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Journal Article
Dubey, J. P., E. Van Wilpe, S. K. Verma, and M. Hilali, "Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis bertrami sarcocysts from a naturally infected donkey (Equus asinus) from Egypt.", Parasitology, vol. 143, issue 1, pp. 18-23, 2016 Jan. Abstract

There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in equids. Little is known of Sarcocystis infections in donkeys (Equus asinus). Here we describe the structure of Sarcocystis bertrami-like from the donkey by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nineteen sarcocysts from the tongue of a donkey from Egypt were studied both by LM and TEM. By LM, all sarcocysts had variably shaped and sized projections on the sarcocyst walls, giving it a thin-walled to thick-walled appearance, depending on individual sarcocyst and plane of section. By TEM, sarcocysts walls had villar protrusions (vp) of type 11. The sarcocyst wall had conical to slender vp, up to 6 µm long and 1 µm wide; the vp were folded over the sarcocyst wall. The total thickness of the sarcocyst wall with ground substance layer (gs) was 1-3 µm. The vp had microtubules (mt) that originated deeper in the gs and continued up to the tip. The apical part of the vp had electron dense granules. The mt were configured into 3 types: a tuft of electron dense mt1 extending the entire length of the vp with a tuft of medium electron dense mt2 appearing in parallel, and fine mt3 present only in the villar tips. The gs was mainly smooth with few indistinct granules. All sarcocysts were mature and contained metrocytes and bradyzoites. Bradyzoites were approximately 11-15 × 2-3 µm in size with typical organelles.

Vickery, N., T. Stephens, L. du Toit, D. van Straaten, R. Pearse, A. Torborg, L. Rolt, M. Puchert, G. Martin, and B. Biccard, Understanding the performance of a pan-African intervention to reduce postoperative mortality: a mixed-methods process evaluation of the ASOS-2 trial, , vol. 127, issue 5, pp. 778 - 788, 2021. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundThe African Surgical OutcomeS-2 (ASOS-2) trial tested an enhanced postoperative surveillance intervention to reduce postoperative mortality in Africa. We undertook a concurrent evaluation to understand the process of intervention delivery.
Mixed-methods process evaluation, including field notes, interviews, and post-trial questionnaire responses. Qualitative analysis used the framework method with subsequent creation of comparative case studies, grouping hospitals by intervention fidelity. A post-trial questionnaire was developed using initial qualitative analyses. Categorical variables were summarised as count (%) and continuous variables as median (inter-quartile range [IQR]). Odds ratios (OR) were used to rank influences by impact on fidelity.
The dataset included eight in-depth case studies, and 96 questionnaire responses (response rate 67%) plus intervention fidelity data for each trial site. Overall, 57% (n=55/96) of hospitals achieved intervention delivery using an inclusive definition of fidelity. Delivery of the ASOS-2 interventions and data collection presented a significant burden to the investigators, outstripping limited resources. The influences most associated with fidelity were: surgical staff enthusiasm for the trial (OR=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–7.0); nursing management support of the trial (OR=2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–6.5); performance of a dummy run (OR=2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1); nursing colleagues seeing the value of the intervention(s) (OR=2.1; 95% CI, 0.9–5.7); and site investigators' belief in the effectiveness of the intervention (OR=3.2; 95% CI, 1.2–9.4).
ASOS-2 has proved that coordinated interventional research across Africa is possible, but delivering the ASOS-2 interventions was a major challenge for many investigators. Future improvement science efforts must include better planning for intervention delivery, additional support to investigators, and promotion of strong inter-professional teamwork.
Clinical trial registration
ClinicalTrials gov NCT03853824.

