged 2-13 years, presenting with hepatomegaly and/or raised ALT, were studied for the prevalence of MS, IR and NAFLD. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver biochemical profile, in addition to liver ultrasound and liver biopsy.

RESULTS: Twenty patients (60.6%) were labeled with MS. IR was present in 16 (48.4%). Fifteen (44%) patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients with MS were more likely to have NAFLD by biopsy (P=0.001). Children with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG, fasting insulin, and lower HDL-c compared to patients with normal liver histology (P< 0.05) and fitted more with the criteria of MS (80% vs. 44%). IR was significantly more common among NAFLD patients (73% vs. 28%).

CONCLUSION: There is a close association between obesity, MS, IR and NAFLD. Obese children with clinical or biochemical hepatic abnormalities are prone to suffer from MS, IR and NAFLD.

El-Koofy, N. M., G. M. Anwar, M. S. El-Raziky, A. M. El-Hennawy, F. M. El-Mougy, H. M. El-karaksy, F. M. Hassanin, and H. M. Helmy, "The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children.", Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 44-9, 2012 Jan-Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children with clinical hepatomegaly and/or raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three overweight and obese children, aged 2-13 years, presenting with hepatomegaly and/or raised ALT, were studied for the prevalence of MS, IR and NAFLD. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver biochemical profile, in addition to liver ultrasound and liver biopsy.

RESULTS: Twenty patients (60.6%) were labeled with MS. IR was present in 16 (48.4%). Fifteen (44%) patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients with MS were more likely to have NAFLD by biopsy (P=0.001). Children with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG, fasting insulin, and lower HDL-c compared to patients with normal liver histology (P< 0.05) and fitted more with the criteria of MS (80% vs. 44%). IR was significantly more common among NAFLD patients (73% vs. 28%).

CONCLUSION: There is a close association between obesity, MS, IR and NAFLD. Obese children with clinical or biochemical hepatic abnormalities are prone to suffer from MS, IR and NAFLD.

OO, A., F. NA, S. OG, H. HA, A. FA, A. DY, and E. HS, "Association of miR-146a rs57095329 with Behçet's disease and its complications.", Br J Biomed Sci, vol. 78, issue 2, pp. 63-66, 2021.
Shaker, O. G., N. A. E. Boghdady, and A. E. - D. E. Sayed, "Association of miRNA-146a, miRNA-499, IRAK1 and PADI4 Polymorphisma with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Egyptian Population", Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 46, pp. 2239-2249, 2018.
Senousy, M. A., H. T. S. Helmy, N. Fathy, O. G. Shaker, and G. M. Ayeldeen, "Association of MTMR3 rs12537 at miR-181a binding site with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus risk in Egyptian patients.", Scientific reports, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 12299, 2019. Abstractassociation_of_mtmr3_rs12537_at_mir-181a_binding_site-2019.pdf

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA-target sites influence an individual's risk and prognosis for autoimmune diseases. Myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3), an autophagy-related gene, is a direct target of miR-181a. We investigated whether MTMR3 SNP rs12537 in the miR-181a-binding site is associated with the susceptibility and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Overall, 94 patients with RA, 80 patients with SLE, and 104 healthy volunteers were recruited. Genotyping and expression analysis of circulating MTMR3 and miR-181a were performed by qPCR. The autophagic marker MAP1LC3B was measured by ELISA. The rs12537 minor homozygote (TT) genotype was a candidate risk factor of both RA and SLE. rs12537TT was associated with lower serum MTMR3 expression and higher LC3B levels than other genotypes in patients with both diseases. Serum miR-181a expression was higher in rs12537TT carriers than in other genotypes among SLE patients. Serum miR-181a and MTMR3 levels were inversely correlated in SLE but not in RA patients. rs12537TT and serum miR-181a were positively associated with disease severity in both diseases. Our results identify a novel role of rs12537 in the susceptibility and progression of RA and SLE, possibly through impacting the interaction between miR-181a and MTMR3 leading to increased autophagy.

