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Della Casa, F., A. Vitale, R. M. Pereira, S. Guerriero, G. Ragab, G. Lopalco, M. Cattalini, I. Mattioli, P. Parronchi, M. P. Paroli, et al., "Development and Implementation of the AIDA International Registry for Patients with Non-Infectious Scleritis", Ophthalmology and Therapy, vol. 11, issue 2: Adis, pp. 887 - 897, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Casa, F. D., A. Vitale, S. Guerriero, J. Sota, R. Cimaz, G. Ragab, P. Ruscitti, R. M. R. Pereira, F. Minoia, E. Del Giudice, et al., "Development and Implementation of the AIDA International Registry for Patients with Non-Infectious Uveitis", Ophthalmology and Therapy, vol. 11, issue 2: Adis, pp. 899 - 911, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Vitale, A., F. Della Casa, G. Lopalco, R. M. Pereira, P. Ruscitti, R. Giacomelli, G. Ragab, F. La Torre, E. Bartoloni, E. Del Giudice, et al., "Development and Implementation of the AIDA International Registry for Patients With Still's Disease", Frontiers in Medicine, vol. 9: Frontiers Media S.A., 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Della Casa, F., A. Vitale, G. Lopalco, P. Ruscitti, F. Ciccia, G. Emmi, M. Cattalini, E. Wiesik-Szewczyk, M. C. Maggio, B. Ogunjimi, et al., "Development and Implementation of the AIDA International Registry for Patients With Undifferentiated Systemic AutoInflammatory Diseases", Frontiers in Medicine, vol. 9: Frontiers Media S.A., 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Fawzy, A., A. - S. Giel, L. Fenske, A. Bach, C. Herden, K. Engel, E. Heuser, M. Boelhauve, R. G. Ulrich, K. Vogel, et al., "Development and validation of a triplex real-time qPCR for sensitive detection and quantification of major rat bite fever pathogen Streptobacillus moniliformis.", Journal of microbiological methods, vol. 199, pp. 106525, 2022. Abstract

Streptobacillus (S.) moniliformis is the most important pathogen causing rat bite fever (RBF) worldwide. This zoonotic pathogen is understudied mainly due to difficulties in culturing S. moniliformis as a fastidious microorganism. Therefore, advances in molecular detection techniques are highly needed, especially with regard to the widespread availability of real-time quantitative (q) PCR in laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a qPCR for the identification of Streptobacillus species and quantification of S. moniliformis in clinical samples, especially those derived from tissue samples of animal origin. We optimized a previously described PCR protocol in order to develop a qPCR, which can detect different Streptobacillus species with high specificity and is simultaneously able to quantitate S. moniliformis in different clinical matrices. The qPCR exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) of 21 copies/reaction representing ~4-5 streptobacilli, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.1 × 10 copies/reaction. It was also more sensitive than conventional PCR by two orders of magnitude and proved to have a substantial agreement (Kappa 0.74) compared to it with a superior detection rate in 374 samples from wild rats, laboratory rats and animals from holdings of wild-trapped rats. To conclude, the qPCR described in this study is an important molecular tool that is able to quantify S. moniliformis in tissue samples of animal origin. It represents a suitable tool for future establishment and evaluation of other molecular assays that are highly needed for a better understanding of epidemiology and pathophysiology of RBF. In experimental studies, it will also be useful for titration purposes since the quantification of the organism using classical plate counting technique is problematic and inaccurate.

Abozeid, H. H., A. Paldurai, B. P. Varghese, S. K. Khattar, M. A. Afifi, S. Zouelfakkar, A. H. El-Deeb, M. F. El-Kady, and S. K. Samal, Development of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccine for infectious bronchitis virus variant strains circulating in Egypt, , vol. 50, issue 1, pp. 12, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a major disease problem for the poultry industry worldwide. The currently used live-attenuated vaccines have the tendency to mutate and/or recombine with circulating field strains resulting in the emergence of vaccine-derived variant viruses. In order to circumvent these issues, and to develop a vaccine that is more relevant to Egypt and its neighboring countries, a recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota was constructed to express the codon-optimized S glycoprotein of the Egyptian IBV variant strain IBV/Ck/EG/CU/4/2014 belonging to GI-23 lineage, that is prevalent in Egypt and in the Middle East. A wild type and two modified versions of the IBV S protein were expressed individually by rNDV. A high level of S protein expression was detected in vitro by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. All rNDV-vectored IBV vaccine candidates were genetically stable, slightly attenuated and showed growth patterns comparable to that of parental rLaSota virus. Single-dose vaccination of 1-day-old SPF White Leghorn chicks with the rNDVs expressing IBV S protein provided significant protection against clinical disease after IBV challenge but did not show reduction in tracheal viral shedding. Single-dose vaccination also provided complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. However, prime-boost vaccination using rNDV expressing the wild type IBV S protein provided better protection, after IBV challenge, against clinical signs and significantly reduced tracheal viral shedding. These results indicate that the NDV-vectored IBV vaccines are promising bivalent vaccine candidates to control both infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in Egypt.