Vara, M., L. T. Roling, X. Wang, A. O. Elnabawy, Z. D. Hood, M. Chi, M. Mavrikakis, and Y. Xia, "Understanding the thermal stability of palladium–platinum core–shell nanocrystals by in situ transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory", ACS nano, vol. 11, no. 5: American Chemical Society, pp. 4571–4581, 2017. Abstract
Vara, M., L. T. Roling, X. Wang, A. O. Elnabawy, Z. D. Hood, M. Chi, M. Mavrikakis, and Y. Xia, "Understanding the thermal stability of palladium–platinum core–shell nanocrystals by in situ transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory", ACS nano, vol. 11, issue 5: American Chemical Society, pp. 4571-4581, 2017. Abstract
Hsia, Y., D. Dawoud, A. G. Sutcliffe, R. M. Viner, S. Kinra, and I. C. K. Wong, "Unlicensed use of metformin in children and adolescents in the UK.", British journal of clinical pharmacology, vol. 73, issue 1, pp. 135-9, 2012 Jan. Abstract

AIM: Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral anti-diabetic drug in young people. It is also prescribed for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and obesity treatment in adults in an unlicensed fashion. Little is known as to the extent metformin has been used in young people. We investigated the use of metformin in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in the UK.

METHODS: Population-based prescribing data were obtained from the UK IMS Disease Analyzer between January 2000 and December 2010.

RESULTS: A total of 2674 metformin prescriptions were issued to 337 patients (80% female) between 2000 and 2010. The prevalence of metformin prescribing increased from 0.03 per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02, 0.05] to 0.16 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.12, 0.20) (P= 0.001). There was a steady increase in metformin prescribing in girls aged 16-18 years. There were 290 metformin treated patients (81% female; n= 235) who had at least one diagnosis of diabetes, PCOS or obesity. Among these patients, PCOS was the most common indication for metformin prescribing in girls (n= 120) followed by diabetes. There were 22 patients (7.6%) who received metformin for obesity treatment only.

CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing of metformin increased between 2000 and 2010, in particular amongst girls aged 16-18 years. The main indication for metformin prescribing was PCOS. At present, metformin is not licensed for PCOS and obesity treatment in adults or children. As there is a steady increase in the prescribing of metformin in young people, further studies are required to investigate the efficacy and safety of these prescriptions.

Contaifer, D., D. E. Carl, U. O. Warncke, E. J. Martin, B. M. Mohammed, B. Van Tassell, D. F. Brophy, C. Chalfant, and D. S. Wijesinghe, Unsupervised analysis of combined lipid and coagulation data reveal coagulopathy subtypes among dialysis patients, : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. jlr - P068833, 2016. Abstract
Contaifer, D., D. E. Carl, U. O. Warncke, E. J. Martin, B. M. Mohammed, B. Van Tassell, D. F. Brophy, C. E. Chalfant, and D. S. Wijesinghe, "Unsupervised analysis of combined lipid and coagulation data reveals coagulopathy subtypes among dialysis patients", Journal of lipid research, vol. 58, issue 3: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. 586-599, 2017. Abstract
Verma, A. R., V. M. Patel, S. Mikhail, and E. Zacharakis, "An unusual presentation of late oesophagojejunal anastomotic leak after total D2 gastrectomy.", Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 94, issue 2, pp. e106-8, 2012 Mar. Abstract

Oesophagojejunal anastomotic leak usually presents in the early post-operative period with abdominal pain and sepsis. We report a case of late anastomotic leak presenting as epigastric pain with hyperamylasaemia and discuss the differential diagnosis.

Mohammed, B. M., A. Matafonov, I. Ivanov, M. -fu Sun, Q. Cheng, K. S. Dickeson, C. Li, D. Sun, I. M. Verhamme, and J. Emsley, "An update on factor XI structure and function", Thrombosis research, vol. 161: Elsevier, pp. 94-105, 2017. Abstract


Feigin, V. L., R. V. Krishnamurthi, P. Parmar, B. Norrving, G. A. Mensah, D. A. Bennett, S. Barker-Collo, A. E. Moran, R. L. Sacco, T. Truelsen, et al., "Update on the Global Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in 1990-2013: The GBD 2013 Study.", Neuroepidemiology, vol. 45, issue 3, pp. 161-76, 2015. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardized rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past 2 decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, and live with the consequences of stroke or die from their stroke, are increasing. Regular updates on the current level of stroke burden are important for advancing our knowledge on stroke epidemiology and facilitate organization and planning of evidence-based stroke care.

