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Xueming Ren, S. Cao, M. Akami, A. Mansour, Y. Yang, N. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Zhang, X. Qi, P. Xu, et al., "Gut symbiotic bacteria are involved in nitrogen recycling in the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.", BMC biology, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 201, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient element for herbivorous insects. To alleviate nitrogen limitation, insects have evolved various symbiotically mediated strategies that enable them to colonize nitrogen-poor habitats or exploit nitrogen-poor diets. In frugivorous tephritid larvae developing in fruit pulp under nitrogen stress, it remains largely unknown how nitrogen is obtained and larval development is completed.

RESULTS: In this study, we used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics sequencing technologies as well as in vitro verification tests to uncover the mechanism underlying the nitrogen exploitation in the larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. Our results showed that nitrogenous waste recycling (NWR) could be successfully driven by symbiotic bacteria, including Enterobacterales, Lactobacillales, Orbales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales, and Bacteroidales. In this process, urea hydrolysis in the larval gut was mainly mediated by Morganella morganii and Klebsiella oxytoca. In addition, core bacteria mediated essential amino acid (arginine excluded) biosynthesis by ammonium assimilation and transamination.

CONCLUSIONS: Symbiotic bacteria contribute to nitrogen transformation in the larvae of B. dorsalis in fruit pulp. Our findings suggest that the pattern of NWR is more likely to be applied by B. dorsalis, and M. morganii, K. oxytoca, and other urease-positive strains play vital roles in hydrolysing nitrogenous waste and providing metabolizable nitrogen for B. dorsalis.

Xue, R., A. Elbendary, L. Huang, and D. M. Elston, "Pruritic annular papules and plaques on the face and back.", Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 76, issue 1, pp. e3-e4, 2017 Jan.
Xue, R., W. Su, X. Pei, L. Huang, A. Elbendary, and Z. Chen, "Multiple verruciform xanthomas following bone marrow transplant.", Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology, vol. 82, issue 2, pp. 208-9, 2016.
Xue, R., W. Su, X. Pei, L. Huang, A. Elbendary, and Z. Chen, "Multiple verruciform xanthomas following bone marrow transplant.", Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology, vol. 82, issue 2, pp. 208-9, 2016 Mar-Apr.
Xue, R., W. Su, X. Pei, L. Huang, A. Elbendary, and Z. Chen, "Multiple verruciform xanthomas following bone marrow transplant.", Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology, vol. 82, issue 2, pp. 208-9, 2016 Mar-Apr.
Xue, R., A. Elbendary, M. Valdebran, S. Chaudhari, and D. Elston, "Pathologic features of anogenital precancerous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (squamous cell carcinoma in situ).", Journal of cutaneous pathology, vol. 43, issue 9, pp. 735-9, 2016 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Precancerous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the current consensus terminology for anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS), often presents with distinctive histopathologic findings that may be a function of anatomic site or associated human papillomavirus infection.

METHODS: Fifty-six specimens of anogenital HSIL were compared with an equal number of specimens of SCCIS from non-anogenital sites in regard to the presence of parakeratosis, flag sign in the stratum corneum, compact stratum corneum, hypergranulosis, koilocytes, small blue cells, clonal populations of keratinocytes, pagetoid scatter of atypical keratinocytes, clear cell change, glassy red cytoplasm, pigmentation, nuclear/cytoplasmic(N/C) ratio >2/1, nuclear hyperchromasia, pleomorphic nuclei, mitotic figures, abnormal mitotic figures, dyskeratotic keratinocytes, involvement of skin appendages, acantholysis and amyloid deposition.

RESULTS: Hypergranulosis, koilocytes, small blue cells, pigmentation, nuclear hyperchromasia, dyskeratotic keratinocytes and amyloid deposition were more frequently noted in anogenital HSIL. Parakeratosis, clear cell change, pleomorphic nuclei, skin appendages involvement and acantholysis were strongly associated with non-anogenital location. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the remaining features.

CONCLUSION: The strongest predicators of an anogenital location included hypergranulosis, koilocytes, small blue cells and nuclear hyperchromasia. Pigmentation and amyloid deposition were also strongly associated with an anogenital location.

Xuan, W., L. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Hu, G. Szewczyk, Y. Y. Huang, A. El-Hussein, J. C. Bommer, M. L. Nelson, T. Sarna, et al., "Amphiphilic tetracationic porphyrins are exceptionally active antimicrobial photosensitizers: in vitro and in vivo studies with the free-base and Pd-chelate.", Journal of Biophotonics, 2019.
Xu, Y. F., M. Li, X. Luo, Y. F. Wang, Q. F. Yu, and R. H. E. Hassaniem, "Performance analysis of ice storage air conditioning system driven by distributed photovoltaic energy", Bulgarian Chemical Communications, vol. 48, issue Special Issue E, pp. 165 - 172, 2016. performance_analysis_of_ice_storage_air_conditioning_system_driven_by_distributed.pdf
Xu, Z., A. Y. Fouda, T. Lemtalsi, E. shosha, M. Rojas, F. Liu, C. Patel, W. R. Caldwell, S. P. Narayanan, and R. B. Caldwell, "Retinal Neuroprotection From Optic Nerve Trauma by Deletion of Arginase 2.", Frontiers in neuroscience, vol. 12, pp. 970, 2018. Abstract

