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Zaghloul, M. S., J. P. Christodouleas, A. Smith, A. Abdallah, H. William, H. M. Khaled, W. - T. Hwang, and B. C. Baumann, "Adjuvant Sandwich Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy vs Adjuvant Chemotherapy Alone for Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer After Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Phase 2 Trial.", JAMA surgery, vol. 153, issue 1, pp. e174591, 2018 Jan 17. Abstract

Importance: Locoregional failure for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (LABC) after radical cystectomy (RC) is common even with chemotherapy and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) can decrease locoregional failure but has not been studied in the chemotherapy era.

Objective: To investigate if adjuvant sequential RT plus chemotherapy can improve locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) compared with adjuvant chemotherapy alone.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized phase 3 trial was opened to compare adjuvant RT vs sequential chemotherapy plus RT after RC for LABC, but a third arm was added later as a randomized phase 2 trial to compare chemotherapy plus RT vs adjuvant chemotherapy alone, an emerging standard. The intent-to-treat phase 2 trial reported herein enrolled patients from December 2002 to July 2008. Data were analyzed from August 3, 2015, to January 6, 2016. Routine follow-up and surveillance pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans every 6 months during the first 2 years were performed. The setting was an academic center. Patients with bladder cancer 70 years or younger having 1 or more risk factors (≥pT3b, grade 3, or positive nodes) with negative margins after radical cystectomy plus pelvic lymph node dissection were eligible. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, no evidence of distant metastases on CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis or on chest imaging, and adequate renal, hepatic, and hematologic function. Ninety-one percent (109 of 120) had ≥ pT3 disease.

Interventions: Chemotherapy plus RT included 2 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15) and cisplatin (70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 2) before and after RT to 4500 cGy in 150 cGy twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks using 3-dimensional conformal techniques. Chemotherapy alone included 4 cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin.

Main Outcome and Measure: Locoregional recurrence-free survival.

Results: The chemotherapy plus RT arm accrued 75 patients, and the chemotherapy-alone arm accrued 45 patients, with a weighted randomization to speed accrual. Fifty-three percent (64 of 120) had urothelial carcinoma, and 46.7% (56 of 120) had squamous cell carcinoma or other. The arms were balanced except for age (median, 52 vs 55 years; P = .04) and tumor size (mean, 4.9 vs 5.8 cm; P < .01), both favoring chemotherapy plus RT. Two-year outcomes and overall adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for chemotherapy plus RT vs chemotherapy alone were 96% vs 69% (HR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.39; P < .01) for LRFS, 68% vs 56% (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.27-1.06; P = .07) for disease-free survival, and 71% vs 60% (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.33-1.11; P = .11) for overall survival (OS). Five patients (7%) had RT-associated late grade 3 gastrointestinal tract adverse effects in the chemotherapy plus RT arm.

Conclusions and Relevance: Adjuvant chemotherapy plus RT was reasonably well tolerated and was associated with significant improvements in LRFS and marginal improvements in disease-free survival vs chemotherapy alone in LABC. The addition of adjuvant RT should be considered for LABC. This regimen warrants further study in phase 3 trials.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01734798.

Samir, H., P. Nyametease, M. Elbadawy, K. Nagaoka, K. Sasaki, and G. Watanabe, "Administration of melatonin improves testicular blood flow, circulating hormones, and semen quality in Shiba goats", Theriogenology, vol. 146, pp. 111-119., 2020.
Kamel Mohamed, O. H., I. M. Wahba, S. Watnick, S. B. Earle, W. M. Bennett, J. W. Ayres, and M. Y. Munar, "Administration of tobramycin in the beginning of the hemodialysis session: A novel intradialytic dosing regimen", Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 2, issue 4, pp. 694 - 699, 2007. AbstractWebsite

