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Farag, T., N. Funabiki, and T. Nakanishi, "An access point allocation algorithm for indoor environments in wireless mesh networks", IEICE transactions on communications, vol. 92, no. 3: The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, pp. 784–793, 2009. Abstract
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Dönmez, E. A., A. G. Goswami, A. Raheja, A. Bhadani, A. E. S. El Kady, A. Alniemi, A. Awad, A. Aladl, A. Younis, A. Alwali, et al., "Access to and quality of elective care: a prospective cohort study using hernia surgery as a tracer condition in 83 countries", The Lancet Global Health, 2024. AbstractWebsite

Summary Background Timely and safe elective health care facilitates return to normal activities for patients and prevents emergency admissions. Surgery is a cornerstone of elective care and relies on complex pathways. This study aimed to take a whole-system approach to evaluating access to and quality of elective health care globally, using inguinal hernia as a tracer condition. Methods This was a prospective, international, cohort study conducted between Jan 30 and May 21, 2023, in which any hospital performing inguinal hernia repairs was eligible to take part. Consecutive patients of any age undergoing primary inguinal hernia repair were included. A measurement set mapped to the attributes of WHO's Health System Building Blocks was defined to evaluate access (emergency surgery rates, bowel resection rates, and waiting times) and quality (mesh use, day-case rates, and postoperative complications). These were compared across World Bank income groups (high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries), adjusted for hospital and country. Factors associated with postoperative complications were explored with a three-level multilevel logistic regression model. Findings 18 058 patients from 640 hospitals in 83 countries were included, of whom 1287 (7·1%) underwent emergency surgery. Emergency surgery rates increased from high-income to low-income countries (6·8%, 9·7%, 11·4%, 14·2%), accompanied by an increase in bowel resection rates (1·2%, 1·4%, 2·3%, 4·2%). Overall waiting times for elective surgery were similar around the world (median 8·0 months from symptoms to surgery), largely because of delays between symptom onset and diagnosis rather than waiting for treatment. In 14 768 elective operations in adults, mesh use decreased from high-income to low-income countries (97·6%, 94·3%, 80·6%, 61·0%). In patients eligible for day-case surgery (n=12 658), day-case rates were low and variable (50·0%, 38·0%, 42·1%, 44·5%). Complications occurred in 2415 (13·4%) of 18 018 patients and were more common after emergency surgery (adjusted odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·72–2·46) and bowel resection (1·85, 1·31–2·63), and less common after day-case surgery (0·39, 0·34–0·44). Interpretation This study demonstrates that elective health care is essential to preventing over-reliance on emergency systems. We identified actionable targets for system strengthening: clear referral pathways and increasing mesh repair in lower-income settings, and boosting day-case surgery in all income settings. These measures might strengthen non-surgical pathways too, reducing the burden on society and health services. Funding NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery and Portuguese Hernia and Abdominal Wall Society (Sociedade Portuguesa de Hernia e Parede Abdominal).

Dönmez, E. A., A. G. Goswami, A. Raheja, A. Bhadani, A. E. S. El Kady, A. Alniemi, A. Awad, A. Aladl, A. Younis, A. Alwali, et al., "Access to and quality of elective care: a prospective cohort study using hernia surgery as a tracer condition in 83 countries", The Lancet Global Health, 2024. AbstractWebsite

