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Thesis
Sawan, S. A., E. M. Fahmy, A. Y. Radwan, and W. M. Badawy, Trunk kinetic and kinematic changes in chronic stroke patients, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2013.
Sawan, S. A., E. M. Fahmy, A. Y. Radwan, and W. M. Badawy, Trunk kinetic and kinematic changes in chronic stroke patients, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2013. Abstract

Background: Trunk performance is directly related to disability. Evaluating the trunk could be helpful in establishing a rational treatment plan in the physical therapy rehabilitation of people with stroke. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the strength of trunk flexors and extensors and to measure trunk kinematics in chronic stroke patients as to compare the results with healthy control subjects. Methods: Thirty stroke patients and 20 matched healthy subjects participated in the study. All participants were right handed male and with age ranged between 40 to 56 years. Stroke patients had moderate spasticity, able to walk independently, with a score less than or equal 11 according to the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Biodex Isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the peak torque of trunk flexor and extensor muscles and Extensor/Flexor ratio. A digital camera and Auto CAD computer software were used to measure trunk ROM in standing and seated postures from three planes (Sagittal, frontal and transverse planes). Results: Stroke patients showed significant decrease in trunk flexors and extensors peak torques with more reduction in the extensors as compared to the healthy subjects (P<0.05). Also stroke patients showed significant decrease in trunk ROM when been measured from the three planes. In addition a strong correlation was observed between trunk muscle torque and flexion–extension ROM. Conclusion: Stroke induced motor impairment of trunk muscle strength that may limit the chronic stroke patients to perform functional activities.

Key Words: Stroke - Trunk - Torque – Isokinetic - Kinematics - Auto CAD

Khoweiled, A. A., O. R. Ibrahim, N. M. Madbouly, W. A. Rabie, and undefined, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor in Egyptian Patients with Bipolar Disorder during mania: A Case Controlled Study, , Egypt, Cairo university, In Press. abstract.pdf
Ashry, M., Ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis in dogs, , Giza, Egypt, Cairo University, 2009. Abstract

Dogs have become an important household pet in Egypt beside their valuable part in the community, police and army forces and rescue organizations. The current study aimed at utilizing some important diagnostic techniques such as vaginal cytology and ultrasonography evaluation and improvement of canine reproduction.The current study was conducted on 45 out-patient bitches admitted to the Theriogenology Clinic from November 2008 to June 2009 for pregnancy diagnosis. These bitches were assigned into 2 groups, pregnant (28) and non pregnant (17). Based on vaginal cytology and ultrasonography, the non pregnant group bitches were evaluated and assigned into 7 bitches in anestrus,3 bitches in proestrus, 3 in estrus and 4 bitches in diestrus.Ultrasound examinations of pregnant group revealed that pregnancy was first detected 18 – 24 days post mating, 24 – 25 days from LH surge.Characterization of normal prenatal development was described and used to estimate fetal age. Fetal viability via heart beats was first assessed at 25 – 27days and via fetal movement at 34 – 36 days. Estimation of litter size was accurately done between 25 and 35 days. Parturition date was predicted and used to apply elective cesarean section with delivery of viable healthy puppies.In conclusion, we inferred that vaginal cytology is a simple, rapid and inexpensive test to confirm estrus and help an owner to determine the proper time to breed a bitch. Ultrasonography is a very valuable diagnostic tool to diagnose early pregnancy, estimate litter size, monitor fetal viability and predict parturition date; in addition, to differentiate between pregnancy and pyometra and other abnormalities.

Rashwan, E. M. M., K. A. - E. R. E. Nagar, and G. M. Hamza, Using the Psychological Profile in Differential Diagnosis between Tourette syndrome and Learning Disabilities Cases, , Giza, Cairo univ , 2011. Abstractglf_lrsl.pdf

