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Zaghloul, A. H., S. S. El-Ballal, A. M. Morgan, and B. E. El Bialy, " Teratogenic effects of abamectin in rats", The Third Internationl Conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt, May 15 -18, 2011(Vet. Med. J., Giza, Egypt, Vol. 59, No. 3 (2011):279- 297, 17 May, 2011.
Zaghloul, M. S., A. Abdallah, H. William, H. M. Khaled, J. P. Christodouleas, and A. Smith, "A randomized clinical trial comparing adjuvant radiation vs chemo-RT vs chemotherapy alone after radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer", ASCO, united states, 7-9 jan, 2016. abstract_gu-asco.docx
saied zaghloul, H., "Postmortem diagnosis of early Myocardial infarction: Immunohistochemical study", the Annual Scientific Conference of Faculty of Medicine Cairo University, March,1999.
Zaghloul, M. S., and I. Gouda, "Schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: similarities and differences from urothelial cancer.", Expert review of anticancer therapy, vol. 12, issue 6, pp. 753-63, 2012 Jun. Abstract

Through the years, schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed to be a unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. As carcinogenesis is a highly complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation and regulation process, confirmation of their minute differences or similarities are extremely difficult. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented in spite of the efforts undertaken. The control of schistosomiasis and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed feature changes approaching that of urothelial tumors. However, schistosoma-associated bladder cancer still presents in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non-associated urothelial cancer. Furthermore, many data were collected proving that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage-by-stage comparison of the treatment end results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with the different etiologies.

Zaghloul, M. A. S., A. Yan, R. Chen, M. - J. Li, R. Flammang, M. Heibel, and K. P. Chen, "High spatial resolution radiation detection using distributed fiber sensing technique", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 64, issue 9: IEEE, pp. 2569-2577, 2017. Abstract
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saied zaghloul, H., "Reserpine and male fertility of rats.", The Medical Journal of Cairo Univerisity, vol. 60, issue 4, pp. 169-179, 1999.
Zaghloul, M. S., E. Eldebawy, S. Ahmed, A. G. Mousa, A. Amin, A. Refaat, I. Zaky, N. El Khateeb, and M. Sabry, "Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG): a randomized controlled trial.", Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, vol. 111, issue 1, pp. 35-40, 2014 Apr. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) outcome remains dismal despite multiple therapeutic attempts.

PURPOSE: To compare the results of treatment of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) using hypofractionated versus conventional radiotherapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-one newly diagnosed DIPG children were randomized into hypofractionated (HF) (39Gy/13 fractions in 2.6weeks) and conventional (CF) arm (54Gy/30 fractions in 6weeks).

RESULTS: The median and one-year overall survival (OS) was 7.8months and 36.4±8.2% for the hypofractionated arm, and 9.5 and 26.2±7.4% for the conventional arm respectively. The 18-month OS difference was 2.2%. The OS hazard ratio (HR) was 1.14 (95% CI: 0.70-1.89) (p=0.59). The hypofractionated arm had a median and one-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 6.6months and 22.5±7.1%, compared to 7.3 and 17.9±7.1% for the conventional arm. The PFS HR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.67-1.90) (p=0.71). The 18-month PFS difference was 1.1%. These differences exceed the non-inferiority margin. The immediate and delayed side effects were not different in the 2 arms.

CONCLUSIONS: Hypofractionated radiotherapy offers lesser burden on the patients, their families and the treating departments, with nearly comparable results to conventional fractionation, though not fulfilling the non-inferiority assumption.

Zaghloul, M. S., A. Nouh, M. Nazmy, S. Ramzy, A. S. Zaghloul, M. A. Sedira, and E. Khalil, "Long-term results of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder: a report on 192 patients.", Urologic oncology, vol. 24, issue 1, pp. 13-20, 2006 Jan-Feb. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical presentation and treatment end results of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, and to determine the significant independent prognostic factors that determine this outcome.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 3659 patients who underwent cystectomy, 192 had adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, with a relative frequency of 5.2%. Most of these patients (68.2%) presented in late stages (P3 + P4). The incidence of pelvic lymph nodes involvement was 25.5%. Mucinous adenocarcinoma was reported in 28 patients (14.6%), papillary in 20 (10.4%), signet ring in 14 (7.3%), while not otherwise specified was reported in 130 (67.7%) in the cystectomy specimens.