Summary Background Timely and safe elective health care facilitates return to normal activities for patients and prevents emergency admissions. Surgery is a cornerstone of elective care and relies on complex pathways. This study aimed to take a whole-system approach to evaluating access to and quality of elective health care globally, using inguinal hernia as a tracer condition. Methods This was a prospective, international, cohort study conducted between Jan 30 and May 21, 2023, in which any hospital performing inguinal hernia repairs was eligible to take part. Consecutive patients of any age undergoing primary inguinal hernia repair were included. A measurement set mapped to the attributes of WHO's Health System Building Blocks was defined to evaluate access (emergency surgery rates, bowel resection rates, and waiting times) and quality (mesh use, day-case rates, and postoperative complications). These were compared across World Bank income groups (high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries), adjusted for hospital and country. Factors associated with postoperative complications were explored with a three-level multilevel logistic regression model. Findings 18 058 patients from 640 hospitals in 83 countries were included, of whom 1287 (7·1%) underwent emergency surgery. Emergency surgery rates increased from high-income to low-income countries (6·8%, 9·7%, 11·4%, 14·2%), accompanied by an increase in bowel resection rates (1·2%, 1·4%, 2·3%, 4·2%). Overall waiting times for elective surgery were similar around the world (median 8·0 months from symptoms to surgery), largely because of delays between symptom onset and diagnosis rather than waiting for treatment. In 14 768 elective operations in adults, mesh use decreased from high-income to low-income countries (97·6%, 94·3%, 80·6%, 61·0%). In patients eligible for day-case surgery (n=12 658), day-case rates were low and variable (50·0%, 38·0%, 42·1%, 44·5%). Complications occurred in 2415 (13·4%) of 18 018 patients and were more common after emergency surgery (adjusted odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·72–2·46) and bowel resection (1·85, 1·31–2·63), and less common after day-case surgery (0·39, 0·34–0·44). Interpretation This study demonstrates that elective health care is essential to preventing over-reliance on emergency systems. We identified actionable targets for system strengthening: clear referral pathways and increasing mesh repair in lower-income settings, and boosting day-case surgery in all income settings. These measures might strengthen non-surgical pathways too, reducing the burden on society and health services. Funding NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery and Portuguese Hernia and Abdominal Wall Society (Sociedade Portuguesa de Hernia e Parede Abdominal).

Dönmez, E. A., A. G. Goswami, A. Raheja, A. Bhadani, A. E. S. El Kady, A. Alniemi, A. Awad, A. Aladl, A. Younis, A. Alwali, et al., Access to and quality of elective care: a prospective cohort study using hernia surgery as a tracer condition in 83 countries, , 2024. AbstractWebsite

SummaryBackground
Timely and safe elective health care facilitates return to normal activities for patients and prevents emergency admissions. Surgery is a cornerstone of elective care and relies on complex pathways. This study aimed to take a whole-system approach to evaluating access to and quality of elective health care globally, using inguinal hernia as a tracer condition.
Methods
This was a prospective, international, cohort study conducted between Jan 30 and May 21, 2023, in which any hospital performing inguinal hernia repairs was eligible to take part. Consecutive patients of any age undergoing primary inguinal hernia repair were included. A measurement set mapped to the attributes of WHO's Health System Building Blocks was defined to evaluate access (emergency surgery rates, bowel resection rates, and waiting times) and quality (mesh use, day-case rates, and postoperative complications). These were compared across World Bank income groups (high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries), adjusted for hospital and country. Factors associated with postoperative complications were explored with a three-level multilevel logistic regression model.
Findings
18 058 patients from 640 hospitals in 83 countries were included, of whom 1287 (7·1%) underwent emergency surgery. Emergency surgery rates increased from high-income to low-income countries (6·8%, 9·7%, 11·4%, 14·2%), accompanied by an increase in bowel resection rates (1·2%, 1·4%, 2·3%, 4·2%). Overall waiting times for elective surgery were similar around the world (median 8·0 months from symptoms to surgery), largely because of delays between symptom onset and diagnosis rather than waiting for treatment. In 14 768 elective operations in adults, mesh use decreased from high-income to low-income countries (97·6%, 94·3%, 80·6%, 61·0%). In patients eligible for day-case surgery (n=12 658), day-case rates were low and variable (50·0%, 38·0%, 42·1%, 44·5%). Complications occurred in 2415 (13·4%) of 18 018 patients and were more common after emergency surgery (adjusted odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·72–2·46) and bowel resection (1·85, 1·31–2·63), and less common after day-case surgery (0·39, 0·34–0·44).
Interpretation
This study demonstrates that elective health care is essential to preventing over-reliance on emergency systems. We identified actionable targets for system strengthening: clear referral pathways and increasing mesh repair in lower-income settings, and boosting day-case surgery in all income settings. These measures might strengthen non-surgical pathways too, reducing the burden on society and health services.
Funding
NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery and Portuguese Hernia and Abdominal Wall Society (Sociedade Portuguesa de Hernia e Parede Abdominal).

