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2021
Hegazi, N. M., H. H. Saad, M. M. Marzouk, M. A. F. Rahman, M. E. H. Bishbishy, A. Zayed, R. Ulber, and S. M. Ezzat, "Molecular Networking Leveraging the Secondary Metabolomes Space of Halophila stipulaceae (Forsk.) Aschers. and Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb. ex Solms) Asch. in Tandem with Their Chemosystematics and Antidiabetic Potentials", Marine Drugs, vol. 19, pp. 1-18, 2021.
Wright, N. J., A. J. M. Leather, N. Ade-Ajayi, N. Sevdalis, J. Davies, D. Poenaru, E. Ameh, A. Ademuyiwa, K. Lakhoo, E. R. Smith, et al., "Mortality from gastrointestinal congenital anomalies at 264 hospitals in 74 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries: a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study", The Lancet, vol. 398, no. 10297, pp. 325-339, 2021. AbstractWebsite

{Summary Background Congenital anomalies are the fifth leading cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years globally. Many gastrointestinal congenital anomalies are fatal without timely access to neonatal surgical care, but few studies have been done on these conditions in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared outcomes of the seven most common gastrointestinal congenital anomalies in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries globally, and identified factors associated with mortality. Methods We did a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of patients younger than 16 years, presenting to hospital for the first time with oesophageal atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, exomphalos, anorectal malformation, and Hirschsprung's disease. Recruitment was of consecutive patients for a minimum of 1 month between October, 2018, and April, 2019. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical status, interventions, and outcomes using the REDCap platform. Patients were followed up for 30 days after primary intervention, or 30 days after admission if they did not receive an intervention. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality for all conditions combined and each condition individually, stratified by country income status. We did a complete case analysis. Findings We included 3849 patients with 3975 study conditions (560 with oesophageal atresia, 448 with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 681 with intestinal atresia, 453 with gastroschisis, 325 with exomphalos, 991 with anorectal malformation, and 517 with Hirschsprung's disease) from 264 hospitals (89 in high-income countries, 166 in middle-income countries, and nine in low-income countries) in 74 countries. Of the 3849 patients, 2231 (58·0%) were male. Median gestational age at birth was 38 weeks (IQR 36–39) and median bodyweight at presentation was 2·8 kg (2·3–3·3). Mortality among all patients was 37 (39·8%) of 93 in low-income countries, 583 (20·4%) of 2860 in middle-income countries, and 50 (5·6%) of 896 in high-income countries (p<0·0001 between all country income groups). Gastroschisis had the greatest difference in mortality between country income strata (nine [90·0%] of ten in low-income countries, 97 [31·9%] of 304 in middle-income countries, and two [1·4%] of 139 in high-income countries; p≤0·0001 between all country income groups). Factors significantly associated with higher mortality for all patients combined included country income status (low-income vs high-income countries, risk ratio 2·78 [95% CI 1·88–4·11], p<0·0001; middle-income vs high-income countries, 2·11 [1·59–2·79], p<0·0001), sepsis at presentation (1·20 [1·04–1·40]

Uddin, M. S., A. A. Mamun, M. M. Rahman, P. Jeandet, A. Alexiou, T. Behl, M. S. Sarwar, E. Sobarzo-Sánchez, G. M. Ashraf, A. A. Sayed, et al., Natural Products for Neurodegeneration: Regulating Neurotrophic Signals, , 2021.
ezz, H. A. S., N. A. Noor, I. M. Mourad, H. Fahmy, and undefined, "Neurochemical effects of sleep deprivation in the hippocampus of the pilocarpine-induced rat model of epilepsy", Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, vol. 24, pp. 85-91, 2021.
Umek, T., T. Olsson, O. Gissberg, O. Saher, E. M. Zaghloul, K. E. Lundin, J. Wengel, E. Hanse, H. Zetterberg, D. Vizlin-Hodzic, et al., "Oligonucleotides Targeting DNA Repeats Downregulate Gene Expression in Huntington's Patient-Derived Neural Model System.", Nucleic acid therapeutics, vol. 31, issue 6, pp. 443-456, 2021. Abstract

Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the most common, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorders. It affects the striatum, cerebral cortex, and other subcortical structures leading to involuntary movement abnormalities, emotional disturbances, and cognitive impairments. HD is caused by a CAG•CTG trinucleotide-repeat expansion in exon 1 of the () gene leading to the formation of mutant HTT (mtHTT) protein aggregates. Besides the toxicity of the mutated protein, there is also evidence that mt transcripts contribute to the disease. Thus, the reduction of both mutated mRNA and protein would be most beneficial as a treatment. Previously, we designed a novel anti-gene oligonucleotide (AGO)-based strategy directly targeting the trinucleotide-repeats in DNA and reported downregulation of mRNA and protein in HD patient fibroblasts. In this study, we differentiate HD patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the efficacy of the AGO, a DNA/Locked Nucleic Acid mixmer with phosphorothioate backbone, to modulate transcription during neural development. For the first time, we demonstrate downregulation of mRNA following both naked and magnetofected delivery into neural stem cells (NSCs) and show that neither emergence of neural rosette structures nor self-renewal of NSCs is compromised. Furthermore, the inhibition potency of both mRNA and protein without off-target effects is confirmed in neurons. These results further validate an anti-gene approach for the treatment of HD.

Elrashdy, F., A. A. Aljaddawi, E. M. Redwan, and V. N. Uversky, "On the potential role of exosomes in the COVID-19 reinfection/reactivation opportunity.", Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics, vol. 39, issue 15, pp. 5831-5842, 2021. Abstract

We propose here that one of the potential mechanisms for the relapse of the COVID-19 infection could be a cellular transport pathway associated with the release of the SARS-CoV-2-loaded exosomes and other extracellular vesicles. It is possible that this "Trojan horse" strategy represents possible explanation for the re-appearance of the viral RNA in the recovered COVID-19 patients 7-14 day post discharge, suggesting that viral material was hidden within such exosomes or extracellular vesicles during this "silence" time period and then started to re-spread again.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

Biccard, B. M., P. D. Gopalan, M. Miller, W. L. Michell, D. Thomson, A. Ademuyiwa, E. Aniteye, G. Calligaro, M. S. Chaibou, H. T. Dhufera, et al., "Patient care and clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to African high-care or intensive care units (ACCCOS): a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study", The Lancet, vol. 397, no. 10288, pp. 1885-1894, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Summary Background There have been insufficient data for African patients with COVID-19 who are critically ill. The African COVID-19 Critical Care Outcomes Study (ACCCOS) aimed to determine which resources, comorbidities, and critical care interventions are associated with mortality in this patient population. Methods The ACCCOS study was a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study in adults (aged 18 years or older) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection who were referred to intensive care or high-care units in 64 hospitals in ten African countries (ie, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, and South Africa). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality censored at 30 days. We studied the factors (ie, human and facility resources, patient comorbidities, and critical care interventions) that were associated with mortality in these adult patients. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04367207. Findings From May to December, 2020, 6779 patients were referred to critical care. Of these, 3752 (55·3%) patients were admitted and 3140 (83·7%) patients from 64 hospitals in ten countries participated (mean age 55·6 years; 1890 [60·6%] of 3118 participants were male). The hospitals had a median of two intensivists (IQR 1–4) and pulse oximetry was available to all patients in 49 (86%) of 57 sites. In-hospital mortality within 30 days of admission was 48·2% (95% CI 46·4–50·0; 1483 of 3077 patients). Factors that were independently associated with mortality were increasing age per year (odds ratio 1·03; 1·02–1·04); HIV/AIDS (1·91; 1·31–2·79); diabetes (1·25; 1·01–1·56); chronic liver disease (3·48; 1·48–8·18); chronic kidney disease (1·89; 1·28–2·78); delay in admission due to a shortage of resources (2·14; 1·42–3·22); quick sequential organ failure assessment score at admission (for one factor [1·44; 1·01–2·04], for two factors [2·0; 1·33–2·99], and for three factors [3·66, 2·12–6·33]); respiratory support (high flow oxygenation [2·72; 1·46–5·08]; continuous positive airway pressure [3·93; 2·13–7·26]; invasive mechanical ventilation [15·27; 8·51–27·37]); cardiorespiratory arrest within 24 h of admission (4·43; 2·25–8·73); and vasopressor requirements (3·67; 2·77–4·86). Steroid therapy was associated with survival (0·55; 0·37–0·81). There was no difference in outcome associated with female sex (0·86; 0·69–1·06). Interpretation Mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is higher in African countries than reported from studies done in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Increased mortality was associated with insufficient critical care resources, as well as the comorbidities of HIV/AIDS, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and kidney disease, and severity of organ dysfunction at admission. Funding The ACCCOS was partially supported by a grant from the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa.

