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Ungefroren, H., A. Hyder, H. Hinz, S. Groth, H. Lange, K. F. M. El-Sayed, S. Ehnert, A. K. Nüssler, F. Fändrich, and F. Gieseler, "Pluripotency gene expression and growth control in cultures of peripheral blood monocytes during their conversion into programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO): evidence for a regulatory role of autocrine activin and TGF-$\beta$", PloS one, vol. 10, no. 2: Public Library of Science, pp. e0118097, 2015. Abstract
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Ungefroren, H., A. Hyder, M. Schulze, K. M Fawzy El-Sayed, E. Grage-Griebenow, A. K. Nussler, and F. Fändrich, "Peripheral blood monocytes as adult stem cells: molecular characterization and improvements in culture conditions to enhance stem cell features and proliferative potential", Stem cells international, vol. 2016: Hindawi, 2016. Abstract
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Ungefroren, H., A. Hyder, M. Schulze, K. M Fawzy El-Sayed, E. Grage-Griebenow, A. K. Nussler, and F. Fändrich, "Peripheral Blood Monocytes as Adult Stem Cells: Molecular Characterization and Improvements in Culture Conditions to Enhance Stem Cell Features and Proliferative Potential", Stem Cells International, vol. 2016: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015. Abstract
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Ungefroren, H., A. Hyder, M. Schulze, K. M Fawzy El-Sayed, E. Grage-Griebenow, A. K. Nussler, and F. Fändrich, "Peripheral blood monocytes as adult stem cells: molecular characterization and improvements in culture conditions to enhance stem cell features and proliferative potential", Stem cells international, vol. 2016: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015. Abstract
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Ungefroren, H., A. Hyder, H. Hinz, S. Groth, H. Lange, K. F. M. El-Sayed, S. Ehnert, A. K. Nüssler, F. Fändrich, and F. Gieseler, "Pluripotency gene expression and growth control in cultures of peripheral blood monocytes during their conversion into programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO): evidence for a regulatory role of autocrine activin and TGF-β", PloS one, vol. 10, issue 2: Public Library of Science, 2015. Abstract
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University, A. R. M. A. P. P. N. C. /, S. A. - R. M. A. P. P. N. C. / / University, and A. M. H. A. F. L. / P. N. / Z. University, "Congenital Anomalies among Children: Knowledge and Attitude of Egyptian and Saudi Mothers", Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, vol. Vol.3, No.20, issue ISSN 2224-3208 ISSN 2225-093X, pp. 18-31, 2013. 9828-12031-1-pb.pdf
University, A. R. M. A. P. P. N. C. /, S. A. - R. M. A. P. P. N. C. / University, and L. Y. A. S. L. P. N. M. University, "Mothers versus Pediatric Nurses’ Attitude Regarding Mothers’ Presence during Invasive Nursing Procedures for Their Hospitalized Children", Life Science Journal 2013;, vol. 10(3), issue (ISSN: 1097-8135)., pp. 379-388], Submitted. 057_19594life1003_379_388.pdf
university), M. S.(R. C., D. N. U. B.) Kiefer C.(MRI Physicist, A. R.(N. U. Bern), and M. Elkoussi, "Susceptibility-Weighted MR Imaging for Diagnosis of Capillary Telangiectasia of the Brain", AJNR American Journal of NeuroRadiology , vol. Vol. (33) ., issue No. (4) Apr 2012., pp. 715–20 , 2012.
Unnithan, A. R., N. A. M. Barakat, M. F. Abadir, A. Yousef, and H. Y. Kim, ": Novel CdPdS/PVAc core–shell nanofibers as an effective photocatalyst for organic pollutants degradation", Journal of Molecular Catalysis A , vol. 363, pp. 186-194, 2012.
and Unuofin J.O., Moubasher H.A., O. N. A. I. U. U., "Production of polyextremotolerant laccase by Achromobacter xylosoxidans HWN16 and Citrobacter freundii LLJ16", Biotechnology Reports . 22 e00337. , vol. 22, pp. e00337, 2019.
Urbán, D., M. M. Marei, D. Hajnal, G. Varga, D. Érces, M. Poles, D. Imre, A. Szabó, R. M. Cervellione, and T. Cserni, "Mucosectomy disrupting the enteric nervous system causes contraction and shrinkage of gastrointestinal flaps: potential implications for augmentation cystoplasty.", Journal of pediatric urology, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 20-26, 2020. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Augmenting the bladder with a seromuscular gastrointestinal flap is a promising alternative approach aiming for a mucus-free bladder augmentation; however, the contraction (shrinkage) of the flaps remains a major concern. Enteric nervous system (ENS) abnormalities cause a failure of relaxation of the intestinal muscle layers in motility disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease and intestinal neuronal dysplasia. In mammals, the submucosal enteric nervous plexus contains nitrergic inhibitory motor neurons responsible for muscle relaxation. The authors hypothesize that mucosectomy disconnects the submucosal nervous plexus from the myenteric plexus resulting in flap shrinkage.