RESULTS: Mucinous and signet-ring histologic subtypes showed increased frequency of high stages and high grades, and more nodal involvement than the papillary and not otherwise specified. All patients were treated with radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with (69 patients) or without (123) postoperative radiotherapy. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 46 +/- 4% for all patients with adenocarcinoma. Postoperative radiotherapy improved the disease-free survival significantly. The 5-year disease-free survival rate for the postoperative radiotherapy group was 61 +/- 6% compared to 37 +/- 5% for the cystectomy alone group (P = 0.002). Local control rate was significantly improved from 53 +/- 7% for cystectomy alone to 96 +/- 3% for postoperative radiotherapy patients (P = 0.00001). Distant metastases were the leading cause of death in the postoperative radiotherapy group.

CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations provided by retrospective studies, it could be concluded that postoperative radiotherapy improved the disease-free survival through its effect on local control. The disease-free survival independent prognostic variables were tumor stage, postoperative radiotherapy, nodal involvement, and adenocarcinoma subclassification. These factors, except the adeno-subclassification, were also found to determine the local control rate. On the other hand, the independent prognostic factors for distant metastasis were lymph nodal involvement, stage, and adeno-subclassification.

Zaghloul, M. S., A. Nouh, M. Nazmy, S. Ramzy, A. S. Zaghloul, M. A. Sedira, and E. Khalil, "Long-term results of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder: a report on 192 patients", Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. 24, no. 1: Elsevier, pp. 13–20, 2006. Abstract
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saied zaghloul, H., and hala el Gindy, "Study of the relation between blood lead level, hypertension and ischemic heart diseases.", The Medical Journal of Cairo Univerisity, 1998.
Zaghloul, A. S., A. A. Elbary, A. Fergany, H. A. Kassem, and W. M. Fadlalla, "Robotic Radical Prostatectomy at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute: Overcoming the Challenges in the Initial Case Series", J Med Sci [Internet], vol. Jun. 19];9(B), pp. 367-72. , 2021.
Zaghloul, M. A. S., M. Celli, N. M. Salem, S. M. Elsheikh, and L. Ulivi, "High pressure synthesis and in situ Raman spectroscopy of H2 and HD clathrate hydrates", J. Chem. Phys., vol. 137, issue 16, pp. 164320-1-8, 2012.
Zaghloul, M. S., "Does Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer differ from urothelial cancer? Proof from the laboratory and clinic.", Cancer genetics and cytogenetics, vol. 180, issue 2, pp. 160-2, 2008 Jan 15. Abstract
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Zaghloul, M. A. S., N. M. Salem, and S. M. E. - Sheikh, A Study of the Raman Spectrum of Simple Clathrate Hydrates of Hydrogen, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractmohamed_ashraf_saad_zaghloul.pdf

Clathrate hydrates are molecular structures in which water molecules form
molecular cages that host other species of molecules. These structures are formed
as a result of phase transition under specific temperatures and pressures. The shape
and stability of the structure is dependent on the guest molecules. Clathrate
hydrates are immensely present in nature, and are expected to appear in various
applications like in transport, and storage of other molecules. They are also
thought of as the future worldwide energy reservoir. Raman spectroscopy offers an
effective way to understand the dynamics of such crucial structures. Raman
spectroscopic measurements were obtained from samples of simple clathrate
hydrates of hydrogen and hydrogen deuteride, using a novel cell that allowed us to
witness the formation of clathrates, and perform in situ measurements upon them.
Understanding the Raman spectrum will help unravel new and interesting traits of
enclathrated molecules, as it reveals their quantum dynamics inside molecular
cages. The cluttered region of the Raman spectrum assigned to the vibrational
states with different occupancies have been analyzed, and a new interpretation of
this region of the spectrum is proposed in this work, based on calculations of
average occupancy per large cage for samples formed at different synthesis
pressures, and subjected to heating and quenching cycles.