Background: Aminoglycoside antibiotic efficacy is related to peak concentration (Cmax) and postantibiotic effect, whereas toxicity is directly related to body exposure as measured by area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC). On the basis of pharmacokinetic simulation models, tobramycin administration during the first 30 min of high-flux hemodialysis achieves similar Cmax but significantly lower AUC and prehemodialysis concentrations compared with conventional dosing in the last 30 min of hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: To test this hypothesis, a pilot study in which five adult chronic hemodialysis patients who were undergoing high-flux dialysis received one dose of tobramycin 1.5 mg/kg intravenously during the first or last 30 min of hemodialysis was conducted. After a 1-mo washout period, patients crossed over to the other treatment schedule. Tobramycin serum concentrations were measured to determine Cmax, interdialytic and intradialytic elimination rate constants and half-lives, AUC, and clearance. Results: Tobramycin administration during the first and last 30 min of hemodialysis resulted in similar Cmax, of 5.63 ± 0.49 and 5.83 ± 0.67 mg/L (P > 0.05) but significantly lower prehemodialysis concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.09 and 2.44 ± 0.43 mg/L (P < 0.001) and AUC of 21.06 and 179.23 ± 25.84 mg/h per L (P < 0.001), respectively. Conc lusions: Tobramycin administration during the first 30 min of hemodialysis results in similar Cmax, but lower AUC to conventional dosing, which may translate into comparable efficacy but lower toxicity. Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Daghestani, M., M. Daghestani, M. Daghistani, A. Eldali, Z. K. Hassan, M. H. Elamin, and A. Warsy, "ADRB3 polymorphism rs4994 (Trp64Arg) associates significantly with bodyweight elevation and dyslipidaemias in Saudis but not rs1801253 (Arg389Gly) polymorphism in ARDB1.", Lipids in health and disease, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 58, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In some populations, obesity and body weight related disorders show a correlation with polymorphisms in three subtypes of beta-adrenoceptor (β1, β2, and β3) [ADRB1, ADRB2 and ADRB3] genes. We scanned for the polymorphism of Arg389Gly (rs1801253) in ADRB1 and Trp64Arg (rs4994) in ADRB3 genes in Saudi population to determine association, if any, of these polymorphisms with obesity and related disorders.

METHODS: We studied 329 non-related adults (33.1% men and 66.9% women), aged 18-36 years. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and Body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio were calculated; leptin, insulin, lipidogram, and glucose concentrations were determined. ADRB1 and ADRB3 polymorphisms (Arg389Gly and Trp64Arg, respectively) were screened by DNA sequencing. The subjects were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m), overweight (BMI ≥25.1-29.9 kg/m) subjects, and obese (≥30 kg/m).

RESULTS: In the age-matched groups of the normal weight, overweight and obese male and female subjects, all anthropometric parameters were found to be significantly higher, and in the obese group, all biochemical parameters were significantly elevated compared to the normal weight controls. The allelic frequency of Gly389 ADRB1 did not differ amongst the three groups, whereas the frequency of Arg64 of ADRB3 gene was significantly higher in the overweight and obese subjects, compared with the normal weight subjects. In addition, subjects carrying Arg64 allele regardless of their BMI had a greater waist and hip circumference, W/H ratio, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, leptin, insulin, and glucose level compared to those with the wild-type Trp allele.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study have shown a significant association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene and the development of overweight and obesity in Saudi populations. It also has an influence on the levels of lipid, insulin, leptin, and glucose, whereas, Arg389Gly polymorphism in ADRB1 is not associated with overweight, obesity or dyslipidaemias in Saudis.

Mashaly, M., M. Webb, and W. Roush, "ADRENAL-GLAND RESPONSE OF LAYING HENS TO DIFFERENT CAGE DENSITIES", Poultry Science, vol. 61, issue 7: POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOC INC 1111 NORTH DUNLAP AVE, SAVOY, IL 61874, pp. 1506-1506, 1982. Abstract
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Sonousi, A., J. C. K. Quirke, P. Waduge, T. Janusic, M. Gysin, K. Haldimann, S. Xu, S. N. Hobbie, S. - H. Sha, J. Schacht, et al., "An Advanced Apralog with Increased in vitro and in vivo Activity toward Gram-negative Pathogens and Reduced ex vivo Cochleotoxicity", ChemMedChem, vol. 16, issue 2: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 335 - 339, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Abstract We describe the convergent synthesis of a 5-O-?-D-ribofuranosyl-based apramycin derivative (apralog) that displays significantly improved antibacterial activity over the parent apramycin against wild-type ESKAPE pathogens. In addition, the new apralog retains excellent antibacterial activity in the presence of the only aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AAC(3)-IV) acting on the parent, without incurring susceptibility to the APH(3?) mechanism that disables other 5-O-?-D-ribofuranosyl 2-deoxystreptamine type aminoglycosides by phosphorylation at the ribose 5-position. Consistent with this antibacterial activity, the new apralog has excellent 30?nM activity (IC50) for the inhibition of protein synthesis by the bacterial ribosome in a cell-free translation assay, while retaining the excellent across-the-board selectivity of the parent for inhibition of bacterial over eukaryotic ribosomes. Overall, these characteristics translate into excellent in?vivo efficacy against E. coli in a mouse thigh infection model and reduced ototoxicity vis à vis the parent in mouse cochlear explants.

