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Mohamed, Ahmed, and Osman, Mechanisms of Activating the Role of Institutional Frameworks in the Implementation of Urban Plans, , Cairo, Cairo University, Submitted.
Osman, E. A. I., Molecular genetic studies of some mutants in Drosophila malanogaster, : Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Ms.C. Thesis, 2005. Abstract
Radi, M., S. Fathy, and A. Osama, MRI of Painful elbow, , Cairo, Cairo, 2003.
Owis, M. I., A. M. Youssef, and Y. M. I. Kadah, Novel Techniques for Cardiac Arrhythmia Detection, , 2001. Abstract
ELShebiny, D. N. H., A. A. Hashem, and F. M. Owis, Numerical Investigation of Partially Cascaded Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2014.
El-Bahnasawy, R. A. K., Optimization of Virtual Reality Modeling Criteria for Web-based Systems, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2011.
mossad, F., D. Salah, O. afify, and A. Oraby, Pattern of neurological complications in pediatric kidney transplants recipients , , Cairo, 2018.
Fouad, H. H., E. Sheba, H. Okasha, and D. Elgendy, Patterns of functional dyspepsia among adult Egyptians, : Cairo University, 2003. Abstract
Abdullatif, M., tamer oasama, tarek mareii, mohamed khaled hamza, and mostafa ali mohamed eltantawy, perineural dexmedetmidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine iduced paravertenral block in patients undergoing thoracotomy, , cairo, cairo university, 2015.
a*, L. S., M. Y. Fahmy, and A. A. Orabi, a screening study of congenital disorders of glycosylation in undiagnosed patients with neurodevelopmental delay, , Cairo, Cairo university, 2017.
Ouda, S. M. E., Serum Beta-2 Microglobulin Level: A possible Marker for Disease Progression in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV related Liver Diseases, , Cairo, Cairo univ, 2014. Abstractacknowledgement.pdf

Background: Beta-2 microglobulin (Β2M) is responsible for transmission of peptide antigens on the surface of cells as part of HLA complex. Normal serum levels are less than 3µg/ml. It increases in inflammatory & malignant conditions including HCV infection. Aim: Determining the concentration of serum Β2M Levels in patients with HCV related chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma and correlate the results with clinical parameters for disease progression. Patients and methods: In this analytical cross sectional study 92 participants were included in 4 equal groups :Group(1) non cirrhotic chronic HCV , Group (2):HCV related liver cirrhosis , Group(3): HCC on top of HCV, Group (4): healthy Controls. History taking, clinical examination ,routine labs ,& US were done to all patients .Group specific inclusion criteria: PCR ,Metavir score for group (1) patients . CT & AFP for Group (3) patients. Β2M levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Quantitative variables presented by number and percent were compared by chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Results: The mean serum B2M level of Group (1) was (4.25±1.48) µg/ml., Group (2) was (7.48 ±3.04) µg/ml, Group (3) was (6.62 ±2.49) µg/ml, Group (4) was (1.62 ±0.63) µg/ml. Serum B2M levels were significantly higher in diseased than control group (p< 0.01)being significantly higher in Cirrhosis (7.48±3.04) and HCC groups (6.62±2.49) than HCV group (4.25±1.48) (p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between B2M Level and ALK , total & direct bilirubin & INR(p<0.05),and a significant inverse correlation between B2M level and Albumin, Total proteins ,HB,WBCS values (p< 0.05). There was no significant correlation between B2M level and viral load or Metavir & MELD Score, tumor size or AFP (p>0.05). The best cutoff for B2M was 4.55 with sensitivity 74%,& negative predictive values of 87.8% (p value<0.01) . The sensitivity of the test increased upon B2M & AFP combined estimation to 91%, Specificity to 91% and accuracy to 83%.
Conclusion: Serum B2M level is elevated in HCV chronic liver diseases and may be used as a marker of disease progression in patients with Hepatitis C related Liver Diseases.

• Serum B2M
• HCV Progression
• HCV Marker.

Osama, S., R. Mazloum, and H. Abou-Ali, Spatial modelling for air pollutants : case of greater cairo, Egypt, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2011.
Osama, S., R. Mazloum, and H. Abou-Ali, Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollutants: The Case of Egypt, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2017.
Ollaek, M., M. ElKholy, E. Samir, and A. A. Elhakim, Spinal Anesthesia in Caesarian Section: Sitting versus Lateral position Approach, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2011. all_thesis.pdf
abdul Magead, I., Studies in differential cross section for reactions involving Deformed Nuclei, , Giza, Cairo university, 2009.