The child from humanitarian grounds is first and foremost human
because of his personality and characteristics of his own make him different
from other in his abilities and aspects of strength and weakness and in this
case he needs from us all the care and attention as one of the special needs.
Children with Tourette syndrome are not of those who suffer from
mental or physical disabilities, they are normal children but they face some
motor and phonic disorders appeared in involuntary motor and vocal (Tics)
that characterized by sudden, repetitive, stereotyped, non-rhythmic,
purposeless, exchangeable tics that occur in many parts of the body that may
hide them from showing their abilities and that as a result of the presence of
disorder in one of centers of the brain that responsible for organization of
movement and its harmonization , although a number of them have average
intelligence and up to high intelligence , however there are some difficulties
facing those children as a result of the syndrome that affect their learning in
various fields (motor – language - social – emotional - cognitive) , so we must
study and understand the nature of this category and that can be achieved only
in the light of the criteria of the diagnosis recognized by the (DSM- IV- TR-
2000) for accurate and in –depth diagnosis for those children through
observing them and collecting data that contribute in early detection and find
border distinguishing between them and the many disorders which my
resemble them in a range of symptoms and differ in some , and that through
what is preparing of tests and measurements help in the detection of
differences in each of these categories (Tourette syndrome –Learning
disabilities) ,in order to draw a diagnostic picture for such these categories
and then set up an appropriate counseling and treatment services for them and
to provide effective programs.

El-Kady, A. A., M. H. Hatem, Y. B. A. El-Hay, and S. M. Rabie, Utilization of High-Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields as an Unconventional Non-Thermal Method of Liquid Foods Preservation, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2012. Abstractamgad_ahmed_el-kady.pdf

Increasing consumer demand for new products with high nutritional qualities
has spurred a search for new alternatives to food preservation. Pulsed electric field
(PEF) is an emerging technology for non thermal food preservation. Using this
technology, enzymes, pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms can be inactivated
without affecting the colour, flavour and nutrients of the food. PEF treatment may
be provided by applying pulsed electric field to a liquid food product in a
treatment zone between two electrodes at ambient, or slightly above ambient
temperature. Exposure of microbial cells to the electric field induces a
transmembrane potential in the cell membrane, which results in electroporation
(the permeabilization of the membranes of cells and organelles) and/or
electrofusion (the connection of two separate membranes into one) of the cells.
The main focus of this work was to design an innovative PEF system that provides
a uniform distribution of electric field, minimum increase in liquid temperature,
minimum fouling of electrodes, an energy efficient and high safety system. An
innovative pulsed electric field (PEF) unit was designed and constructed at Food
Technology Research Institute using modern technology. The system consists of
main equipments: high voltage pulse generator (10 – 80 kV) and treatment
chamber. The treatment chamber was designed containing two electrodes that are
electrically isolated from each other by an insulator element designed to form the
treatment chamber where most of the electric field is concentrated. Electric field
intensity in the range of (10-80 kV/cm) was applied with square bipolar pulses of
1 - 2 μs duration. The effect of PEF treatment on the inactivation of gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 suspended in simulated milk ultra-filtrate (SMUF)
of 100%, 66.67% and 50% concentrations were investigated. Treatments with the
same electrical power input but higher electric field strengths provided larger
degree of killing. The inactivation rate of E.coli was significantly increased with
increasing the electric field strength, treatment time and processing temperature.
Best Theses Awards, Cairo University (BTACU)
Information System Unit - 48 -
Kinetic analysis of microbial inactivation due to PEF and thermal treatment of E
coli suspended in SMUF were also studied. Comparison between measured
(experimental) and predicted (theoretical) variation of E.coli concentration with
time following the PEF treatment was discussed. The treated liquid was re-treated
more than once through the treatment chamber to provide higher microbial
inactivation.
Keywords:
Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF); Bipolar square pulses; Microbial inactivation;
Non-thermal food preservation Methods, Milk pasteurization.

Elassal, M. M., Utilizing the Theory of Constraints in Supply Chain Network Design, , Giza, Cairo University, 2014. Abstract

