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Raafat, I. I., N. A. Azab, M. M. Khorshied, M. H. Yacoub, and L. A. Samy, "Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) G/T gene polymorphism in Egyptian systemic lupus erythematosus female patients ", The Egyptian Rheumatologist , vol. 37, pp. 75-80, 2015.
Raafat, R., A. Mohamed, R. Samy, T. ElDeeb, Y. Farouk, M. Elkhouly, and H. A. H. Fahmy, "A Decimal Fully Parallel and Pipelined Floating Point Multiplier", Forty-Second {A}silomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, {A}silomar, {C}alifornia, {USA}, oct, 2008. Abstract

Decimal floating-point multiplication is important in many commercial applications including financial analysis, banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance, and accounting. This paper presents a fully parallel Decimal64 floating point multiplier compliant to IEEE Std 754-2008 standard for floating point arithmetic. The proposed multiplier possesses novel methods to target low latency. The proposed design is based on previously published fixed point multiplier that uses a novel BCD 4221 recoding for decimal digits to improve the area and latency of the partial product generation and the partial product reduction tree. Several enhancements are introduced to the design; the final carry propagation adder is implemented using a full parallel decimal adder with a Kogge-Stone prefix tree, the sticky bit is generated parallel to the shifter to reduce the critical path delay. The design is extendible to support Decimal128 floating point multiplication. The multiplier is hardware verified for functionality on an FPGA.

Raafat, K. A., M. M. S. ElDin, and Y. M. S. Mostaf, "Ultrasound biomicroscopy of Phakic-6 Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens For High Myopia", Cataract and Cornea, vol. 10, pp. 114-121, 2004.
Raafat, K. A., R. S. H. M. Allam, and B. M. Medhat, "OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH NONOCULAR BEHÇET DISEASE.", Retina , 2019.
Raafat, S., and H. Yousry, Clinical pathway for CRF patients, , Germany, LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2015. 978-3-659-76894-1.pdf
Raafat, H., R. M., "A Tree Structured Neural Network for Document Analysis and Recognition, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Oct. 20th- 22nd, 1993, pp 939-941, Tsukuba Science City, Japan.", Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Tsukuba Science City, Japan., pp. pp–939, 1993. Abstract
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raafat, R., R. Dwedar, and E. El-Seidi, "evaluation of chrmogenic medium (cps) inthe isolation and identification of urinary tract pathogens", the egyptian journal of medical microbiology, vol. 24 no 2, issue 1110-2179, pp. 29-34, 2015. final_copy_chromogenic_media.doc
Raafat, H., M. Zahran, and M. Rashwan, "Arabase: A Database Combining Different Arabic Resources with Lexical and Semantic Information", KDIR, a part of IC3K, the international Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, In a Special Session on Text Mining, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, SCITE Press, 2013.
Raafat, A., and A. A. AbdelHamed, "Effect of electrical stimulation on femoral artery blood flow in chronic heart failure. Effect of electrical stimulation on femoral artery blood flow in chronic heart failure", Bulletin of physical therapy, Cairo University . , vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 13- 19, Submitted.
raafat, R., R. Dwedar, and E. El-Seidi, "evaluation of chrmogenic medium (cps) inthe isolation and identification of urinary tract pathogens", the egyptian journal of medical microbiology, vol. 24 no 2, issue 1110-2179, pp. 29-34, 2015. final_copy_chromogenic_media.doc
Raafat, H. A., M. H. S. Dabbous, and A. Osman, "Multifrequency Tympanometry In Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients", Med J. Cairo Univ., vol. 74, no. 4 Suppl. III: Cairo University, pp. 99–107, 2006. Abstract
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Raafat, H., R. M. Azmy, R. Shamloul, and A. Eldeeb, "Importance of early recognition of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like disorders in the Egyptian population", The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, vol. 53, issue 4: Medknow Publications, pp. 219, 2016. Abstract
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Raafat, A., S. S. Tahoun, and N. M. Aboul Ela, "Palynology and palynofacies of the Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous successions of northwest Egypt", Arabian Journal of Geosciences., vol. 14, pp. 2539, 2021.
Raafat, A., H. Khaled, N. Mokhtar, A. R. Zekri, and H. Gaballah, "Human papilloma virus infection and overexpression of p53 protein in bilharzial bladder cancer", Cancer Molecular Biology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1481-1492, 2000. AbstractWebsite

An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and bladder cancer has been reported. However, the role of HPV in bilharzial bladder cancer and its prevalence are not yet clarified. We investigated 50 cases for HPV types 16/18 by in situ hybridization (ISH). Also, p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in 41 of these 50 cases, with correlation of these factors to clinicopathologic parameters and tumor relapse after primary treatment. HPV was detected in 46% of Egyptian bladder carcinomas (23/50 cases). Positivity was 47.8% for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 36.4% for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There was a possible viral- bilharzial association as 52.8% of bilharzial cases, while only 12.5% of non bilharzial cases were HPV positive (p<0.05). P53 protein was found in 19/41cases (46.3%). Concordance between HPV and p53 was present in 58.5% of cases. Both factors studied were not related to tumor recurrence after primary treatment. So, HPV may be implicated in the aetiology of bilharzial bladder cancer, however a definite causal relationship remains unsolved. HPV together with p53 alterations might work in synergy to accelerate the carcinogenic process, as there was concordance in the results of both parameters in 24/41 cases (58.5%).