Zaghloul, M. S., H. M. Khaled, M. Lotayef, H. William, M. Nazmy, and G. Attia, "A controlled prospective randomized trial of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy following radical cystectomy in advanced high risk bladder cancer. ", ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology) in USA, ASCO Meeting Abstracts Jun 21,2007: 5082. J Clin Oncol 25:18S, 2007 (June 20 Supplement). , June 2007.
saied zaghloul, H., "Fatalities due to falling from height.", The Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences and Applied Toxicology, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 163-179, 2003.
Zaghloul, S. S., S. M. Azzam, H. H. Eid, H. A. Hassan, and A. A. Sleem, "Chemical and Biological Investigation of Essential Oil of Oroxylum indicum L. Leaves Cultivated in Egypt.", International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research (igppr), vol. 7, issue , no. 3, pp. 570–575, 2015. Abstractchemical_and_biological_investigation_of_essential_oil_of_oroxylum.pdf

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Zaghloul, M. S., "The Optimal Dose of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.", Pediatric blood & cancer, vol. 63, issue 5, pp. 948, 2016 May. Abstract
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Zaghloul, M. S., M. El Baradie, M. El Baradie, S. Abdel-Fatah, A. Taher, and M. Shalaan, "Prognostic index for primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.", The Gulf journal of oncology, issue 2, pp. 47-54, 2007. AbstractWebsite

AIM: To determine the working independent prognostic factors and the prognostic index of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. The effect of adding postoperative radiotherapy to radical cystectomy on this prognostic index was also investigated.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen patients having adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder were treated with radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with (82 patients) or without (134) postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) was given to the whole pelvis in a dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions over 5 weeks, and started 4-10 weeks after surgery.

RESULTS: The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 44 +/- 4% for the whole group. Postoperative radiotherapy improved the disease-free survival significantly from 33 +/- 6% for cystectomy alone Introduction to 58 +/- 6% for PORT patients (P = 0.002). The independent prognostic factors for DFS were the pathological stage, histological subtypes, nodal involvement and the addition of postoperative radiotherapy. The stratification of patients using prognostic indices according to the pathological findings produces identifiable prognostic groups. Postoperative radiotherapy improved the DFS significantly in the intermediate and high risk indices (p = 0.0004 and 0.0002 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: The identified prognostic indices with their prognostic group could be used not only as a predictor of disease-free survival but also as a good predictor for the need to add adjuvant therapy in adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

Zaghloul, M. S., S. A. El-Badawi, and H. Abd Elbaky, "Professor Hassan K. Awwad; The Father of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology in Egypt and the Arab World, His Good Deeds Last Forever and Inspire us for the Future.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 1-2, 2007 Mar. Abstract

