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R.S.Hafez, R. Ramdan, and S. S. El‑Khiyami, "Investigation of structural, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of PMMA doped with magnetite nanoparticles", J Mater Sci: Mater Electron , vol. 32, pp. 14557–14568, 2021.
R.S.Hafez, N. A. Hakeem, A. A. Ward, A. M. Ismail, and A. F. H. El‑kader, "Dielectric and Thermal Properties of PEO/PVDF Blend Doped with Diferent Concentrations of Li4Ti5O12 Nanoparticles", Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials , vol. 30, pp. 4468–4480, 2020.
R.Sabry, A.Badr, and A.Hegazy, "Optimization of Support Vector Machine Classifier based on Evolutionary Algorithm for Breast Cancer Diagnosis", International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 2012.
R.Shabana, "An approach for breeding an idotype of sunflower for irrigated area", 7th Inter.Congress Stat. ,Computer Sci. and Damographic Res,, vol. 6, pp. 37–57, 1982. Abstract
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RA, A., A. DK, and S. IA, "A localized case-control study of extra-gastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.", Indian J Pediatr., vol. 78, issue 4, pp. 418-22, 2011.
RA, R., F. MM, G. HI, and S. N, "1- T helper 17 and Tregs: a novel proposed mechanism for NB-UVB in vitiligo.", Exp Dermatol, vol. 23, issue 4, pp. 283-286, 2014.
RA, E. - A., H. F, A. - T. H, S. EM, A. - W. AH, A. H. A, S. M, E. - S. A, and A. - T. T., "Epigenetics and miRNA as predictive markers and targets for lung cancer chemotherapy.", Cancer Biol Ther., vol. 16, issue 7, pp. 1056-70, 2015.
RA, A., A. DK, and S. IA, "A localized case-control study of extra-gastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.", Indian J Pediatr., vol. 78, issue 10, pp. 1302, 2011.
RA, A., K. D, E. S. R, E. SM, S. GH, Y. SM, and H. RE, "• CD209-336A/G promotor polymorphism and its clinical associations in sickle cell disease Egyptian Pediatric patients", Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther , vol. 11, pp. 75– 81, 2018. cd209.pdf
RA, A., and A. DK, "A Case-Control Study of Enuresis among Children.", Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, vol. 59, issue 4, 2011.
RA, E. - B., El Sherity SY, and A. MG., "Body composition changes in asthmatic children regarding steroid therapy duration", Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal., vol. 19, pp. 18–24., 2020.
RA, H., T. SE, and F. WA, "PREVALENCE OF VISIBLE ENAMEL DEFECTS IN PERMANENT DENTITION AMONG A GROUP OF EGYPTION CHILDREN", Egypt Dent J, vol. 60 January, issue 0 070-9484, pp. 975-981, 2014. prevalence_of_visible_enamel.pdf
RA, W., P. E, R. CR, S. SK, W. RA, C. JE, P. I, S. NA, and M. L. BA, "GABA B receptor-modulated selective peripheral analgesia by the non-proteinogenic amino acid, isovaline", Neuroscience, vol. 213, pp. 154-60, 2012.
Raad, I. I., A. - M. Chaftari, H. A. Torres, E. M. Ayoub, L. I. Narouz, J. Bartek, and R. Hachem, "Challenge of hepatitis C in Egypt and hepatitis B in Mauritania", World J Hepatol, vol. 10, issue 9, 2018. AbstractWebsite

Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, mostly with genotype 4 that is highly associated with severe fibrosis. As a consequence, hepatocellular carcinoma has become the leading cause of cancer in this country. Mauritania is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV and HCV could both be iatrogenically transmitted through infected blood products, infected needles, and medical equipment improperly sterilized. Adequate and efficient healthcare and public health measures with good surveillance programs, access for screening, prevention strategies, and successful treatment are needed to halt the spread of these diseases. Herein, we have reviewed the epidemiology, modes of transmission, predisposing factors, and novel treatment modalities of these viruses. We have proposed practices and interventions to decrease the risk of transmission of HCV and HBV in the affected countries, including strict adherence to standard precautions in the healthcare setting, rigorous education and training of patients and healthcare providers, universal screening of blood donors, use of safety-engineered devices, proper sterilization of medical equipment, hepatitis B vaccination, as well as effective direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of HCV.