Abozeid, H. H., A. Paldurai, B. P. Varghese, S. K. Khattar, M. A. Afifi, S. Zouelfakkar, A. H. El-Deeb, M. F. El-Kady, and S. K. Samal, Development of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccine for infectious bronchitis virus variant strains circulating in Egypt, , vol. 50, issue 1, pp. 12, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a major disease problem for the poultry industry worldwide. The currently used live-attenuated vaccines have the tendency to mutate and/or recombine with circulating field strains resulting in the emergence of vaccine-derived variant viruses. In order to circumvent these issues, and to develop a vaccine that is more relevant to Egypt and its neighboring countries, a recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota was constructed to express the codon-optimized S glycoprotein of the Egyptian IBV variant strain IBV/Ck/EG/CU/4/2014 belonging to GI-23 lineage, that is prevalent in Egypt and in the Middle East. A wild type and two modified versions of the IBV S protein were expressed individually by rNDV. A high level of S protein expression was detected in vitro by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. All rNDV-vectored IBV vaccine candidates were genetically stable, slightly attenuated and showed growth patterns comparable to that of parental rLaSota virus. Single-dose vaccination of 1-day-old SPF White Leghorn chicks with the rNDVs expressing IBV S protein provided significant protection against clinical disease after IBV challenge but did not show reduction in tracheal viral shedding. Single-dose vaccination also provided complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. However, prime-boost vaccination using rNDV expressing the wild type IBV S protein provided better protection, after IBV challenge, against clinical signs and significantly reduced tracheal viral shedding. These results indicate that the NDV-vectored IBV vaccines are promising bivalent vaccine candidates to control both infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in Egypt.

Abozeid, H. H., A. Paldurai, B. P. Varghese, S. K. Khattar, M. A. Afifi, S. Zouelfakkar, A. H. El‑Deeb, M. F. El‑Kady, and S. K. Samal, "Development of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus‑vectored vaccine for infectious bronchitis virus variant strains circulating in Egypt", veterinary research, 2019.
Alaasar, M., M. Prehm, M. Poppe, M. Nagaraj, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, "Development of polar order and tilt in lamellar liquid crystalline phases of a bent-core mesogen", Soft matter, vol. 10, pp. 5003-5016, 2014.
Murrell, D. F., S. Peña, P. Joly, B. Marinovic, T. Hashimoto, L. A. Diaz, A. A. Sinha, A. S. Payne, M. Daneshpazhooh, R. Eming, et al., "Diagnosis and Management of Pemphigus: recommendations by an International Panel of Experts.", Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2018 Feb 10. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several European countries recently developed international diagnostic and management guidelines for pemphigus, which have been instrumental in the standardization of pemphigus management, OBJECTIVE: We now present results from a subsequent Delphi consensus to broaden the generalizability of recommendations.

METHODS: A preliminary survey, based on the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) and the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) guidelines, was sent to a panel of international experts to determine the level of consensus. The results were discussed at the International Bullous Diseases Consensus Group in March 2016 during the annual American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) conference. A second survey was sent following the meeting to more experts to achieve greater international consensus.

RESULTS: The 39 experts participated in the first round of the Delphi-survey while 54 from 21 countries completed the second round. The number of statements in the survey was reduced from 175 topics in Delphi I to 24 topics in Delphi II based on Delphi results and meeting discussion.

LIMITATIONS: Each recommendation represents the majority opinion and therefore may not reflect all possible treatment options available.

CONCLUSIONS: We present here the recommendations resulting from this Delphi process. This international consensus includes intravenous CD20 inhibitors as a first line therapy option for moderate to severe pemphigus.

Murrell, D. F., S. Peña, P. Joly, B. Marinovic, T. Hashimoto, L. A. Diaz, A. A. Sinha, A. S. Payne, M. Daneshpazhooh, R. Eming, et al., "Diagnosis and management of pemphigus: Recommendations of an international panel of experts.", Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 82, issue 3, pp. 575-585.e1, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several European countries recently developed international diagnostic and management guidelines for pemphigus, which have been instrumental in the standardization of pemphigus management.