Barman, H. K., M. S. Aktar, H. M. Uddin, A. M. Akbar, D. Baleanu, and M. S. Osman, "Physically significant wave solutions to the Riemann wave equations and the Landau-Ginsburg-Higgs equation", Results in Physics, vol. 27: Elsevier, pp. 104517, 2021. Abstract
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Cromwell, E. A., J. C. P. Osborne, T. R. Unnasch, M. - G. Basáñez, K. M. Gass, K. A. Barbre, E. Hill, K. B. Johnson, K. M. Donkers, S. Shirude, et al., "Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.", PLoS neglected tropical diseases, vol. 15, issue 7, pp. e0008824, 2021. Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. In order to classify IUs that include locations that are environmentally suitable, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify an optimal threshold for suitability concordant with locations where onchocerciasis has been previously detected. This threshold value was then used to classify IUs (more suitable or less suitable) based on the location within the IU with the largest mean prediction. Mean estimates of environmental suitability suggest large areas across West and Central Africa, as well as focal areas of East Africa, are suitable for onchocerciasis transmission, consistent with the presence of current control and elimination of transmission efforts. The ROC analysis identified a mean environmental suitability index of 0·71 as a threshold to classify based on the location with the largest mean prediction within the IU. Of the IUs considered for mapping surveys, 50·2% exceed this threshold for suitability in at least one 5 × 5-km location. The formidable scale of data collection required to map onchocerciasis endemicity across the African continent presents an opportunity to use spatial data to identify areas likely to be suitable for onchocerciasis transmission. National onchocerciasis elimination programmes may wish to consider prioritising these IUs for mapping surveys as human resources, laboratory capacity, and programmatic schedules may constrain survey implementation, and possibly delaying MDA initiation in areas that would ultimately qualify.

El-Sokkary, R., S. Uysa, H. Erdem, R. Kullar, A. U. Pekok, F. Amer, S. Girgic, B. Carevic, A. El-Kholy, and J. Rello, "Profiles of multidrug-resistant organisms among patients with bacteremia in intensive care units: An international ID-IRI survey", European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, issue 11, pp. 2323-2334, 2021. multidrug-resistant_organisms.pdf
El-Sokkary, R., S. Uysal, H. Erdem, R. Kullar, A. U. Pekok, F. Amer, S. Grgić, B. Carevic, A. El-Kholy, and A. Liskova, "Profiles of multidrug-resistant organisms among patients with bacteremia in intensive care units: An international ID-IRI survey", European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, issue 11: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 2323-2334, 2021. Abstract
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Majmundar, A. J., F. Buerger, T. A. Forbes, V. Klämbt, R. Schneider, K. Deutsch, T. M. Kitzler, S. E. Howden, M. Scurr, K. S. Tan, et al., "Recessive variants impair actin remodeling and cause glomerulopathy in humans and mice.", Science advances, vol. 7, issue 1, 2021. Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. We found recessive variants in two families with early-onset NS by exome sequencing. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) , but not cDNA constructs bearing patient variants, increased active CDC42 and promoted filopodia and podosome formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of CDC42 or its effectors, formin proteins, reduced NOS1AP-induced filopodia formation. knockdown reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR), which was rescued by overexpression of WT but not by constructs bearing patient variants. PMR in knockdown podocytes was also rescued by constitutively active or the formin Modeling a patient variant in knock-in human kidney organoids revealed malformed glomeruli with increased apoptosis. mice recapitulated the human phenotype, exhibiting proteinuria, foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis. These findings demonstrate that recessive variants impair CDC42/DIAPH-dependent actin remodeling, cause aberrant organoid glomerulogenesis, and lead to a glomerulopathy in humans and mice.