Richards, M. A., R. E. Coleman, R. Hamsa, H. Khaled, M. Gad El Mawla, I. Kadry, A. Hablas, M. Ramadan, D. Allen, D. Y. Wang, et al., "Advanced breast cancer in Egyptian women: Clinical features and response to endocrine therapy. The Anglo-Egyptian Health Agreement Collaborative Study", European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 219-223, 1992. AbstractWebsite

Response to endocrine therapy and its relationship to the clinical features of the disease were studied in 84 Egyptian patients with inoperable locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-four premenopausal patients were treated by oophorectomy with or without concurrent prednisolone. Only one of 20 evaluable patients achieved an objective response. Median time to progression for premenopausal patients was 3 months. Sixty postmenopausal patients received tamoxifen 10 mg twice daily either alone or with prednisolone. Fourteen of 57 (25%) evaluable patients achieved an objective response (four complete remission, 10 partial remission). Median duration of response was 13 months and median time to progression for all postmenopausal patients was 5 months (range 1-30 months). The outcome for postmenopausal patients was similar to that found in a parallel study at Guy's Hospital, London. The response rate for premenopausal Egyptian patients was, however, disappointing and lends support to the claim that breast cancer in Egyptian women is particularly aggressive.

Wagdy Mohamed, A., H. Z. Sabry, and A. Farhat, "Advanced Differential Evolution algorithm for global numerical optimization", IEEE International Conference on Computer Applications and Industrial Electronics (ICCAIE), pp. 156–161, 2011. Abstract
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McHughen, A., T. Wijayanto, and M. Koronfel, "Advancement in new methods of genetic engineering in linseed breeding", Proceeding of the International Conference of 'Bast Fibrous Plants Today and Tomorrow' Breeding, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Beyond 21st Century. St. Petersburg-Russia, vol. 2, pp. 181–186, 1998. Abstract

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Samir, H., F. Radwan, and G. Watanabe, "Advances in applications of color Doppler ultrasonography in the andrological assessment of domestic animals: A review", Theriogenology, vol. 161, pp. 252-261., 2021.
Lazarus, J. V., H. E. Mark, Q. M. Anstee, J. P. Arab, R. L. Batterham, L. Castera, H. Cortez-Pinto, J. Crespo, K. Cusi, A. M. Dirac, et al., "Advancing the global public health agenda for NAFLD: a consensus statement.", Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 60-78, 2022. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a potentially serious liver disease that affects approximately one-quarter of the global adult population, causing a substantial burden of ill health with wide-ranging social and economic implications. It is a multisystem disease and is considered the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome. Unlike other highly prevalent conditions, NAFLD has received little attention from the global public health community. Health system and public health responses to NAFLD have been weak and fragmented, and, despite its pervasiveness, NAFLD is largely unknown outside hepatology and gastroenterology. There is only a nascent global public health movement addressing NAFLD, and the disease is absent from nearly all national and international strategies and policies for non-communicable diseases, including obesity. In this global Delphi study, a multidisciplinary group of experts developed consensus statements and recommendations, which a larger group of collaborators reviewed over three rounds until consensus was achieved. The resulting consensus statements and recommendations address a broad range of topics - from epidemiology, awareness, care and treatment to public health policies and leadership - that have general relevance for policy-makers, health-care practitioners, civil society groups, research institutions and affected populations. These recommendations should provide a strong foundation for a comprehensive public health response to NAFLD.