OBJECTIVE: We now present results from a subsequent Delphi consensus to broaden the generalizability of the recommendations.

METHODS: A preliminary survey, based on the European Dermatology Forum and the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology guidelines, was sent to a panel of international experts to determine the level of consensus. The results were discussed at the International Bullous Diseases Consensus Group in March 2016 during the annual American Academy of Dermatology conference. Following the meeting, a second survey was sent to more experts to achieve greater international consensus.

RESULTS: The 39 experts participated in the first round of the Delphi survey, and 54 experts from 21 countries completed the second round. The number of statements in the survey was reduced from 175 topics in Delphi I to 24 topics in Delphi II on the basis of Delphi results and meeting discussion.

LIMITATIONS: Each recommendation represents the majority opinion and therefore may not reflect all possible treatment options available.

CONCLUSIONS: We present here the recommendations resulting from this Delphi process. This international consensus includes intravenous CD20 inhibitors as a first-line therapy option for moderate-to-severe pemphigus.

Smarrazzo, A., Z. Misak, S. Costa, D. Mičetić-Turk, M. Abu-Zekry, A. Kansu, A. Abkari, K. Bouziane-Nedjadi, M. Ben Hariz, E. Roma, et al., "Diagnosis of celiac disease and applicability of ESPGHAN guidelines in Mediterranean countries: a real life prospective study.", BMC gastroenterology, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 17, 2017 Jan 21. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We assessed how the diagnosis of Celiac Disease (CD) is made and how the new ESPGHAN guidelines can be applied in children from countries with different resources.

METHODS: A real life prospective study was performed in 14 centres of 13 different Mediterranean countries. Participants were asked to apply the usual diagnostic work-up for CD according to their diagnostic facilities.

RESULTS: There were 1974 patients enrolled in the study, mean age 4 years, 10 months; 865 male, 1109 female. CD was confirmed in 511 (25.9%) and was unconfirmed in 1391 (70.5%) patients; 14 patients were diagnosed as having CD according to the new ESPGHAN guidelines, 43 patients were classified as having potential CD. In all participating countries the diagnosis of CD relied on histology of duodenal biopsy; in 5 countries, HLA, and in one country endomysial antibodies (EMA) were not available. Symptoms did not add a significant increase to the pre-test probability of serological tests. The positive predictive value of tissue transglutaminase type 2 (tTG) antibodies performed with different kits but all corresponding to those recommended by ESPGHAN was 96.1% (95% CI 94-97.9%) in presence of tTG > 10xULN. In 135 patients with tTG >10xULN, HLA genotyping was performed and in all it was compatible with CD.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show that CD diagnosis still relies on intestinal biopsy in the Mediterranean area. New ESPGHAN criteria are not applicable in 5 countries due to lack of resources needed to perform HLA genotyping and, in one country, EMA assay. Further simplification of the new ESPGHAN guidelines might be made according to what preliminarily the present results suggest if confirmed by new prospective studies.

El-Shabrawi, M. H., N. M. Kamal, K. Kaerger, and K. Voigt, "Diagnosis of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis: a mini-review.", Mycoses, 2014.
El-Shabrawi, M. H., N. M. Kamal, K. Kaerger, and K. Voigt, "Diagnosis of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis: a mini-review.", Mycoses, vol. 57 Suppl 3, pp. 138-43, 2014 Dec. Abstract

Basidiobolus ranarum (Entomophthoromycotina) very rarely affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To date, reported paediatric GI basidiobolomycosis cases are 27 worldwide; 19 from Saudi Arabia and 8 from other parts of the world. Often these cases present a diagnostic dilemma, are prone to misdiagnosis and lack of disease confirmation by proper molecular methodologies. The fungal mass removed by surgery is usually sent for conciliar histopathology, isolation by fungal cultures and final molecular testing for basidiobolomycosis. The incidence of basidiobolomycoses, their predisposing factors and the molecular diagnosis of the fungus causing the disease in combination with a phylogenetic framework are reviewed.