Our most respected professor Hassan K. Awwad passed away on January 5th, 2007, at the age of 81. He was considered as the father of radiotherapy in Egypt. He was always named "The Professor", as he was the founder of the radiotherapy departments at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University&Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University. He also shared in developing NEMROCK (Kasr El Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine), the place where he graduated and worked during his early years of experience. He, together with professor Reda Hamza, dean of NCI, Cairo at that time, had initiated 7 oncology centers all over Egypt, from Aswan in the South to Dammietta and Damanhour in the North. These 7 centers were developed by the Ministry of Health. Prof. Awwad and Prof. Hamza were responsible for facility providing and plans. They chose all the necessary equipment, tools and personnel. These centers were in action since 1988 and are currently taking care of the oncology patients in a wide area of the country. Prof. Awwad graduated from the Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, in 1949. He had his Medical Doctorate (MD) in Radiotherapy from Alexandria University in 1956. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) awarded him fellowships in France (Institute Gustave Rossy) to gain experience in brachytherapy in 1956 and 1971, England 1956, 1959. Another fellowship was awarded to Prof Awwad in Harvard University (Peter Bent Brigham Hospital) in radiobiology and radiotherapy during the years 1964-1965. He personally and with other members of the National Cancer Institute gave much of their efforts and time to teach, train and guide young radiotherapists, biologists, physicists and radiation therapists through direct on-hand teaching and training as well as holding training courses for radiation oncologists, physicists and technologists. He insisted to ensure its regularity 4 times yearly. These courses trained a lot of personnel from all over Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Palastine, Iraq, Uganda, Nigeria and other countries. He himself had many teaching missions in different Arab countries (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and others) for the sake of groups of his students that could not come to Egypt. He served as the head of the Department of Radiation Oncology for more than 15 years (1970-1985), full time Professor in Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology (1985-2007), Professor of Radiotherapy, Alexandria University (1954-1970), Chief of the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Research Institute, University of Alexandria (1963-1964), Chief of the Radiotherapy Unit in the Heliopolis Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, 1985-2007. He was co-founder of the Egyptian Society of Cancer and acted as vice present and head of the scientific committee of the society. He shared the activities of many Egyptian, Arab and international scientific societies. His activities in these societies were great. Prof. Awwad had direct contact with his students that never ended, even after some of them left to work in other places in USA, Canada, Europe or Arab Countries. His students' specialty varied between radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, tumor biology, radiation oncology, medical oncology and surgical oncology. Prof. Awwad had more than 100 published articles on hypoxia and hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, biology of growth of human tumors, biology and clinical models of the time factor in external beam radiotherapy, biology and mathematical models of time factor in brachytherapy, radioactive dynamic cancer studies of plasma protein metabolism, radioactive dynamic factor studies of blood disorders and lymphoma, radiation damage of DNA and normal tissues,head and neck cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer and development and optimization of clinical radiotherapy. He had continuous cooperation and collaboration with many of the great scientists and clinicians in Holland, France, United Kingdom, USA and Japan. He continued to exchange ideas with these great people all through his life and till the last moments of his extended fruitful life. Prof. Awwad wrote many books for a wide diversity of readers, for the lay people in Arabic, for radiographers, young oncologist, and the highly experienced radiation oncologists and radiobiologists. His book "Radiation Oncology: Radiobiological and Physiobiological Perspectives" was a real translation of radiobiology language to the oncologist and at the same time translation of the oncologist language to the biologist. This book ended with establishing a common language for both teams. In addition, it led other books in these specialties to communicate with the same language. The good news is that Prof. Awwad had completed the second edition of this book just before passing away. This second edition is really a totally new book coping with the advancement of knowledge reached till the end of 2006. We are sure that this book with all other good deeds performed by Prof. Awwad, will keep his memory in Egypt as well as elsewhere in the whole world.

Zaghloul, H., and A. Abbas, "The Role of Baseline Inflammatory Response Biomarkers in Predicting the Prognosis in No Metastatic Gastric Cancer Patients Treated with Preoperative Chemoradiation", Zaghloul and Abbas, J Cancer Sci, vol. 9, issue 9, 2017. Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic potential of inflammatory response biomarkers neutrophil to lymphocyte
ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte to
monocyte ratio (LMR) in predicting the outcome of gastric cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation
prior to surgical resection.
Methods: Patients with localized, gastric adenocarcinoma received two cycles of induction chemotherapy of
fluorouracil, docetaxel, and cisplatin (TPF) followed by 45 Gy of radiation and concurrent fluorouracil plus docetaxel
then surgery for non-metastatic patients. Baseline NLR, dNLR, PLR and LMR calculated from peripheral blood cell
count taken at pre-operation were compared with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic value of baseline
NLR, dNLR, PLR and LMR for disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Log rank
and Cox regression.
Results: The final analysis included 80 patient who had resection after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The
receiver operating curve (ROC) cut off values of baseline NLR, dNLR, LMR and PLR in predicting outcome were
2.4, 1.7, 5.1 and 130 respectively. Elevated NLR, dNLR, PLR, LMR, age of patients (≥ 50 years), stage III, grade 3
tumors, R1 resection and partial response to preoperative chemoradiation course with >10% residual tumor were
significantly associated with decreased OS, and DFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that elevated NLR and dNLR
were independent factors for worse OS and DFS hazard ratio (HR) 2.04 (95% CI=2.41-8.24), 6.63 (95% CI, 1.61-
10.32) and DSF with (HR) 1.84 (95% CI=3.27-7.36), 4.63 (95% CI=3.61-12.12) respectively.
Conclusion: The baseline NLR, dNLR, LMR and PLR showed a significant association with different
clinicopathological prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Additionally,
NLR, dNLR may be considered as potential independent prognostic indicators of clinical outcomes in this group of
patients.