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) for 188 countries from 1990 to 2013.

METHODOLOGY: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated using all available data on mortality and stroke incidence, prevalence and excess mortality. Statistical models and country-level covariate data were employed, and all rates were age-standardized to a global population. All estimates were produced with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

RESULTS: In 2013, there were globally almost 25.7 million stroke survivors (71% with IS), 6.5 million deaths from stroke (51% died from IS), 113 million DALYs due to stroke (58% due to IS) and 10.3 million new strokes (67% IS). Over the 1990-2013 period, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of DALYs due to IS, and of deaths from IS and HS, survivors and incident events for both IS and HS. The preponderance of the burden of stroke continued to reside in developing countries, comprising 75.2% of deaths from stroke and 81.0% of stroke-related DALYs. Globally, the proportional contribution of stroke-related DALYs and deaths due to stroke compared to all diseases increased from 1990 (3.54% (95% UI 3.11-4.00) and 9.66% (95% UI 8.47-10.70), respectively) to 2013 (4.62% (95% UI 4.01-5.30) and 11.75% (95% UI 10.45-13.31), respectively), but there was a diverging trend in developed and developing countries with a significant increase in DALYs and deaths in developing countries, and no measurable change in the proportional contribution of DALYs and deaths from stroke in developed countries.

CONCLUSION: Global stroke burden continues to increase globally. More efficient stroke prevention and management strategies are urgently needed to halt and eventually reverse the stroke pandemic, while universal access to organized stroke services should be a priority. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

El Kateb, A., and Y. Ville, "Update on twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.", Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 63-75, 2008 Feb. Abstract

Fetal and perinatal loss rates are much higher in monochorionic than in dichorionic pregnancies. This is likely to be at least in part a consequence of chorio-angiopagus and severe early onset of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). TTTS occurs in approximately 15% of all monochorionic pregnancies and is defined sonographically by the combination of polyhydramnios in one sac and oligohydramnios in the other. Intertwin anastomoses on the chorionic plate are responsible for the development of a net imbalance in blood flow and subsequent development of TTTS. All cases of monochorionic pregnancies should be referred to a specialized centre for early diagnosis and efficient treatment. The methods of treatment include amnioreduction, septostomy and fetoscopic laser coagulation of anastomosing vessels. The latter is currently considered the best modality of treatment when TTTS presents before 26 weeks. Selectivity in laser coagulation improves survival. Selective feticide should be reserved for cases in which severe distress or anomaly of one twin compromises the others.

Bondue, T., F. O. Arcolino, K. R. P. Veys, O. C. Adebayo, E. Levtchenko, L. P. van den Heuvel, and M. A. Elmonem, "Urine-Derived Epithelial Cells as Models for Genetic Kidney Diseases.", Cells, vol. 10, issue 6, pp. 1413, 2021. Abstract

Epithelial cells exfoliated in human urine can include cells anywhere from the urinary tract and kidneys; however, podocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) are by far the most relevant cell types for the study of genetic kidney diseases. When maintained in vitro, they have been proven extremely valuable for discovering disease mechanisms and for the development of new therapies. Furthermore, cultured patient cells can individually represent their human sources and their specific variants for personalized medicine studies, which are recently gaining much interest. In this review, we summarize the methodology for establishing human podocyte and PTEC cell lines from urine and highlight their importance as kidney disease cell models. We explore the well-established and recent techniques of cell isolation, quantification, immortalization and characterization, and we describe their current and future applications.

Prats-Uribe, A., A. G. Sena, L. Y. H. Lai, W. - U. - R. Ahmed, H. Alghoul, O. Alser, T. M. Alshammari, C. Areia, W. Carter, P. Casajust, et al., "Use of repurposed and adjuvant drugs in hospital patients with covid-19: multinational network cohort study.", BMJ (Clinical research ed.), vol. 373, pp. n1038, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of repurposed and adjuvant drugs in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 across three continents.