Abo-Madyan, Y., H. Wertz, S. Mai, and F. Wenz, "Advantage of ultrasound-based over CT-based image guidance in the treatment of mesenteric NHL: a case report", STRAHLENTHERAPIE UND ONKOLOGIE, vol. 190: URBAN & VOGEL NEUMARKTER STRASSE 43, D-81673 MUNICH, GERMANY, pp. 96–96, 2014. Abstract
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Schubert, S., H. Abdul-Khaliq, H. B. Lehmkuhl, M. Hübler, M. Y. Abd El Rahman, O. Miera, P. Ewert, Y. Weng, H. Wei, B. Krüdewagen, et al., "Advantages of C2 monitoring to avoid acute rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.", The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation, vol. 25, issue 6, pp. 619-25, 2006 Jun. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inadequate cyclosporine (CsA) blood levels are a major risk factor for acute rejection in transplant recipients. The CsA trough level (C0 level) measured just before the next dose is commonly used to adjust the oral dosage. However, the 2-hour post-CsA dose concentration (C2 level) is favored as the best single-point correlate of CsA area-under-the-curve concentration and may better reflect the immunosuppressive effect of CsA. Because an adequate C2 level has not yet been defined, this study was performed to assess the value of C2 monitoring for the prevention of acute rejection and to define target levels in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

METHODS: C2 levels were assessed in 50 pediatric heart transplant patients with oral CsA therapy and compared with trough C0 levels using full blood sampling, mass spectrometry and a blinded analysis. Acute graft rejection was detected using intramyocardial electrocardiogram (IMEG) and serial conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Rejection was confirmed or excluded by endomyocardial biopsy.

RESULTS: C2 and not C0 levels were significantly reduced in patients with acute graft rejection (ISHLT Grade > or =2). Patients with a C2 level <600 ng/ml had a significantly higher risk of developing acute rejection (100% sensitivity and 82% specificity). Patients with impaired CsA absorption were identified with C2 monitoring and switched to another calcineurin inhibitor.

CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of the C2 rather than the C0 level better reflects immunosuppressive efficiency and identifies patients at increased risk of acute rejection. A C2 level of >600 ng/ml should be the target to prevent acute rejection.

Koeck, J., Y. Abo-Madyan, S. Olms-Hofmann, F. Stieler, F. Wenz, H. Etch, and F. Lohr, "Advantages of Intensity-Modulated Therapy (IMRT) & reduction of target volume in treatment of mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL): A planning study analyzing 3D-RT vs. IMRT & Involved Field (IF) vs. Involved Node (IN)", STRAHLENTHERAPIE UND ONKOLOGIE, vol. 186: URBAN & VOGEL NEUMARKTER STRASSE 43, D-81673 MUNICH, GERMANY, pp. 76–76, 2010. Abstract
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Attia, D., K. Elsaeed, W. Elakel, T. Elbaz, A. Omar, A. Yosry, M. H. Elsayed, M. Said, M. El Raziky, M. Anees, et al., "The adverse effects of interferon-free regimens in 149 816 chronic hepatitis C treated Egyptian patients.", Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 47, issue 9, pp. 1296-1305, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Interferon-free regimens are associated with high sustained virological response; however, associated adverse effects have yet to be fully reported.

AIM: To evaluate the adverse effects associated with the different direct-acting antiviral drug (DAA) regimens in Egyptian patients.

METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included all adverse effects during and after treatment with DAA regimens of 149 816 chronic hepatitis C treated Egyptian patients. Patients received sofosbuvir (SOF)/ribavirin (RBV) (n = 21 835), SOF/simeprevir (n = 24 215) SOF/daclatasvir (DCV) (n = 58 477), SOF/DCV/RBV (n = 45 188) and paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/RBV (n = 101). The duration of treatment varied between 12 and 24 weeks. All changes in the treatment regimens, discontinuation, mortality, and serious side effects were reported.

RESULTS: Adverse effects developed in 2475 (1.7%) (mean age [54 ± 9], male gender [53%]) patients. Serious side effects developed in 68% of these patients, and SOF/RBV was the most common causing regimen (73%, P < 0.001). Anaemia and hyperbilirubinemia were the most common side effects (731/149816, 0.5% and 463/149816, 0.3%, respectively) and SOF/RBV (588/21835, 3% and 353/21835, 1.6%, respectively) showed the highest incidence in the treated patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were reported in 0.02% and 0.06% of all treated patients, respectively. Patients with liver cirrhosis showed higher incidence of serious side effects (Log rank P = 0.045) and mortality (Log rank P = 0.025) than patients without liver cirrhosis. Male gender (P = 0.012), lower haemoglobin (P < 0.001), platelets (P < 0.001) and albumin (P = 0.001), higher bilirubin (P = 0.002) and cirrhosis (P < 0.001) were factors associated with serious side effects development.