Hala, H. E., M. A. Mahmoud, and Z. Chahir, "Access to Finance and Financial Problems of SMEs: Evidence from Egypt", International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, vol. 20, pp. 287-309, 2013.
El Said, H., M. El Said, and C. Zaki, "Access to Finance and Financial Problems of SMEs: Evidence from Egypt", International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, vol. 20, issue 3, pp. 286-309, 2013.
El-Said, H., M. Al-Said, and C. Zaki, "Access to finance and financial problems of SMEs: evidence from Egypt", Int. J. Entrepreneurship and Small Business, vol. 20, issue 3, pp. 286–309, 2013.
Attia, S., and A. A. A. M. Ibrahim, Accessible and Inclusive Public Space: The Regeneration of Waterfront in Informal Areas, : Routledge, pp. 1 - 24, 2017. Abstract
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Asseel, S., and A. Nassar, "Accessing Cairo: Performative Methodolgy, Neighborhoods and Lessons Learned from Elsewhere", Resourceful cities, Berlin,Humboldt-University Berlin, Institute for Social Science, Dept. for Urban and Regional Sociology, 29-30/8/2013.
Saied, A., A. El-Sayed, and K. A.Nasser, "Accident Models For Rural Roads In Egypt", Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, vol. 25, issue 3, 2003.
Salem, H. M., and M. M. Attia, "Accidental intestinal myiasis caused by Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in broiler chickens: a field study", International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, vol. 41, issue (4), pp. pp. 2549–2554, 2021. musca.pdf
Ibrahim, I. M., M. A. Abdel-Hamid, and A. S. Soliman, "Accidental sectioning of the extensor carpi radialis muscle tendon in a mare (clinical report)[Egypt]", Veterinary Medical Journal, vol. 32, 1984. Abstract
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Shafie, M. M., A. M. Borady, and N. H. Abdel Mutaal, "Acclimation of Fayoumi chickens to constant and varying temperatures", Egyptian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 19, 1979. Abstract
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Shafie, M. M., A. M. Borady, and N. H. Abdel Mutaal, "Acclimation of Fayoumi chickens to constant and varying temperatures", Egyptian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 19, 1979. Abstract
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El-Beltagi, H. S., T. A. Shalaby, H. El-Ramady, and S. M. El-Bialy, "Acclimatization of In Vitro Banana Seedlings Using Root-Applied Bio-Nanofertilizer of Copper and Selenium", Agronomy, vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 539, 2022.
Elnaggar, R. K., A. Alhowimel, M. Alotaibi, M. S. Abdrabo, and M. A. Elshafey, "Accommodating variable-resistance exercise enhance weight-bearing/gait symmetry and balance capability in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy: a parallel-group, single-blinded randomized clinical trial.", European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine, vol. 58, issue 3, pp. 378-386, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (HCP) tend preferentially to bear their body weight on the non-paretic side, which leads to the emergence of asymmetrical walking patterns and limited ability to maintain balance. Therefore, improved and clearly effective intervention strategies to remedy these impairments are needed.

AIM: This study endeavored to evaluate the efficacy of an accommodating variable-resistance exercise (AVr-Ex) program on weight-bearing symmetry, gait symmetry, and dynamic balance in children with HCP.

DESIGN: This study employed a parallel-group, single-blinded randomized controlled design.