DESIGN: Multinational network cohort study.

SETTING: Hospital electronic health records from the United States, Spain, and China, and nationwide claims data from South Korea.

PARTICIPANTS: 303 264 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 from January 2020 to December 2020.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescriptions or dispensations of any drug on or 30 days after the date of hospital admission for covid-19.

RESULTS: Of the 303 264 patients included, 290 131 were from the US, 7599 from South Korea, 5230 from Spain, and 304 from China. 3455 drugs were identified. Common repurposed drugs were hydroxychloroquine (used in from <5 (<2%) patients in China to 2165 (85.1%) in Spain), azithromycin (from 15 (4.9%) in China to 1473 (57.9%) in Spain), combined lopinavir and ritonavir (from 156 (<2%) in the VA-OMOP US to 2,652 (34.9%) in South Korea and 1285 (50.5%) in Spain), and umifenovir (0% in the US, South Korea, and Spain and 238 (78.3%) in China). Use of adjunctive drugs varied greatly, with the five most used treatments being enoxaparin, fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone, vitamin D, and corticosteroids. Hydroxychloroquine use increased rapidly from March to April 2020 but declined steeply in May to June and remained low for the rest of the year. The use of dexamethasone and corticosteroids increased steadily during 2020.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple drugs were used in the first few months of the covid-19 pandemic, with substantial geographical and temporal variation. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, and umifenovir (in China only) were the most prescribed repurposed drugs. Antithrombotics, antibiotics, H2 receptor antagonists, and corticosteroids were often used as adjunctive treatments. Research is needed on the comparative risk and benefit of these treatments in the management of covid-19.

Badawy, E., M. Vinatoru, I. Calinescu, K. A. Shams, N. Abel-Azim, A. Fahmi, and M. Abdur-Rahman, "The use of ultrasound (UAE) and microwaves (MAE) to improve the extraction of pharmaceutically active materials from the fruit of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). ", Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, In Press.
Galmed, A. H., C. Steenkamp, I. Ahmed, A. du Plussis, H. Von Bergmann, M. A. Harith, and M. Maaza, "Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to monitor the surface hardness of titanium samples bombarded by carbon ions", Applied Physics B, vol. 124, issue 12, 2018.
Rimoin, A. W., C. F. L. Walker, H. S. Hamza, N. Elminawi, H. A. Ghafar, A. Vince, A. L. A. da Cunha, S. Qazi, D. Gardovska, and M. C. Steinhoff, "The utility of rapid antigen detection testing for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in low-resource settings.", International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, issue 12, pp. e1048-53, 2010 Dec. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) for the diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in pediatric outpatient clinics in four countries with varied socio-economic and geographic profiles.

METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the utility of a commercial RADT in children aged 2-12 years presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis to urban outpatient clinics in Brazil, Croatia, Egypt, and Latvia between August 2001 and December 2005. We compared the performance of the RADT to culture using diagnostic and agreement statistics, including sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The Centor scores for GAS diagnosis were used to assess the potential effect of spectrum bias on RADT results.

RESULTS: Two thousand four hundred and seventy-two children were enrolled at four sites. The prevalence of GAS by throat culture varied by country (range 24.5-39.4%) and by RADT (range 23.9-41.8%). Compared to culture, RADT sensitivity ranged from 72.4% to 91.8% and specificity ranged from 85.7% to 96.4%. The positive predictive value ranged from 67.9% to 88.6% and negative predictive value ranged from 88.1% to 95.7%.

CONCLUSIONS: In limited-resource regions where microbiological diagnosis is not feasible or practical, RADTs should be considered an option that can be performed in a clinic and provide timely results.