STUDY DESIGN: After ethical approval, mucosectomy was performed on vascularized flaps from the ileum, colon, and stomach in five anesthetized pigs. In Group (I), only the mucosa was scraped off with forceps, creating a sero-musculo-submucosal flap, while in Group (II), the mucosa and submucosa were peeled off as one layer, leaving a seromuscular flap. Isolated and detubularized segments served as control. The width of each flap was measured before and after the mucosectomy. The ENS was assessed by neurofilament immunohistochemistry in conventional sections and by acetylcholinesterase and NADPH-diaphorase enzyme histochemistry in whole-mount preparations.

RESULTS: The stomach contracted to a lesser extent of its original width, 92.82 ± 7.86% in Group (I) and 82.24 ± 6.96% in Group (II). The ileum contracted to 81.68 ± 4.25% in Group (I) and to 72.675 ± 5.36% in Group (II). The shrinkage was most noticeable in the colon: 83.89 ± 15.73% in Group (I) and to 57.13 ± 11.51% in Group (II). One-way equal variance test showed significant difference (P < 0,05) between Group (I) and (II), comparing stomach with ileum and ileum with colon. The histochemistry revealed that the submucosal nervous plexus containing nitrergic inhibitory neurons was disconnected from the myenteric plexus in Group (II) of all specimens.

CONCLUSION: Mucosectomy resulted in significant immediate shrinkage of the flaps. This was more expressed when also the submucosa was peeled off, thus fully disrupting the ENS. The shrinkage affected the stomach the least and the colon the greatest. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration when planning mucus-free bladder augmentation.

Usama, M., F. Abdelaziem, W. Rashed, E. Maher, M. E. Beltagy, and W. Zekri, "ASSESSMENT OF POSTURAL STABILITY IN CHILDREN WITH POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMOR", Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, vol. 32(3), pp. 12267-12273, 2021.
Usama, M., F. H. Abdelaziem, and W. Zekri, "EFFECT OF HYDROTHERAPY ON MUSCLE STRENGTH IN CHILDREN WITH BRAIN TUMOR", 18th International Scientific Conference of Faculty of Physical Therapy - Cairo University, Egypt, March , 2017.
Usama Lotfi(M.D, M. R. C. S.), M. H.(M.D), and R. K.(M.D), "Minilaparotomy for Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Surgery in the Endovascular Surgery Era", Kasr El Aini Journal of Surgery , 2012. fin-1_january_2012_minilaparotomy.pdf
Usama Salem, E. J. Matta, A. Youssef, and K. M. Elsayes, Genitourinary System AT Introduction to Diagnostic Radiology, , , 2015.
Usama Salem, Christine O. Menias, Akram Shaaban, Priya R. Bhosale, A. Youssef, and K. M. Elsayes, "Hematopoietic tumors of the female genital system: imaging features with pathologic correlation", Abdominal Imaging , 2014.
Usman, W. A., S. J. Mahmoud, and Z. H. Ahmed, "Antimicrobial activity of stem bark of Faidherbia albida", Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp. 786–794, 2013. Abstract
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