Raafat, A., S. S. Tahoun, and A. N. Ela, "Palynology and palynofacies of the Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous successions of northwest Egypt", Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 14, pp. Article # 2539, 2021.
Raafat, A., H. Khaled, N. Mokhtar, A. R. Zekri, and H. Gaballah, "Human papilloma virus infection and overexpression of p53 protein in bilharzial bladder cancer", Cancer Molecular Biology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1481-1492, 2000. AbstractWebsite

An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and bladder cancer has been reported. However, the role of HPV in bilharzial bladder cancer and its prevalence are not yet clarified. We investigated 50 cases for HPV types 16/18 by in situ hybridization (ISH). Also, p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in 41 of these 50 cases, with correlation of these factors to clinicopathologic parameters and tumor relapse after primary treatment. HPV was detected in 46% of Egyptian bladder carcinomas (23/50 cases). Positivity was 47.8% for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 36.4% for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There was a possible viral- bilharzial association as 52.8% of bilharzial cases, while only 12.5% of non bilharzial cases were HPV positive (p<0.05). P53 protein was found in 19/41cases (46.3%). Concordance between HPV and p53 was present in 58.5% of cases. Both factors studied were not related to tumor recurrence after primary treatment. So, HPV may be implicated in the aetiology of bilharzial bladder cancer, however a definite causal relationship remains unsolved. HPV together with p53 alterations might work in synergy to accelerate the carcinogenic process, as there was concordance in the results of both parameters in 24/41 cases (58.5%).

Raafat, I. I., N. M. H. Shaheen, M. H. Yacoub, M. A. Kamel, and R. S. Gheith, "Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) Genetic Polymorphisms Among Egyptian Systemic Lupus Erythematosus And Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients", Comp Clin Pathol, issue 22, pp. 617–625, 2013.
Raafat, I. I., N. A. Azab, M. M. Khorshied, M. H. Yacoub, and L. A. Samy, "Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) G/T gene polymorphism in Egyptian systemic lupus erythematosus female patients", The Egyptian Rheumatologist, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 75 - 80, 2015. AbstractWebsite

AbstractBackground Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. Many reports have provided evidence that signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 (STAT4) may participate in the pathogenesis of SLE. Aim of the work The aim was to investigate the clinical significance and possible association of \{STAT4\} (G/T) genetic polymorphism and the susceptibility to \{SLE\} in a cohort of Egyptian female patients. Patients and methods Sixty-five Egyptian \{SLE\} female patients and 100 age and sex-matched unrelated female healthy blood donors who served as controls, were included in the study. \{STAT4\} genotyping was performed by real time PCR-allelic discrimination technique. Results \{STAT4\} genotyping in patients revealed that 63.1% had GG, 32.3% \{GT\} and 6.15% wild (TT) genotype. There was a non-significant difference in the distribution of \{STAT4\} genotypes between patients and controls. Vasculitis, photosensitivity and lupus nephritis were significantly increased in patients with the homomutant (GG and TT) compared to heteromutant (GT) genotype (p = 0.0

raafat, R., R. Dwedar, and E. El-Seidi, "evaluation of chrmogenic medium (cps) inthe isolation and identification of urinary tract pathogens", the egyptian journal of medical microbiology, vol. 24 no 2, issue 1110-2179, pp. 29-34, 2015. final_copy_chromogenic_media.doc
Raafat, S. N., R. M. Amin, M. M. Elmazar, M. M. Khattab, and A. S. El-Khatib, "The sole and combined effect of simvastatin and platelet rich fibrin as a filling material in induced bone defect in tibia of albino rats.", Bone, vol. 117, pp. 60-69, 2018. Abstract

Statins like simvastatin (SIM) have demonstrated to have pleiotropic actions other than their conventional use as antilipidemic drugs. Also, nowadays natural scaffolds like platelets rich fibrin (PRF) showed promising results on bone regeneration. Aim This study compare the regenerative power of SIM and PRF added locally each as a sole filling material on induced bone defect and evaluate the combined effect using PRF loaded with SIM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A critical size bone defect was induced in 48 male albino rats of average weight 150-200 g and were divided into 4 groups according to the filling material. Control, PRF, SIM, and SIM/PRF group. Each group was subdivided according to the sacrificing period into two subgroups (one and two-months postoperatively). Tibial specimens were evaluated histologically using masson trichrome (MT) special stain to detect areas of new bone formation, immunohistochemically using anti- BMP2 and anti-VEGF, serum levels of Osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) were measured one and two months postoperatively using ELISA, Finally bone mineral density (BMD) at the bone defect area was analyzed using digital X-ray one and two-months postoperatively. RESULTS: The percentage of newly formed bone increased significantly in the three groups vs the control group with the highest significant increase (p < 0.001) in the SIM/PRF group one month postoperatively. Also, SIM/PRF group was the only group which showed significant bone maturation two-months postoperatively compared to the other groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant increase in positively stained BMP-2 and VEGF expression (p < 0.001) in the three groups vs the control group with the highest significant increase (p < 0.001) in the SIM/PRF group. Serum bone anabolic markers increased significantly in the SIM and SIM/PRF groups. In contrast, RANKL serum level decreased significantly in the SIM and SIM/PRF group one month postoperatively with no significant decrease in the PRF group vs the control group. Digital X-ray results revealed the highest BMD percent change was found in the SIM/PRF group and showed complete bone healing two-months postoperatively.

Raafat, I. I., N. E. Guindy, R. M. H. Shahin, and L. A. Samy, "Toll-like receptor 7 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk for systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control study", Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie, vol. 1, pp. 1-5, 2017. tlr_7.pdf
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