Senousy, M. A., H. T. S. Helmy, N. Fathy, O. G. Shaker, and G. M. Ayeldeen, "Association of MTMR3 rs12537 at miR-181a binding site with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus risk in Egyptian patients.", Scientific reports, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 12299, 2019. Abstract

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA-target sites influence an individual's risk and prognosis for autoimmune diseases. Myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3), an autophagy-related gene, is a direct target of miR-181a. We investigated whether MTMR3 SNP rs12537 in the miR-181a-binding site is associated with the susceptibility and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Overall, 94 patients with RA, 80 patients with SLE, and 104 healthy volunteers were recruited. Genotyping and expression analysis of circulating MTMR3 and miR-181a were performed by qPCR. The autophagic marker MAP1LC3B was measured by ELISA. The rs12537 minor homozygote (TT) genotype was a candidate risk factor of both RA and SLE. rs12537TT was associated with lower serum MTMR3 expression and higher LC3B levels than other genotypes in patients with both diseases. Serum miR-181a expression was higher in rs12537TT carriers than in other genotypes among SLE patients. Serum miR-181a and MTMR3 levels were inversely correlated in SLE but not in RA patients. rs12537TT and serum miR-181a were positively associated with disease severity in both diseases. Our results identify a novel role of rs12537 in the susceptibility and progression of RA and SLE, possibly through impacting the interaction between miR-181a and MTMR3 leading to increased autophagy.

N.G.Bader-elDin, G.M.Salum, M.A.Anany, M. K.Ibrahim, R.M.Dawood, N.Zayed, Y.S.ElAbd, R.El-Shenawy, and M.K.ElAwady, "Association of Myxovirus Resistance Gene Promoter Polymorphism with Response to Combined Interferon Treatment and Progression of Liver Disease in Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients.", J Interferon Cytokine Res. , vol. Aug;35, issue (8), pp. 641-8., 2015.
Behiry, E. G., M. A. Al-Azzouny, D. Sabry, O. G. Behairy, and N. E. Salem, "Association of NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5 polymorphisms with congenital heart disease in Egyptian children.", Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, pp. e612, 2019 Mar 04. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several genes encoding transcription factors are known to be the primary cause of congenital heart disease. NKX2-5 and GATA4 were the first congenital heart disease-causing genes identified by linkage analysis. This study designed to study the association of five single-nucleotide variants of NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5 genes with sporadic nonsyndromic cases of a congenital cardiac septal defect in Egyptian children.

METHODS: Venous blood samples from 150 congenital heart disease children (including a ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, and patent ductus arteriosus) and 90 apparently healthy of matched age and sex were studied by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing in order to study two single-nucleotide variants of NKX2-5 (rs2277923, rs28936670), two single-nucleotide variants of GATA4 (rs368418329, rs56166237) and one single-nucleotide variant TBX5 (rs6489957). The distribution of genotype and allele frequency in the congenital heart diseases (CHD) group and control group were analyzed.

RESULTS: We found different genotype frequencies of the two variants of NKX2-5, as CT genotype of rs2277923 was present in 58% and 36% in cases and control respectively, and TT genotype present in 6% of the cases. Also regarding missense variant rs28936670, heterozygous AG presented in 82% of the cases. Also, we observed a five prime UTR variant rs368418329, GT (42% of the cases) and GG (46% of the cases) genotypes showed the most frequent presentation in cases. While regarding a synonymous variant rs56166237, GT and GG were the most presented in cases (41.4%, 56% respectively) in contrast to control group (20%, 1.7% respectively). Also, a synonymous variant in TBX5, the distribution of genotype frequency was significantly different between the CHD group and control group. CT genotype of TBX5 -rs6489957 was found in 12 ASD, 24 VSD, six PDA, three aortic coarctation and nine fallot that represent 42% of the cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Significantly higher frequency of different allelle of five variants was observed in cases when compared to the control group, with significant risky effect for the development of septal defect. In addition to two polymorphisms of NKX2-5 (rs2277923, rs28936670) variant in the cardiac septal defect, two variants in GATA4 (rs368418329, rs56166237) and one variant in TBX5 (rs6489957) seem to have a role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease.