CONCLUSION: Adverse effects associated with DAAs are few, anaemia being the most common. SOF/RBV regimen showed the highest rate of side effects while SOF/DCV showed the least.

Rao, J., S. Ashraf, W. Tan, A. T. van der Ven, H. Y. Gee, D. A. Braun, K. Fehér, S. P. George, A. Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, W. - I. Choi, et al., "Advillin acts upstream of phospholipase C ϵ1 in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.", The Journal of clinical investigation, 2017 Oct 23. Abstract

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here, we identified recessive mutations in the gene encoding the actin-binding protein advillin (AVIL) in 3 unrelated families with SRNS. While all AVIL mutations resulted in a marked loss of its actin-bundling ability, truncation of AVIL also disrupted colocalization with F-actin, thereby leading to impaired actin binding and severing. Additionally, AVIL colocalized and interacted with the phospholipase enzyme PLCE1 and with the ARP2/3 actin-modulating complex. Knockdown of AVIL in human podocytes reduced actin stress fibers at the cell periphery, prevented recruitment of PLCE1 to the ARP3-rich lamellipodia, blocked EGF-induced generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by PLCE1, and attenuated the podocyte migration rate (PMR). These effects were reversed by overexpression of WT AVIL but not by overexpression of any of the 3 patient-derived AVIL mutants. The PMR was increased by overexpression of WT Avil or PLCE1, or by EGF stimulation; however, this increased PMR was ameliorated by inhibition of the ARP2/3 complex, indicating that ARP-dependent lamellipodia formation occurs downstream of AVIL and PLCE1 function. Together, these results delineate a comprehensive pathogenic axis of SRNS that integrates loss of AVIL function with alterations in the action of PLCE1, an established SRNS protein.

Wahab, M. A. M. A. E., H. M. E. Eldin, A. A. M. Hagag, and S. A. E. and Fouad, "Aerobic versus resistive training on selected hematological parameters in elderly", Bioscience Research, vol. 15, issue (2), pp. 708-715, 2018.
Khalil, E. E., and J. H. Whitelaw, "Aerodynamic and Thermal Characteristics of Kerosene Spray Flames", 16th Symposium (Int.) On Combustion, Boston, Combustion Institute, pp. 566-576, 1976.
El-Metwally, M., S. C. Alfaro, A. M. M. Wahab, O. Favez, Z. Mohamed, and B. Chatenet, "Aerosol Properties and Associated Radiative Effects Over Cairo (Egypt)", Journal of atmospheric Research, 2011. Abstract
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El-Metwally, M., S. C. Alfaro, A. M. M. Wahab, O. Favez, Z. Mohamed, and B. Chatenet, "Aerosol Properties and Associated Radiative Effects Over Cairo (Egypt)", Journal of atmospheric Research, vol. 99, pp. 236-276, 2011. AbstractCU-PDF.pdf

Cairo is one of the largest megacities in the World and the particle load of its atmosphere is known to be particularly important. In this work we aim at assessing the temporal variability of the aerosol's characteristics and the magnitude of its impacts on the transfer of solar radiation. For this we use the level 2 quality assured products obtained by inversion of the instantaneous AERONET sunphotometer measurements performed in Cairo during the Cairo Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CACHE), which lasted from the end of October 2004 to the end of March 2006. The analysis of the temporal variation of the aerosol's optical depth (AOD) and spectral dependence suggests that the aerosol is generally a mixture of at least 3 main components differing in composition and size. This is confirmed by the detailed analysis of the monthly-averaged size distributions and associated optical properties (single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter). The components of the aerosol are found to be 1) a highly absorbing background aerosol produced by daily activities (traffic, industry), 2) an additional, ‘pollution’ component produced by the burning of agricultural wastes in the Nile delta, and 3) a coarse desert dust component. In July, an enhancement of the accumulation mode is observed due to the atmospheric stability favoring its building up and possibly to secondary aerosols being produced by active photochemistry. More generally, the time variability of the aerosol's characteristics is due to the combined effects of meteorological factors and seasonal production processes. Because of the large values of the AOD achieved during the desert dust and biomass burning.