Sviatoslavsky, I., S. W. Van Sciver, G. L. Kulcinski, D. T. Anderson, A. W. Bailey, J. D. Callen, J. A. Derr, G. A. Emmert, L. El-Guebaly, A. Khalil, et al., "UWTOR-Ma conceptual design study of a modular stellarator power reactor", IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 9, no. 4: IEEE, pp. 163–172, 1981. Abstract
Sviatoslavsky, I., S. W. Van Sciver, G. L. Kulcinski, D. T. Anderson, A. W. Bailey, J. D. Callen, J. A. Derr, G. A. Emmert, L. El-Guebaly, and A. Khalil, "UWTOR-Ma conceptual design study of a modular stellarator power reactor", IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 9, issue 4: IEEE, pp. 163-172, 1981. Abstract
Lawrence P. Park, Vivian H. Chu, Gail Peterson, and Athanasios Skoutelis, "Validated Risk Score for Predicting 6-Month Mortality in Infective Endocarditis", J Am Heart Assoc., vol. 5, issue 5, pp. e003016, 2016. segmental_peri-coronary_epicardial_adipose_tissue_volume_and_coronary_plaque_characteristics..pdf
Quartuccio, L., M. Isola, L. Corazza, M. Ramos-Casals, S. Retamozo, G. M. Ragab, M. Naguib Zoheir, M. - M. El-Menyawi, M. N. Salem, D. Sansonno, et al., "Validation of the classification criteria for cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis", Rheumatology (United Kingdom), vol. 53, issue 12: Oxford University Press, pp. 2209 - 2213, 2014. AbstractWebsite
Quartuccio, L., M. Isola, L. Corazza, M. Ramos-Casals, S. Retamozo, G. M. Ragab, M. N. Zoheir, M. A. - M. El-Menyawi, M. N. Salem, D. Sansonno, et al., "Validation of the classification criteria for cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis.", Rheumatology (Oxford, England), vol. 53, issue 12, pp. 2209-13, 2014 Dec. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the classification criteria for cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV).

METHODS: Twenty-three centres were involved. New patients with CV (group A) and controls, i.e. subjects with serum cryoglobulins but lacking CV based on the gold standard of clinical judgment (group B) and subjects without cryoglobulins but with clinical features that can be observed in the course of CV (group C), were studied. Positivity of serum cryoglobulins was necessary for CV classification. Sensitivity and specificity of the criteria were calculated by comparing group A vs group B. The group A vs group C comparison was done to demonstrate the possible diagnostic utility of the criteria.

RESULTS: The study included 268 patients in group A, 182 controls in group B and 193 controls in group C (small vessel vasculitis, 51.8%). The questionnaire (at least 2/3 positive answers) showed 89.0% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity; the clinical item (at least 3/4 clinical involvement) showed 75.7% sensitivity and 89.0% specificity and the laboratory item (at least 2/3 laboratory data) showed 80.2% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of the classification criteria (at least 2/3 positive items) were 89.9% and 93.5%, respectively. The comparison of group A with group C demonstrated the clinical utility of the criteria in differentiating CV from CV mimickers.

CONCLUSION: Classification criteria for CV were validated in a second, large, international study confirming good sensitivity and specificity in a complex systemic disease.

ten Klooster, P., A. Vlaar, E. Taal, R. Gheith, J. Rasker, A. El-Garf, and M. van de Laar, "The Validity and Reliability of the Graphic Rating Scale and Verbal Rating Scale for Measuring Pain Across Cultures: A Study in Egyptian and Dutch Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis", Clin J Pain, vol. 22, issue 9, pp. 827-830, 2006.
Klooster, P. M. T., A. P. Vlaar, E. Taal, R. E. Gheith, J. J. Rasker, A. K. El-Garf, and M. A. V. de Laar, "The Validity And Reliability Of The Graphic Rating Scale And Verbal Rating Scale For Measuring Pain Across Cultures: A Study In Egyptian And Dutch Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis", Clin J Pain., vol. 9, issue 22, pp. 827-30, 2006.
Anwar, H., T. J. Vogl, M. A. Abougabal, F. Grünwald, P. Kleine, S. Elrefaie, and N. - E. A. Nour-Eldin, "The value of different 18F-FDG PET/CT baseline parameters in risk stratification of stage I surgical NSCLC patients", Annals of Nuclear Medicine , vol. 32, issue 10, pp. 687-694, 2018. Abstract