Moussa, A., N. Kantiranis, K. S. Voudouris, J. A. Stratis, M. F. Ali, and V. Christaras, "Diagnosis of weathered Coptic wall paintings in the Wadi El Natrun region, Egypt", Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol. 10, issue 2009, pp. 152-157, 2009.
Gazzolo, D., A. Frigiola, M. Bashir, I. Iskander, H. Mufeed, H. Aboulgar, P. Venturini, M. Marras, G. Serra, R. Frulio, et al., "Diagnostic accuracy of S100B urinary testing at birth in full-term asphyxiated newborns to predict neonatal death.", PloS one, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. e4298, 2009. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neonatal death in full-term infants who suffer from perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major subject of investigation, since few tools exist to predict patients at risk of ominous outcome. We studied the possibility that urine S100B measurement may identify which PA-affected infants are at risk of early postnatal death.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study between January 1, 2001 and December 1, 2006 we measured S100B protein in urine collected from term infants (n = 132), 60 of whom suffered PA. According to their outcome at 7 days, infants with PA were subsequently classified either as asphyxiated infants complicated by hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with no ominous outcome (HIE Group; n = 48), or as newborns who died within the first post-natal week (Ominous Outcome Group; n = 12). Routine laboratory variables, cerebral ultrasound, neurological patterns and urine concentrations of S100B protein were determined at first urination and after 24, 48 and 96 hours. The severity of illness in the first 24 hours after birth was measured using the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-Perinatal Extension (SNAP-PE). Urine S100B levels were higher from the first urination in the ominous outcome group than in healthy or HIE Groups (p<0.001 for all), and progressively increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between S100B concentrations and the occurrence of neonatal death. At a cut-off >1.0 microg/L S100B had a sensitivity/specificity of 100% for predicting neonatal death.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased S100B protein urine levels in term newborns suffering PA seem to suggest a higher risk of neonatal death for these infants.

Elbendary, A., R. Xue, M. Valdebran, K. M. T. Torres, K. Parikh, I. El Attar, E. J. Kwon, and D. M. Elston, "Diagnostic Criteria in Intraepithelial Pagetoid Neoplasms: A Histopathologic Study and Evaluation of Select Features in Paget Disease, Bowen Disease, and Melanoma In Situ.", The American Journal of dermatopathology, vol. 39, issue 6, pp. 419-427, 2017 Jun. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Paget disease, Bowen disease, and malignant melanoma in situ are intraepidermal neoplasms, characterized by the presence of pagetoid scatter of atypical cells in the epidermis. This study reviewed the frequency of select histologic criteria to validate their usefulness in the histologic distinction between these entities.

METHODS: One hundred forty-four specimens with the diagnosis of Bowen disease, 144 specimens with Paget disease (mammary and extramammary), and 144 specimens with malignant melanoma in situ were examined microscopically to define frequencies of select histologic criteria present in each disease.

RESULTS: Comparison between mammary Paget and extramammary Paget disease showed no significant differences in the features studied. Crushing of basal keratinocytes, presence of atypical cells in the corneum, and presence of large cells with amphophilic cytoplasm were significantly noted in Paget disease. Transition between the atypical clear cells and surrounding keratinocytes was absent in all cases of melanoma in situ and in 87 (60.4%) cases of Paget disease, but it was significantly associated with Bowen disease (98.6%). Dyskeratotic cells were significantly associated with Bowen disease cases.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a practical histologic approach to differentiate between intraepidermal pagetoid neoplasms. Careful histologic study of the proposed criteria may reduce reliance on immunohistochemical stains.

Shokry, D. A., M. N. Hussein, F. M. Hassan, A. Heinemann, H. Vogel, and klaus pueschel, "Diagnostic value of multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography in selected cases of blunt traumatic deaths.", Legal MEDICINE, vol. 34, pp. 1-6, 2018.
Shokry, D. A., M. N. Hussein, F. M. Hassan, A. Heinemann, H. Vogel, and klaus pueschel, "Diagnostic value of multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography in selected cases of blunt traumatic deaths.", Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), vol. 34, pp. 1-6, 2018 Sep. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Recently, multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) has been proven as a reliable tool in the diagnosis of vascular pathology, while its potential efficiency in the detection of soft tissue lesions is ignored. In this study, we have evaluated the overall diagnostic value of MPMCTA in the diagnosis of blunt traumatic deaths in selected cases to determine its additional advantages and limitations in order to identify its potential applications.

METHODS: This prospective study examined 14 decedents presented to the Department of Legal Medicine of Hamburg University that alleged death due to blunt trauma. For each case, MPMCTA and conventional autopsy findings were compared. Both radiological and autopsy findings are divided according to the body regions in addition to the detection of the cause of death.