Scoll, B. J., Y. - N. Wong, B. L. Egleston, D. A. Kunkle, I. R. Saad, and R. G. Uzzo, "Age, tumor size and relative survival of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma: a surveillance, epidemiology and end results analysis.", The Journal of urology, vol. 181, issue 2, pp. 506-11, 2009 Feb. Abstract

PURPOSE: Recent data demonstrate that age may be a significant independent prognostic variable following treatment for renal cell carcinoma. We analyzed data from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database to evaluate the relative survival of patients treated surgically for localized renal cell carcinoma as related to tumor size and patient age.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in the SEER database with localized renal cell carcinoma were stratified into cohorts by age and tumor size. Three and 5-year relative survival, the ratio of observed survival in the cancer population to the expected survival of an age, sex and race matched cancer-free population, was calculated with SEER-Stat. Brown's method was used for hypothesis testing.

RESULTS: A total of 8,578 patients with surgically treated, localized renal cell carcinoma were identified. While 3 and 5-year survival for patients with small (less than 4 cm) renal cell carcinoma was no different from that of matched cancer-free controls, patients treated for large (greater than 7 cm) localized renal cell carcinoma experienced decreased 5-year relative survival across all age groups. Therefore, age was not a significant predictor of relative survival for patients with small (less than 4 cm) or large (greater than 7 cm) tumors. However, a statistically significant trend toward lower relative survival with increasing age was demonstrated in patients with medium size tumors (4 to 7 cm). Hypothesis testing confirmed these findings.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that relative survival is high in patients with tumors less than 4 cm and lower in patients with tumors larger than 7 cm regardless of age. However, increasing age may be related to worse outcomes in patients with tumors 4 to 7 cm. The cause of this observation warrants further investigation.

Santoro, M. M., F. A. Hassan, M. M. A. Wahab, R. S. Cerveny, and R. C. Balling, "An aggregated climate teleconnection index linked to historical Egyptian famines of the last thousand years", Holocene , vol. 25, issue 5, pp. 872, 2015.
W.Fouad, A.Badr, and I.Farag, "AIFSA: A New Approach for Feature Selection and Weighting", International Conference on Informatics Engineering & Information Science , vol. 252, pp. 596-609, 2011. Abstract

Feature selection is a typical search problem where each state in the search space represents a subset of features candidate for selection. Out of n features, 2n subsets can be constructed, hence, an exhaustive search of all subsets becomes infeasible when n is relatively large. Therefore, Feature selection is done by employing a heuristic search algorithm that tries to reach the optimal feature subset. Here, we propose a new wrapper feature selection and weighting algorithm called Artificial Immune Feature Selection Algorithm (AIFSA); the algorithm is based on the metaphors of the Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA). AIFSA, by itself, is not a classification algorithm, rather it utilizes well-known classifiers to evaluate and promote candidate feature subset. Experiments were performed on textual datasets like WebKB and Syskill&Webert web page ratings. Experimental results showed AIFSA competitive performance over traditional well-known filter feature selection approaches as well as some wrapper approaches existing in literature.

Aziz, R. K., J. M. Monk, K. A. Andrews, J. Nhan, V. L. Khaw, H. Wong, B. O. Palsson, and P. Charusanti, "The aldehyde dehydrogenase, AldA, is essential for L-1,2-propanediol utilization in laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli.", Microbiological research, vol. 194, pp. 47-52, 2017 Jan. Abstract

Most Escherichia coli strains are naturally unable to grow on 1,2-propanediol (PDO) as a sole carbon source. Recently, however, a K-12 descendent E. coli strain was evolved to grow on 1,2-PDO, and it was hypothesized that this evolved ability was dependent on the aldehyde dehydrogenase, AldA, which is highly conserved among members of the family Enterobacteriacea. To test this hypothesis, we first performed computational model simulation, which confirmed the essentiality of the aldA gene for 1,2-PDO utilization by the evolved PDO-degrading E. coli. Next, we deleted the aldA gene from the evolved strain, and this deletion was sufficient to abolish the evolved phenotype. On re-introducing the gene on a plasmid, the evolved phenotype was restored. These findings provide experimental evidence for the computationally predicted role of AldA in 1,2-PDO utilization, and represent a good example of E. coli robustness, demonstrated by the bacterial deployment of a generalist enzyme (here AldA) in multiple pathways to survive carbon starvation and to grow on a non-native substrate when no native carbon source is available.

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