Zaghloul, A. M., F. B. Ananian, and M. S. Siha, "The impact of work and family stress on workers’ health", Th10th international conference on Occupational Stress and Health, USA, CA, 16 May, 2013.
Zaghloul, M. S., and M. K. Bishr, "Radiation Oncology in Egypt: A Model for Africa.", International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, vol. 100, issue 3, pp. 539-544, 2018 Mar 01. Abstract
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Zaghloul, M. S., "Adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiotherapy for bladder cancer: revisited.", Future oncology (London, England), vol. 6, issue 7, pp. 1177-91, 2010 Jul. Abstract

To date, radical cystectomy has continued to be the treatment of choice for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. It is associated with a 5-year disease-free survival rate ranging from 27-55%. This outcome is significantly worse when reporting upon locally advanced cases. The independent prognostic factors include: tumor stage, grade, pelvic nodal involvement and some other additional factors. Beside the higher reported incidence of distant metastasis, local recurrence either alone or combined with systemic relapse has been shown to be experienced by 23-50% of locally advanced patients - a rate that was much more frequent than previously believed. Nonrandomized trials of preoperative radiotherapy have suggested improved survival rates. However, only one out of the six randomized preoperative trials in the literature published in English has proved to be significant. On the other hand, the only randomized trial and most retrospective studies dealing with postoperative radiotherapy revealed a significant increase in disease-free survival. Late complications of post operative radiotherapy, contrary to former belief, were acceptable and generally depended upon the volume of the irradiated normal tissues and the radiotherapy techniques used. Most of these adjuvant or neoadjuvant reports were performed in the 1970s and 1980s using conventional radiation techniques. Modern radiotherapy, delivering higher doses to the tumor while saving a significant amount of the surrounding normal structure, has not been rigorously tested. However, these techniques have already succeeded in improving treatment end results in other pelvic tumors.

Zaghloul, M. S., A. Nouh, M. Moneer, M. El-Baradie, M. Nazmy, and A. Younis, "Time-trend in epidemiological and pathological features of schistosoma-associated bladder cancer.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 168-74, 2008 Jun. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the different emerging trends in the features of bladder cancer along 17 years.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: During a 17-year period (1988- 2004), 5071 epithelial bladder cancer patients underwent radical cystectomy at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Egypt. The time was divided into 3 time periods to detect changes of the clinicopathologic features of patients in these periods.

RESULTS: There was a significant progressive increase in the patients' age with time and decrease in squamous/transitional ratio, with transient increase in male predominance during the 2nd time period. Moreover, there was a decrease in the well differentiated (grade 1) tumor (p<0.001) and an increase in the frequency of pelvic nodal involvement (p<0.001). Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients were significantly older than those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (p<0.001). Progressive increase of age with time was evident in TCC, SCC and adenocarcinoma patients. Male to female ratio changed significantly in TCC and SCC.

CONCLUSION: Time trend was confirmed with relative decrease in frequency of SCC and increase of TCC with changes in their pathological details. The differences between their characteristics and that of the Western countries are decreasing.

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