RESULTS: Both MPMCTA and the conventional autopsy showed the major findings but not all findings. MPMCTA was better in the demonstration of vascular and skeletal lesions, while the diagnosis of parenchymal injury remains autopsy-dependent. The efficiency of MPMCTA for detection of haemorrhage was relatively affected by the blood amount and the location of the bleeding source. The presented MPMCTA-related artefacts interfered with the accurate diagnosis of certain injuries.

CONCLUSION: The combination of MPMCTA with conventional autopsy appears to be the gold standard for investigation of blunt traumatic deaths. Depending on the death circumstances and the expected findings, MPMCTA can be performed alone in selected cases.

Shokry, D. A., M. N. Hussein, F. M. Hassan, A. Heinemann, H. Vogel, and klaus pueschel, "Diagnostic value of multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography in selected cases of blunt traumatic deaths.", Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), vol. 34, pp. 1-6, 2018 Sep. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Recently, multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) has been proven as a reliable tool in the diagnosis of vascular pathology, while its potential efficiency in the detection of soft tissue lesions is ignored. In this study, we have evaluated the overall diagnostic value of MPMCTA in the diagnosis of blunt traumatic deaths in selected cases to determine its additional advantages and limitations in order to identify its potential applications.

METHODS: This prospective study examined 14 decedents presented to the Department of Legal Medicine of Hamburg University that alleged death due to blunt trauma. For each case, MPMCTA and conventional autopsy findings were compared. Both radiological and autopsy findings are divided according to the body regions in addition to the detection of the cause of death.

RESULTS: Both MPMCTA and the conventional autopsy showed the major findings but not all findings. MPMCTA was better in the demonstration of vascular and skeletal lesions, while the diagnosis of parenchymal injury remains autopsy-dependent. The efficiency of MPMCTA for detection of haemorrhage was relatively affected by the blood amount and the location of the bleeding source. The presented MPMCTA-related artefacts interfered with the accurate diagnosis of certain injuries.

CONCLUSION: The combination of MPMCTA with conventional autopsy appears to be the gold standard for investigation of blunt traumatic deaths. Depending on the death circumstances and the expected findings, MPMCTA can be performed alone in selected cases.

V, N., K. CY, I. SA,, Jouini R, and et al, "Differential roles for membrane-bound and soluble syndecan-1 (CD138) in breast cancer progression", Carcinogenesis, vol. 30(3):397-407, 2009.
Özdemir, V., Y. K. Arga, R. K. Aziz, M. Bayram, S. N. Conley, C. Dandara, L. Endrenyi, E. Fisher, C. K. Garvey, N. Hekim, et al., "Digging Deeper into Precision/Personalized Medicine: Cracking the Sugar Code, the Third Alphabet of Life, and Sociomateriality of the Cell", OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 62-80, 2020. AbstractWebsite

Precision/personalized medicine is a hot topic in health care. Often presented with the motto “the right drug, for the right patient, at the right dose, and the right time,” precision medicine is a theory for rational therapeutics as well as practice to individualize health interventions (e.g., drugs, food, vaccines, medical devices, and exercise programs) using biomarkers. Yet, an alien visitor to planet Earth reading the contemporary textbooks on diagnostics might think precision medicine requires only two biomolecules omnipresent in the literature: nucleic acids (e.g., DNA) and proteins, known as the first and second alphabet of biology, respectively. However, the precision/personalized medicine community has tended to underappreciate the third alphabet of life, the “sugar code” (i.e., the information stored in glycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids). This article brings together experts in precision/personalized medicine science, pharmacoglycomics, emerging technology governance, cultural studies, contemporary art, and responsible innovation to critically comment on the sociomateriality of the three alphabets of life together. First, the current transformation of targeted therapies with personalized glycomedicine and glycan biomarkers is examined. Next, we discuss the reasons as to why unraveling of the sugar code might have lagged behind the DNA and protein codes. While social scientists have historically noted the importance of constructivism (e.g., how people interpret technology and build their values, hopes, and expectations into emerging technologies), life scientists relied on the material properties of technologies in explaining why some innovations emerge rapidly and are more popular than others. The concept of sociomateriality integrates these two explanations by highlighting the inherent entanglement of the social and the material contributions to knowledge and what is presented to us as reality from everyday laboratory life. Hence, we present a hypothesis based on a sociomaterial conceptual lens: because materiality and synthesis of glycans are not directly driven by a template, and thus more complex and open ended than sequencing of a finite length genome, social construction of expectations from unraveling of the sugar code versus the DNA code might have evolved differently, as being future-uncertain versus future-proof, respectively, thus potentially explaining the “sugar lag” in precision/personalized medicine diagnostics over the past decades. We conclude by introducing systems scientists, physicians, and biotechnology industry to the concept, practice, and value of responsible innovation, while glycomedicine and other emerging biomarker technologies (e.g., metagenomics and pharmacomicrobiomics) transition to applications in health care, ecology, pharmaceutical/diagnostic industries, agriculture, food, and bioengineering, among others.