Mahmoud, H. G. M., A. Kamal, R. K. Darwish, undefined, M. Salama, and T. A. R. E. K. S. El-Baradie, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer", Cancer Investigation, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 71-77, 2017. association_of_osteopontin_gene_polymorphisms_with_colorectal_cancer.pdf
Mahmoud, H. G. M., A. Kamal, R. K. Darwish, Y. Elshiwy, S. Saad, M. Salama, and T. A. R. E. K. S. El-Baradie, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer", Cancer Investigation, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 71-77, 2017. association_of_osteopontin_gene_polymorphisms_with_colorectal_cancer.pdf
Kamal, A., R. K. Darwish, S. Saad, M. Salama, T. S. El-Baradie, H. G. M. Mahmoud, and Y. Elshiwy, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer", Cancer Investigation, vol. 35, no. 2: Taylor and Francis Ltd, pp. 71-77, 2017. AbstractWebsite

We investigated the association of the Osteopontin (OPN) (rs9138 and rs1126616) polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC). One hundred CRC patients and 112 healthy individuals were subjected to OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) genotyping and measurement of OPN protein plasma level. The C allele of OPN rs1126616 and the CC haplotype were significantly higher in CRC patient (p = 0.036, 0.003, respectively). In females, the C allele of OPN rs9318 (A/C) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased CRC risk (p = 0.036). The plasma OPN level >104.35 ng/mL was significantly associated with CRC. Our findings suggest a significant role played by OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) in colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kamal, A., R. K. Darwish, S. Saad, M. Salama, T. S. El-Baradie, H. G. M. Mahmoud, and Y. Elshiwy, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer", Cancer Investigation, vol. 35, no. 2: Taylor and Francis Ltd, pp. 71-77, 2017. AbstractWebsite

We investigated the association of the Osteopontin (OPN) (rs9138 and rs1126616) polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC). One hundred CRC patients and 112 healthy individuals were subjected to OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) genotyping and measurement of OPN protein plasma level. The C allele of OPN rs1126616 and the CC haplotype were significantly higher in CRC patient (p = 0.036, 0.003, respectively). In females, the C allele of OPN rs9318 (A/C) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased CRC risk (p = 0.036). The plasma OPN level >104.35 ng/mL was significantly associated with CRC. Our findings suggest a significant role played by OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) in colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kamal, A., R. K. Darwish, S. Saad, M. Salama, T. S. El-Baradie, H. G. M. Mahmoud, and Y. Elshiwy, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer", Cancer Investigation, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 71-77, 2017. AbstractWebsite
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Kamal, A., R. K. Darwish, S. Saad, M. Salama, T. A. R. E. K. S. El-Baradie, H. G. M. Mahmoud, and Y. Elshiwy, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer.", Cancer investigation, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 71-77, 2017 Feb 07. AbstractOPN

We investigated the association of the Osteopontin (OPN) (rs9138 and rs1126616) polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC). One hundred CRC patients and 112 healthy individuals were subjected to OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) genotyping and measurement of OPN protein plasma level. The C allele of OPN rs1126616 and the CC haplotype were significantly higher in CRC patient (p = 0.036, 0.003, respectively). In females, the C allele of OPN rs9318 (A/C) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased CRC risk (p = 0.036). The plasma OPN level >104.35 ng/mL was significantly associated with CRC. Our findings suggest a significant role played by OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Kamal, A., R. K. Darwish, S. Saad, M. Salama, T. A. R. E. K. S. El-Baradie, H. G. M. Mahmoud, and Y. Elshiwy, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer.", Cancer investigation, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 71-77, 2017. Abstract

We investigated the association of the Osteopontin (OPN) (rs9138 and rs1126616) polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC). One hundred CRC patients and 112 healthy individuals were subjected to OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) genotyping and measurement of OPN protein plasma level. The C allele of OPN rs1126616 and the CC haplotype were significantly higher in CRC patient (p = 0.036, 0.003, respectively). In females, the C allele of OPN rs9318 (A/C) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased CRC risk (p = 0.036). The plasma OPN level >104.35 ng/mL was significantly associated with CRC. Our findings suggest a significant role played by OPN (rs9138 and rs1126616) in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Kamal, A., R. K. Darwish, S. Saad, M. Salama, T. El-Baradie, H. Mahmoud, and Y. Elshiwy, "Association of Osteopontin Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer: ", Journal Cancer Investigation Volume ., vol. 35,, issue 2, pp. 71-77, 2017.
B.M., D., G. M.D., and A. Y.M., "ASSOCIATION OF PENTRAXIN3 WITH SEVERITY OF HEART FAILURE DUE TO DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES ", Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 78, issue 2, 2010.
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