Zayed, A., M. K. Mansour, M. S. Sedeek, M. H. Habib, R. Ulber, and M. A. Farag, "Rediscovering bacterial exopolysaccharides of terrestrial and marine origins: novel insights on their distribution, biosynthesis, biotechnological production, and future perspectives", Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 42, issue 4, pp. 597-617, 2021.
Zayed, A., M. K. Mansour, M. S. Sedeek, M. H. Habib, R. Ulber, and M. A. Farag, "Rediscovering bacterial exopolysaccharides of terrestrial and marine origins:novel insights on their distribution, biosynthesis, biotechnological production, and future perspectives", Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 2021.
Burgmaier, K., L. Brinker, F. Erger, B. B. Beck, M. R. Benz, C. Bergmann, O. Boyer, L. Collard, C. Dafinger, M. Fila, et al., "Refining genotype-phenotype correlations in 304 patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and PKHD1 gene variants.", Kidney international, 2021. Abstract

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a severe disease of early childhood that is clinically characterized by fibrocystic changes of the kidneys and the liver. The main cause of ARPKD are variants in the PKHD1 gene encoding the large transmembrane protein fibrocystin. The mechanisms underlying the observed clinical heterogeneity in ARPKD remain incompletely understood, partly due to the fact that genotype-phenotype correlations have been limited to the association of biallelic null variants in PKHD1 with the most severe phenotypes. In this observational study we analyzed a deep clinical dataset of 304 patients with ARPKD from two independent cohorts and identified novel genotype-phenotype correlations during childhood and adolescence. Biallelic null variants frequently show severe courses. Additionally, our data suggest that the affected region in PKHD1 is important in determining the phenotype. Patients with two missense variants affecting amino acids 709-1837 of fibrocystin or a missense variant in this region and a null variant less frequently developed chronic kidney failure, and patients with missense variants affecting amino acids 1838-2624 showed better hepatic outcome. Variants affecting amino acids 2625-4074 of fibrocystin were associated with poorer hepatic outcome. Thus, our data expand the understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in pediatric ARPKD patients and can lay the foundation for more precise and personalized counselling and treatment approaches.

El Gaafary, M., J. Lehner, A. M. Fouda, A. Hamed, J. Ulrich, T. Simmet, T. Syrovets, and A. M. El-Agrody, "Synthesis and evaluation of antitumor activity of 9-methoxy-1H-benzo [f] chromene derivatives", Bioorganic Chemistry, vol. 116: Elsevier, pp. 105402, 2021. Abstract
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El Gaafary, M., A. M. Fouda, H. M. Mohamed, A. Hamed, H. K. A. El-Mawgoud, L. Jin, J. Ulrich, T. Simmet, T. Syrovets, and A. M. El-Agrody, "Synthesis of $\beta$-Enaminonitrile-Linked 8-Methoxy-1H-Benzo [f] Chromene Moieties and Analysis of Their Antitumor Mechanisms", Frontiers in chemistry, vol. 9: Frontiers Media SA, 2021. Abstract
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Hendawy, H., A. Uemura, D. Ma, R. Namiki, H. Samir, M. F. Ahmed, A. Elfadadny, H. M. El-Husseiny, C. Chieh-Jen, and R. Tanaka, "Tissue harvesting site effect on the canine adipose stromal vascular fraction quantity and quality", Animals, vol. 11, issue 2, pp. 460, 2021. animals-11-00460-v2_1.pdf
A.M.Shehata, F.MS.salem, E. M. Elsaied, A. S. S. El-Rahman, M. Y. Mahmoud, and undefined, "Zinc Nanoparticles Ameliorate the Reproductive Toxicity Induced by Silver Nanoparticles in Male Rats", International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 16, issue 1178-2013, pp. 2555-2568, 2021.
2020
Bakeer, H. G., A. M. Zamzam, M. A. Y. Abdalla, and A. I. Khalil, Phase shift module with an enhanced frequency multiplier and temperature compensation in local oscillator path, , no. 10567063: Analog Devices International UC, February, 2020. Abstract

