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Wu, B., F. Tian, M. Zhang, S. Piao, H. Zeng, W. Zhu, J. Liu, A. Elnashar, and Y. Lu, "Quantifying global agricultural water appropriation with data derived from earth observations", Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 358, pp. 131891, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural water appropriation has undergone rapid changes in recent decades, but estimates of global water appropriation have not been updated with the latest data and consistent methods. Documenting these changes is challenging given the heterogeneous water use landscape and the growing influence of human activities worldwide, and this complexity cannot be well addressed with the existing methodology, which is subject to large model uncertainties. Here, a spatial analysis and aggregated method was proposed to quantify and refine estimates of global agricultural water appropriation (GAWA) in terms of consumptive freshwater use, with data derived from Earth observations, independent of estimates from hydrological models. The results show the global water appropriation at the pixel scale, in agroecological zones and in the main water-consuming countries, including global maps of rainfed and irrigated cropland evapotranspiration (ET), net water consumption due to irrigation, natural ET and renewable freshwater resources (RFWR), and indicate that agriculture remains the largest user in terms of both water consumption and withdrawals worldwide, representing 87% of global water consumption, with approximately 60% of global freshwater withdrawals devoted to irrigation circa 2015. The percentage of withdrawals devoted to irrigation has decreased in recent decades when compared to the previous estimate of 70%. The results reveal the actual global crop consumptive use (8053.6 km3/yr) of blue and green water and the total human water consumption (8442 km3/yr), which represents the part of the water cycle affected by human intervention, mainly (95.4%) by agriculture. This study reveals that high-resolution irrigated croplands are essential for accurate estimations of water use appropriation and demonstrates that earth observation-derived data can provide a new understanding of global water use landscape. The study can support decision making in sustaining food and water security, and implementing water-adapted sustainable agricultural policies.

Wu, S., H. Hamza, and M. E. Fayad, "Implementing pattern languages using stability concepts", ChiliPLoP 03', Carefree, Arizona, USA, 2003. Abstract
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Wu, Z. Q., J. Jiang, and Y. H. Peng, "Computational Intelligence on Medical Imaging with Artificial Neural Networks in", Computational intelligence in medical imaging techniques and applications, 2009. Abstract
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Wu, G. Y., and M. H. Halim, "Schistosomiasis: progress and problems", World journal of gastroenterology, vol. 6, issue 1: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, pp. 12, 2000. Abstract
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Wu, K., W. Shi, and W. Ahmed, "Grid-based approach for the segmentation of multiple rooms from unstructured indoor point clouds", Journal of Applied Remote Sening, vol. 15, issue 4, pp. 1-17, 2021.
Wu, J., M. Derikvand, D. A. R. Musa, Z. A. B. Sinnah, F. M. A. Altalbawy, S. A. AbdulAmeer, D. Toghraie, A. I. Alsabery, and I. Waleed, "Thermal performance improvement of a heat-sink using metal foams for better energy storage systems", Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 60, pp. 106663-106678, 2023. 6-journal_of_energy_storage.pdf
Wu, B., F. Tian, M. Nabil, J. Bofana, Y. Lu, A. Elnashar, A. N. Beyene, M. Zhang, H. Zeng, and W. Zhu, "Mapping global maximum irrigation extent at 30m resolution using the irrigation performances under drought stress", Global Environmental Change, vol. 79, pp. 102652, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Accurate global irrigation information is essential for managing water scarcity and improving food security. However, the mapping of high-resolution irrigation at the global scale is challenging due to the wide range of climate conditions, crop types and phenology, ambiguous and heterogeneous spectral features, and farming practices. Here, a robust method is proposed using irrigation performance under drought stress as a proxy for crop productivity stabilization and crop water consumption. For each irrigation mapping zone (IMZ), dry months in the 2017–2019 period and the driest months in the 2010–2019 period were identified over the growing season. The thresholds of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the dry months from 2017 to 2019 and the NDVI deviation (NDVIdev) in the driest month were identified to separate irrigated and rainfed cropland with samples. The final threshold from either the NDVI or the NDVIdev of the IMZ was determined with a higher overall accuracy in separating irrigated and non-irrigated areas. The results show that the global maximum irrigation extent (GMIE) at a 30-m resolution was 23.38% of global cropland in 2010–2019, with an overall accuracy of 83.6% globally and significant regional differences in irrigation proportions ranging from 1.1% in western Africa to 100% in Old World deserts among the 110 IMZs and from 0.4% in Belarus to 80.2% in Pakistan and 100% in Egypt among 45 countries. The study quantitatively distinguished annually and intermittently irrigated regions, which had values of 42% and 58% of global cropland, respectively, by applying indicators. This method, using the NDVI and NDVIdev thresholds, is simple, concrete and reproducible and better for zones with homogeneous weather conditions. The study offers independent, consistent and comparable information for defining the baseline, tracking changes in irrigation infrastructure, and leading future changes in how stakeholders plan and design irrigation systems.