Our previous studies have implicated expression of the mitochondrial isoform of the arginase enzyme arginase 2 (A2) in neurovascular injury during ischemic retinopathies. The aim of this study was to characterize the specific involvement of A2 in retinal injury following optic nerve crush (ONC). To accomplish this, wild-type (WT) or A2 knockout (A2) mice were subjected to ONC injury. The contralateral eye served as sham control. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate mRNA and protein expression. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival was assessed in retinal whole mounts. Axonal sprouting was determined by anterograde transport of Cholera Toxin B (CTB). These analyses showed increased A2 expression following ONC. Numbers of NeuN-positive neurons as well as Brn3a- and RBPMS-positive RGC were decreased in the WT retinas at 14 days after ONC as compared to the sham controls. This ONC-induced neuronal loss was diminished in the A2 retinas. Similarly, axonal degeneration was ameliorated by A2 deletion whereas axon sprouting was enhanced. Significant retinal thinning was also seen in WT retinas at 21 days after ONC, and this was blocked in A2 mice. Cell death studies showed an increase in TUNEL positive cells in the RGC layer at 5 days after ONC in the WT retinas, and this was attenuated by A2 deletion. ONC increased glial cell activation in WT retinas, and this was significantly reduced by A2 deletion. Western blotting showed a marked increase in the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling in A2 retinas vs. WT after ONC. This was associated with increases in the axonal regeneration marker GAP-43 in A2 retinas. Furthermore, A2 retinas showed decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lower interleukin (IL-) 1β/IL-18 levels as compared to WT retinas subjected to ONC. Collectively, our results show that deletion of A2 limits ONC-induced neurodegeneration and glial activation, and enhances axonal sprouting by a mechanism involving increases in BDNF and decreases in retinal inflammation. These data demonstrate that A2 plays an important role in ONC-induced retinal damage. Blockade of A2 activity may offer a therapeutic strategy for preventing vision loss induced by traumatic retinal injury.

Xu, J., T. Chen, S. Elkholy, M. Xu, Y. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, W. Qin, M. Cai, and P. Zhou, "Gastric Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (G-POEM) as a Treatment for Refractory Gastroparesis: Long-Term Outcomes.", Canadian journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 2018, pp. 6409698, 2018. Abstract

Background and Aims: Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) has been regarded as a novel and minimally invasive therapy for refractory gastroparesis. This study reports the long-term outcomes and possible predictive factors for successful outcomes after G-POEM in an Asian population.

Methods: This is a retrospective single-centre study of 16 patients who underwent G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis from August 2016 to October 2017. This study included 11 males and 5 females; in addition, 13 patients had postsurgical gastroparesis, and 3 patients had diabetes. The patients included had severe and refractory gastroparesis, as indicated by a Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) score ≥20, and evidence of a delay on gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). The primary outcome parameter was an assessment of the long-term clinical efficacy of the procedure. The secondary outcome parameter was the detection of possible predictive factors for success and the determination of cut-off values for such predictors.

Results: Technical success was achieved in 100% of the patients, with a mean procedure time of 45.25±12.96 min. The long-term clinical response was assessed in all patients during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. Clinical success was achieved in 13 (81.25%) patients. There was a significant reduction in the GCSI scores and GES values after the procedure compared to the baseline values, with values of <0.0001 and 0.012, respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that the GCSI and GES had significant associations with the future clinical outcomes of the patients, but this finding was not confirmed in multivariate analysis. A GCSI cut-off score of ≤30 had a high sensitivity and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% for predicting a successful procedure. GES (half emptying time ≤221.6 min and 2-hour retention ≤78.6%) had a high specificity and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.

Conclusions: G-POEM is a safe and effective treatment option with a long-term efficacy of 81.6%. GCSI and GES could serve as good predictive measures.