Over the past decades, companies have become more and more concerned with maximizing company profits as well as maximizing their customer service level by efficiently managing supply chains. This thesis focuses on three major supply chain decisions that are highly related to supply chain profit, namely facility location, safety stock, and lot sizing. The first decision is strategic in nature, as a part of the supply chain network design, while the other two can be classified as operational decisions. The current study attempts to deploy concepts borrowed from the Theory of Constraints (TOC) to maximize the overall throughput of the supply chain rather than maximizing the throughput of every process separately. By utilizing this concept, supply chain network design decisions should be made to minimize the amount of inventory at each region in order to reach the global optimization.
This thesis is intended to formulate, solve, and implement a mathematical model that incorporates the concepts of TOC into multi-echelon supply chain network design under demand uncertainty to determine the optimal location of facilities and the optimal lot size. The objective is to minimize the total cost across the supply chain network as well as to minimize the total inventory capacity at each facility. For that purpose, the researcher follows an incremental methodology in which a series of mathematical models are developed and solution algorithms are proposed and tested leading to a final comprehensive model. The first model focused on locating a new distribution center under demand uncertainty. It is, then, extended in the second model to consider the location of a new distribution center with varying inventory capacity. Another model is then applied to tackle the joint economic lot sizing problem (JELS) under demand uncertainty. The fourth model further integrates the facility location problem with the joint economic lot sizing problem under demand uncertainty. Finally, the fifth model utilizes the TOC in integrated facility location and joint economic lot sizing problems.
In order to solve these models, several computational intelligence optimization techniques are proposed, implemented, and compared: particle swarm optimization (PSO), gravitational system search (GSA), cuckoo search (CS), charged system search (CSS), non-dominated sorting charged system search (NSCSS), non-dominated sorting particle swarm (NSPSO) algorithm, and non-dominated genetic-II (NSGA-II).
Given the constrained nature of the problem, the thesis proposes and compares four methods (i.e. naive, penalty, penalty with feasibility rules, and heuristic) for handling problem constraints; moreover, it proposes and testes a mixed integer procedure (MI) for converting continuous stochastic algorithms into mixed integer stochastic algorithms.
The numerical analysis of results is accordingly presented, including comparisons with models established in the literature. In general, results show that applying the TOC reduces the total cost of the whole supply chain by about 50%. Results also demonstrate that solving the multi-objective problems by using multi-objective stochastic algorithms is better than solving them by using single objective stochastic algorithms, thereby reducing the total cost more than 80% and reducing the total inventory more than 18%; the best algorithm is, thus, the NSPSO with 99.71% of its final solutions ranked on the first front. Additionally, using varying inventory reduces the total inventory amount by about 20%. The suggested penalty with feasibility rules constraint handling method is considered better than the penalty or feasibility rules alone. The findings also assert that the CSS algorithm is the best algorithm for solving JELS problems.

Elyamani, A., Wind and earthquake analysis of spire of cimborio of Barcelona cathedral, , Barcelona, Spain, Technical university of Catalonia, 2009. Abstract

Barcelona Cathedral is one of the most important monuments not only in Spain but also all over the world. The construction of the Gothic cathedral started in 1298 under King Jaume II and in 1460 the main building was completed. The two architects Josep Oriol Mestres and August Font i Carreras completed the construction of the gothic façade in 1889 and the central spire in 1913, following the same design previously proposed by the French architect Charles Galters in 1408. The central spire reaches a height of 90 m over ground level which makes it very vulnerable when subjected to lateral loads like wind and earthquakes. Being finished at the beginning of the 20th century (when the concept of reinforced concrete was being widely spread) gave the builders the chance to centrally reinforce all masonry beams of the spire with steel ties and nowadays these steel ties are facing very severe problems due to corrosion. A complete project for restoration of the spire is being executed nowadays in which a complete dismantling and reconstruction will be carried out. The steel ties will be replaced with titanium ones in order to eliminate the corrosion problem. In order to understand wind and seismic performance of the spire and the role and strength contributions of the steel ties, the different applied loads on the spire which are self weight, wind loads and earthquake loads have been estimated ,then a numerical model of the spire has been created and analyzed using the finite element program DIANA. First a linear elastic analysis under the effect of spire self weight then a combination of spire self weight and wind loads and finally a combination of spire self weight and earthquake loads. The high tensile stresses in masonry beams under the effect of the combination of spire self weight and wind loads and the combination of spire self weight and earthquake loads meant that linear elastic analysis wasn't enough to describe the structure behavior and a nonlinear analysis was essential. A nonlinear analysis under the effect of spire self weight (using three different constitutive models to describe masonry nonlinear behavior) was investigated and it revealed an elevated safety margin as the spire can carry more than ten times its self weight. Then to investigate the seismic performance of the spire a nonlinear static pushover analysis (using two different constitutive models) has been carried out.As a conclusion of this study the steel ties are highly needed to carry the tensile stresses resulted from seismic actions and the spire would be able to resist a maximum base shear of 420 KN (16% of the spire self weight).

Report
Rashidy, H. E., Arab and International Experiences about the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes, , Cairo, Regional Workshop held by the Basel Convention Regional Centre for Training and Technology Transfer for the Arab States, 2007.
Selwaness, I., and R. Roushdy, The Arab Spring and the Employability of Youth: Early evidence from Egypt, : GLO Discussion Paper, 2017. Abstract
n/a
Robaa, S. M., atmospheric conditions and black cloud formation on Greater Cairo, , Giza, Faculty of Science – Cairo University, pp. 1-35, 2006.
Tourism