Eweys, O. A., M. J. Escorihuela, J. M. Villar, S. Er-Raki, A. Amazirh, L. Olivera, L. Jarlan, S. Khabba, and O. Merlin, "Disaggregation of SMOS Soil Moisture to 100 m Resolution Using MODIS Optical/Thermal and Sentinel-1 Radar Data: Evaluation over a Bare Soil Site in Morocco", Remote Sensing , vol. 9, issue 11, pp. 1155, 2017. Abstract

The 40 km resolution SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) soil moisture, previously disaggregated at a 1 km resolution using the DISPATCH (DISaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale CHange) method based on MODIS optical/thermal data, is further disaggregated to 100 m resolution using Sentinel-1 backscattering coefficient (σ°). For this purpose, three distinct radar-based disaggregation methods are tested by linking the spatio-temporal variability of σ° and soil moisture data at the 1 km and 100 m resolution. The three methods are: (1) the weight method, which estimates soil moisture at 100 m resolution at a certain time as a function of σ° ratio (100 m to 1 km resolution) and the 1 km DISPATCH products of the same time; (2) the regression method which estimates soil moisture as a function of σ° where the regression parameters (e.g., intercept and slope) vary in space and time; and (3) the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) method, which estimates 100 m resolution soil moisture from the cumulative probability of 100 m resolution backscatter and the maximum to minimum 1 km resolution (DISPATCH) soil moisture difference. In each case, disaggregation results are evaluated against in situ measurements collected between 1 January 2016 and 11 October 2016 over a bare soil site in central Morocco. The determination coefficient (R2) between 1 km resolution DISPATCH and localized in situ soil moisture is 0.31. The regression and CDF methods have marginal effect on improving the DISPATCH accuracy at the station scale with a R2 between remotely sensed and in situ soil moisture of 0.29 and 0.34, respectively. By contrast, the weight method significantly improves the correlation between remotely sensed and in situ soil moisture with a R2 of 0.52. Likewise, the soil moisture estimates show low root mean square difference with in situ measurements (RMSD= 0.032 m3 m−3)

Hassan, R. M., M. E. Aboutabl, M. Bozzi, M. F. El-Behairy, A. M. El Kerdawy, B. Sampaolese, C. Desiderio, F. Vincenzoni, F. Sciandra, and I. A. Y. Ghannam, Discovery of 4-benzyloxy and 4-(2-phenylethoxy) chalcone fibrate hybrids as novel PPARα agonists with anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities: Design, synthesis and in vitro/in vivo biological evaluation, , vol. 115, pp. 105170, 2021. AbstractWebsite

In the current work, a series of novel 4-benzyloxy and 4-(2-phenylethoxy) chalcone fibrate hybrids (10a-o) and (11a-e) were synthesized and evaluated as new PPARα agonists in order to find new agents with higher activity and fewer side effects. The 2-propanoic acid derivative 10a and the 2-butanoic acid congener 10i showed the best overall PPARα agonistic activity showing Emax% values of 50.80 and 90.55%, respectively, and EC50 values of 8.9 and 25.0 μM, respectively, compared to fenofibric acid with Emax = 100% and EC50 = 23.22 μM, respectively. These two compounds also stimulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A gene transcription in HepG2 cells and PPARα protein expression. Molecular docking simulations were performed for the newly synthesized compounds to study their predicted binding pattern and energies in PPARα active site to rationalize their promising activity. In vivo, compounds 10a and 10i elicited a significant hypolipidemic activity improving the lipid profile in triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, including serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and VLDL levels. Compound 10i possessed better anti-hyperlipidemic activity than 10a. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it demonstrated significantly lower TC, TG, LDL and VLDL levels than that of fenofibrate at the same dose with similar HDL levels. Compounds 10i and 10a possessed atherogenic indices (CRR, AC, AI, CRI-II) like that of fenofibrate. Additionally, a promising antioxidant activity indicated by the increased tissue reduced glutathione and plasma total antioxidant capacity with decreased plasma malondialdehyde levels was demonstrated by compounds 10a and 10i. No histopathological alterations were recorded in the hepatic tissue of compound 10i (200 mg/kg).