Raafat, A., S. S. Tahoun, and A. N. Ela, "Palynomorph biostratigraphy, palynofacies, thermal maturity and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the Bajocian-Aptian succession in the OBA D-8 Well, Matruh Basin, Egypt", Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol. 177, pp. Article # 104157, 2021.
Raafat, M., M. El-Kalioubie, and Sahar Mahmoud Mansoura, "MRI and three dimensional ultrasonography in the assessment of pulmonary hypoplasia in fetuses with urinary tract anomalies", The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, vol. 47, pp. 1753-1764, 2016.
raafat, R., R. Dwedar, and E. El-Seidi, "evaluation of chrmogenic medium (cps) inthe isolation and identification of urinary tract pathogens", the egyptian journal of medical microbiology, vol. 24 no 2, issue 1110-2179, pp. 29-34, 2015. final_copy_chromogenic_media.doc
Raafat, A., I. R. Abdel-Shafi, M. A. M. Ismail, and N. M. Amin, "EFFICACY OF FECAL CALPROTECTIN AS A MARKER FOR THE PATHOGENICITY OF BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINIS ", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 51, issue 3, pp. 641-646, 2021. Abstract

Fecal calprotectin (f-CP) is a marker of inflammation in intestine, calprotectin is released by
whilte blood cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells.
This study used the f-CP level as a factor to determine the pathogenicity of Blastocystis hom-
inis. The f-CP levels were measured in Blastocystis hominis patients as compared to negative B.
hominis ones with gastrointestinal symptoms related to healthy controls.
A total of 235 stool samples were divided into three groups. G1: 88 stool samples of patients
with gastrointestinal complaints positive only for blastocysts hominis. G2: 75 stool samples of
patients with gastrointestinal complains and B. hominis free. G3: 72 stool samples of healthy
volunteers, with neither gastrointestinal symptoms nor microbiological infection.
The levels of f-CP were determined by specific ELISA showed that the f-CP concentration was
highest in G1 & G2 as compared separately with G3, with significant differences (P < 0.001),
but without significant difference between G1 & G2 (p =0.453).
Keywords: Blastocystis hominis, Fecal calprotectin, Gastrointestinal symptoms.

Raafat, S. S., S. Z. Ezzat, Y. A. Khachaba, and L. A. Aboul-Nasr, "Autologous Mastopexy and Autoaugmentation of the Breast", Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Global Open, vol. 8, issue e3126, 2020.
Raafat, A., S. Mowafy, S. M. Abouseri, M. A. Fouad, and N. A. Farag, "Lead generation of cysteine based mesenchymal epithelial transition (c-Met) kinase inhibitors: Using structure-based scaffold hopping, 3D-QSAR pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation.", Computers in biology and medicine, vol. 146, pp. 105526, 2022. Abstract

Cysteine-based mesenchymal-epithelial transition (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a definitive role during cancer progression and was identified as a possible target for anti-angiogenesis drugs. In the present study, different protocols of computer-based drug design were performed. Construction of predictive pharmacophore model using HypoGen algorithm resulted in a validated model of four features of positive ionizable, hydrogen bond acceptor, hydrophobic, and ring aromatic features with a correlation coefficient of 0.87, a configuration cost of 14.95, and a cost difference of 357.92. The model revealed a promising predictive power and had >90% probability of representing true correlation with the activity data. The model was established using Fisher's validation test at the 95% confidence level and test set prediction (r = 0.96), furthermore, the model was validated by mapping of set of compounds undergoing clinical trials as class Ⅱ c-met inhibitors. The generated valid pharmacophore model was then anticipated for virtual screening of three data bases. Moreover, scaffold hopping using replace fragments protocol was implemented. Hits generated were filtered according to Lipinski's rule; 510 selected hits were anatomized and subjected to molecular docking studies into the crystal structure of c-Met kinase. The good correlation between docking scores and ligand pharmacophore mapping fit values provided a reliable foundation for designing new potentially active candidates that may target c-Met kinase. Eventually, eight hits were selected as potential leads. Subsequently, seven (Hits) have displayed a higher dock score and demonstrated key residue interactions with stable molecular dynamics simulation. Therefore, these c-Met kinase inhibitors may further serve as new chemical spaces in designing new compounds.

Raafat, M., M. El-Kalioubie, and S. Mahmoud Mansour, "MRI and three dimensional ultrasonography in the assessment of pulmonary hypoplasia in fetuses with urinary tract anomalies.", The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, vol. Volume 47, issue Issue 4, pp. 1753-1764, 2016.
Raafat, K. A., R. S. H. M. Allam, and B. M. Medhat, "OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH NONOCULAR BEHÇET DISEASE.", Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), 2018 Apr 23. Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the optical coherence tomography angiography findings in nonocular Behçet disease.

METHODS: The superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) and outer retinal and choroidal flow were evaluated using optical coherence tomography angiography. Perimetry was performed to correlate any microvascular and functional changes.

RESULTS: Capillary nonperfusion areas were found in the superficial capillary plexus in 16/20 eyes (80%) and in the DCP in 17/20 eyes (85%). Perifoveal capillary arcade disruption and vessel rarefaction were present in both plexuses in all cases. Capillary telangiectasia was present in the superficial capillary plexus in five eyes (25%) and in the DCP in all eyes. Telangiectasia of the parafoveal capillaries was present in the DCP in all eyes. The mean area of the foveal avascular zone was not significantly different from that in 20 normal eyes (P = 0.68). However, mean and central subfield capillary density values were significantly lower (P < 0.001 and P < 0.005, respectively) in the Behçet disease group. Perimetry revealed central scotomata on the pattern deviation plot in 12 eyes (60%).

CONCLUSION: Telangiectasia of the parafoveal capillaries was detected in the DCP in all cases. Microvascular changes in the superficial capillary plexus and DCP in nonocular Behçet disease can be detected by optical coherence tomography angiography.

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