Wu, S., H. Hamza, and M. E. Fayad, "Implementing pattern languages using stability concepts", ChiliPLoP 03', Carefree, Arizona, USA, 2003. Abstract
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Wu, K., W. Shi, and W. Ahmed, "Structural Elements Detection and Reconstruction (SEDR): A Hybrid Approach for Modeling Complex Indoor Structures", ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 9, issue 12, 2020.
Wu, C., W. Darwish, S. Tang, and W. Li, "Precise Calibration and Error Modeling For Indoor 3D Modelling Sensors", The 9th International Symposium on Mobile Mapping Technology, MMT2015, pp. 1–5, 2015. Abstract
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Wurster, S., F. Hennes, A. C. Parplys, J. I. Seelbach, W. Y. Mansour, A. Zielinski, C. Petersen, T. S. Clauditz, A. Münscher, A. A. Friedl, et al., "PARP1 inhibition radiosensitizes HNSCC cells deficient in homologous recombination by disabling the DNA replication fork elongation response.", Oncotarget, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. 9732-41, 2016 Mar 01. Abstract

There is a need to develop new, more efficient therapies for head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. It is currently unclear whether defects in DNA repair genes play a role in HNSCCs' resistance to therapy. PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) were found to be "synthetic lethal" in cancers deficient in BRCA1/2 with impaired homologous recombination. Since tumors rarely have these particular mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARPi sensitivity. Effectiveness of combined irradiation and PARPi olaparib was evaluated in ten HNSCC cell lines, subdivided into HR-proficient and HR-deficient cell lines using a GFP-based reporter assay. Both groups were equally sensitive to PARPi alone. Combined treatment revealed stronger synergistic interactions in the HR-deficient group. Because HR is mainly active in S-Phase, replication processes were analyzed. A stronger impact of treatment on replication processes (p = 0.04) and an increased number of radial chromosomes (p = 0.003) were observed in the HR-deficient group. We could show that radiosensitization by inhibition of PARP1 strongly correlates with HR competence in a replication-dependent manner. Our observations indicate that PARP1 inhibitors are promising candidates for enhancing the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy via disabling DNA replication processes in HR-deficient HNSCCs.

Wurster, S., F. Hennes, A. C. Parplys, J. I. Seelbach, W. Y. Mansour, A. Zielinski, C. Petersen, T. S. Clauditz, A. Münscher, A. A. Friedl, et al., "PARP1 inhibition radiosensitizes HNSCC cells deficient in homologous recombination by disabling the DNA replication fork elongation response.", Oncotarget, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. 9732-41, 2016 Mar 01. Abstract

There is a need to develop new, more efficient therapies for head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. It is currently unclear whether defects in DNA repair genes play a role in HNSCCs' resistance to therapy. PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) were found to be "synthetic lethal" in cancers deficient in BRCA1/2 with impaired homologous recombination. Since tumors rarely have these particular mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARPi sensitivity. Effectiveness of combined irradiation and PARPi olaparib was evaluated in ten HNSCC cell lines, subdivided into HR-proficient and HR-deficient cell lines using a GFP-based reporter assay. Both groups were equally sensitive to PARPi alone. Combined treatment revealed stronger synergistic interactions in the HR-deficient group. Because HR is mainly active in S-Phase, replication processes were analyzed. A stronger impact of treatment on replication processes (p = 0.04) and an increased number of radial chromosomes (p = 0.003) were observed in the HR-deficient group. We could show that radiosensitization by inhibition of PARP1 strongly correlates with HR competence in a replication-dependent manner. Our observations indicate that PARP1 inhibitors are promising candidates for enhancing the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy via disabling DNA replication processes in HR-deficient HNSCCs.

WZ Mikhail, MO Abd El-Samee, M. A. S. A. R. A. - A., "Use of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) Supplemented with Enzymes in Quail Diets.", Egypt. Poult. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 805-823, 2013. Abstract
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