Systems and methods for providing phase shifting in antenna arrays, such as phased antenna arrays of 5G cellular technology, are disclosed. In one aspect, an example phase shift module may include a phase shifter and a frequency multiplier. The phase shifter is configured to receive an LOcal oscillator (LO) signal and output a signal that is phase-shifted by a desired phase shift with respect to the LO signal. The frequency multiplier may be an enhanced frequency multiplier, configured to use not only the phase-shifted signal but also an inverted version of the phase-shifted signal to generate a frequency-multiplied signal having a frequency that is a multiple of the LO signal frequency. In another aspect, an example phase shift module may be configured to apply to an LO signal a phase shift that takes into consideration variations of phase shift over temperature.

Khouly, R. A., D. Youssef, J. El-Azab, S. Hassab-Elnaby, and undefined, "Holographic Projection of Brain Magnetic Resonance Data Based White and Gray matter Segmentation", Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics 2020 (Translational, Microscopy, OCT, OTS, BRAIN), OSA Technical Digest, USA, April, 2020.
Johansson, K. S. L., M. El-Soda, E. Pagel, R. C. Meyer, K. Tõldsepp, A. K. Nilsson, M. Brosché, H. Kollist, J. Uddling, and M. X. Andersson, Genetic controls of short- and long-term stomatal CO2 responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, , vol. 126, issue 1, pp. 179 - 190, 2020/04/16/. AbstractWebsite

The stomatal conductance (gs) of most plant species decreases in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. This response could have a significant impact on plant water use in a future climate. However, the regulation of the CO2-induced stomatal closure response is not fully understood. Moreover, the potential genetic links between short-term (within minutes to hours) and long-term (within weeks to months) responses of gs to increased atmospheric CO2 have not been explored.We used Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred lines originating from accessions Col-0 (strong CO2 response) and C24 (weak CO2 response) to study short- and long-term controls of gs. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling short- and long-term gs responses to elevated CO2, as well as other stomata-related traits.Short- and long-term stomatal responses to elevated CO2 were significantly correlated. Both short- and long-term responses were associated with a QTL at the end of chromosome 2. The location of this QTL was confirmed using near-isogenic lines and it was fine-mapped to a 410-kb region. The QTL did not correspond to any known gene involved in stomatal closure and had no effect on the responsiveness to abscisic acid. Additionally, we identified numerous other loci associated with stomatal regulation.We identified and confirmed the effect of a strong QTL corresponding to a yet unknown regulator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2 concentration. The correlation between short- and long-term stomatal CO2 responses and the genetic link between these traits highlight the importance of understanding guard cell CO2 signalling to predict and manipulate plant water use in a world with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This study demonstrates the power of using natural variation to unravel the genetic regulation of complex traits.

Ullah, Z., S. Ali, N. Muhammad, N. Khan, M. Rizwan, M. D. Khan, N. Khan, B. Khattak, H. A. S. Alhaithloul, and M. H. Soliman, "Biochar impact on microbial population and elemental composition of red soil", Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 13, issue 16, pp. 1 - 9, 2020. Abstract
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Mohamed, H. T., V. Untereiner, G. Cinque, S. A. A. Ibrahim, M. Götte, N. Q. Nguyen, R. Rivet, G. D. Sockalingum, and S. Brézillon, " Infrared Microspectroscopy and Imaging Analysis of Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells and Their GAG Secretome ", Molecules, vol. 25, issue 18, pp. 4300, 2020. molecules-25-04300.pdf
Pusiol, A., F. Marzona, D. Cucchiaro, L. Castriotta, S. Usai, M. Narduzzi, C. Pilotto, I. Liguoro, R. Tosolini, and E. Passone, "Articles online first", Minerva Pediatrica, 2020. Abstract
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