Xu, Y., R. Rothe, D. Voigt, A. Sayed, C. Huang, S. Hauser, P. - W. Lee, M. Cui, J. P. Sáenz, and A. R. Boccaccini, "A self-assembled dynamic extracellular matrix-like hydrogel system with multi-scale structures for cell bioengineering applications", Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 162: Elsevier, pp. 211-225, 2023. Abstract
Xu, W., H. A. Omar, W. Zhuang, and X.Shen, "Delay Analysis of In-Vehicle Internet Access Via On-Road WiFi Access Points", IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 2736-2746, 2017.
Xu, S., A. C. Sedgwick, S. A. Elfeky, W. Chen, A. S. Jones, G. T. Williams, A. T. A. Jenkins, S. D. Bull, J. S. Fossey, and T. D. James, "A boronic acid-based fluorescent hydrogel for monosaccharide detection", Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 112-116, 2020. Abstract
Xu, Gang Zhu, M. C. B. S. M. X. Z. L. X. J. L. G. P., "Settlement scaling law reveals population-land tensions in 7000+ African urban agglomerations", Habitat International, vol. 142, pp. 102954, 2023. 1-s2.0-s019739752300214x-main.pdf
Xu, Z., J. H. Choi, D. L. Dai, J. Luo, R. J. Ladak, Q. Li, Y. Wang, C. Zhang, S. Wiebe, A. C. H. Liu, et al., "SARS-CoV-2 impairs interferon production via NSP2-induced repression of mRNA translation", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 119, no. 32, pp. e2204539119, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Viruses evade the innate immune response by suppressing the production or activity of cytokines such as type I interferons (IFNs). Here we report the discovery of a mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus coopts an intrinsic cellular machinery to suppress the production of the key immunostimulatory cytokine IFN-β. We reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 encoded nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) directly interacts with the cellular GIGYF2 protein. This interaction enhances the binding of GIGYF2 to the mRNA cap-binding protein 4EHP, thereby repressing the translation of the

Xu, S., A. C. Sedgwick, S. A. Elfeky, W. Chen, A. S. Jones, G. T. Williams, T. A. A. Jenkins, S. D. Bull, J. S. Fossey, and T. D. James, "A boronic acid-based fluorescence hydrogel for monosaccharide detection", ChemRxiv, 2018. Abstract
Xu, X., Q. Chen, A. Lederer, C. Bernau, G. Lai, D. Kaisarly, and K. H. Kunzelmann, "Shear bond strength of two adhesives to bovine dentin contaminated with various astringents.", Am J Dent, vol. 28, issue 4, pp. 229-34, 2015.
Xu, D., and D. C. Neckers, "Aggregation of rose bengal molecules in solution", Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 40, issue 2-3: Elsevier, pp. 361-370, 1987. Abstract
Xu, S., M. Elsayed, G. A. Ismail, C. Li, S. Wang, and A. E. - F. Abomohra, "Evaluation of bioethanol and biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus grown in biodiesel waste glycerol: A sequential integrated route for enhanced energy recovery", Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 197, issue 1 October 2019, pp. 111907, 2019.
Xu, H. V., X. T. Zheng, B. Y. L. Mok, S. A. Ibrahim, Y. Yong, and Y. N. Tan, "Molecular Design of Bioinspired Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications: Synthesis, Self-Assembly and Functional Properties", Journal of Molecular and Engineering Materials, vol. 4(1), pp. 1640003. doi: 10.1142/S2251237316400037, 2016.
XU, Y., M. Li, X. Luo, X. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Li, and H. RHE, "Experimental investigation of solar photovoltaic operated ice thermal storage air-conditioning system", International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 86 , pp. 258-272, 2018.
Xu, S., A. C. Sedgwick, S. A. Elfeky, W. Chen, A. S. Jones, G. T. Williams, A. T. A. Jenkins, S. D. Bull, J. S. Fossey, and T. D. James, "A boronic acid-based fluorescent hydrogel for monosaccharide detection", Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 112-116, 2020. Abstract
Xiong, G., L. Li, A. W. Mohamed, X. Yuan, and J. Zhang, A new method for parameter extraction of solar photovoltaic models using gaining–sharing knowledge based algorithm, , vol. 7, pp. 3286 - 3301, 2021. AbstractWebsite

For the solar photovoltaic (PV) system to operate efficiently, it is necessary to effectively establish an equivalent model of PV cell and extract the relevant unknown model parameters accurately. This paper introduces a new metaheuristic algorithm, i.e., gaining-sharing knowledge based algorithm (GSK) to solve the solar PV model parameter extraction problem. This algorithm simulates the process of knowledge acquisition and sharing in the human life cycle and is with strong competitiveness in solving optimization problems. It includes two significant phases. The first phase is the beginner–intermediate or junior acquisition and sharing stage, and the second phase is the intermediate–expert or senior acquisition and sharing stage. In order to verify the effectiveness of GSK, it is applied to five PV models including the single diode model, double diode model, and three PV modules. The influence of population size on the algorithm performance is empirically investigated. Besides, it is further compared with some other excellent metaheuristic algorithms including basic algorithms and advanced algorithms. Among the five PV models, the root mean square error values between the measured data and the calculated data of GSK are 9.8602E−04 ± 2.18E−17, 9.8280E−04 ± 8.72E−07, 2.4251E−03 ± 1.04E−09, 1.7298E−03 ± 6.25E−18, and 1.6601E−02 ± 1.44E−16, respectively. The results show that GSK has overall better robustness, convergence, and accuracy.

Xiong, X., S. Zhai, Z. Yao, T. Tazawa, H. -qing Zhao, Y. Li, M. R. Meselhy, N. Nakamura, T. Akao, and M. Hattori, "和漢医薬学雑誌= Journal of traditional medicines 20 (5), 201-207, 2003-10-20", Prog. Neurobiol, vol. 56, pp. 211-235, 1998. Abstract