SETTINGS: Physical Therapy Outpatient Clinic and University Hospital, and a tertiary referral hospital.

POPULATION: Thirty-six children with HCP aged between eight and 16 years were assigned randomly to the AVr-Ex group (N.=18) or control group (N.=18).

METHODS: Children in the AVr-Ex group undergone an AVr-Ex program, three sessions/week over eight consecutive weeks, besides the usual physical therapy while children in the Control group received the usual physical therapy alone. Outcome measures were evaluated before and after intervention and included weight-bearing symmetry indices [rearfoot (RF-WbSI), and forefoot (FF-WbSI)], gait symmetry indices (spatial [GSIspatial], and temporal [GSItemporal]), and dynamic balance.

RESULTS: The post-treatment RF-WbSI (P<0.001; ηp=0.41), GSIspatial (P<0.001; ηp=0.42), GSItemporal (P<0.001; ηp=0.52), and dynamic balance variables (all P<0.05; ηp ranged from 0.21 to 0.51) improved significantly in the AVr-Ex group compared to the control group, when controlled for the pre-treatment scores.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that AVr-Ex can improve weight-bearing symmetry, gait symmetry, and dynamic balance in children with HCP when incorporated into the usual physical rehabilitation program.

CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: AVr-Ex is likely an effective training paradigm to address weight-bearing/gait asymmetry and balance issues in children with HCP, which provides the basis for its incorporation in rehabilitation programs for such a patient population.

El Kassas, M., M. Alboraie, D. Omran, M. Salaheldin, M. N. Wifi, M. Elbadry, adel el tahan, S. Ezzat, E. Moaz, A. M. Farid, et al., "An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens", Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 12, issue 12, pp. 1265-1272, 2018. single_centre_paper.pdf
El Kassas, M., M. Alboraie, D. Omran, M. Salaheldin, M. N. Wifi, M. Elbadry, adel el tahan, S. Ezzat, E. Moaz, A. M. Farid, et al., "An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.", Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, pp. 1-8, 2018 May 24. Abstract

BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

METHODS: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

RESULTS: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

CONCLUSIONS: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.

El Kassas, M., M. Alboraie, D. Omran, M. Salaheldin, M. N. Wifi, M. Elbadry, adel el tahan, S. Ezzat, E. Moaz, A. M. Farid, et al., "An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.", Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, pp. 1-8, 2018 May 24. Abstract

BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

METHODS: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

RESULTS: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

CONCLUSIONS: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.

El Kassas, M., M. Alboraie, D. Omran, M. Salaheldin, M. N. Wifi, M. Elbadry, adel el tahan, S. Ezzat, E. Moaz, A. M. Farid, et al., "An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.", Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, pp. 1-8, 2018 May 24. Abstract

BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

METHODS: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

RESULTS: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

CONCLUSIONS: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.

El Kassas, M., M. Alboraie, D. Omran, M. Salaheldin, M. N. Wifi, M. Elbadry, adel el tahan, S. Ezzat, E. Moaz, A. M. Farid, et al., "An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.", Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, pp. 1-8, 2018 May 24. Abstract

BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

METHODS: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

RESULTS: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

CONCLUSIONS: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.

El Kassas, M., M. Alboraie, D. Omran, M. Salaheldin, M. N. Wifi, M. Elbadry, adel el tahan, S. Ezzat, E. Moaz, A. M. Farid, et al., "An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.", Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 12, issue 12, pp. 1265-1272, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

METHODS: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

RESULTS: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

CONCLUSIONS: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.

Hafez, A. A. E., Y. A. Khachaba, A. A. S. Mohammed, and W. Adel, "An Account of the use of Intrathoracic Flaps in the Management of 12 Consecutive Patients with Residual Cavities following lung surgery", Kasr El Aini Journal of Surgery, vol. 20, issue 1, 2019.
El Said, M., "Accountability with Teeth", IDS Bullitin, vol. 51, issue 2, 2020.
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