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Journal Article
Hekim, N., Y. Coşkun, A. Sınav, A. H. Abou-Zeid, M. Ağırbaşlı, S. O. Akintola, Ş. Aynacıoğlu, M. Bayram, N. L. Bragazzi, C. Dandara, et al., "Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders", Omics: a journal of integrative biology, vol. 18, no. 7: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA, pp. 415–420, 2014. Abstract
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Ahmed, M. A., N. Okasha, and M. Gabal, "Transport and magnetic properties of Co-Zn-La ferrite", Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 83, issue 1, pp. 107 - 113, 2004. AbstractWebsite

The dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss factor (ε″) for the ferrite Co1-xZnxLa yFe2-yO4; 0.1≤x≤1.0 were measured at different frequencies (100kHz to 5MHz) and different temperatures (300-850K). More than one type of polarization participates in the dielectric process, Maxwell Wagner polarization is the one participating in the high temperature region. The electrical conductivity measurement showed that there is more than one conduction mechanism participating in conductivity. The hopping mechanism either by holes or electrons or both is the predominant one. The increase in conductivity is due to the thermally activated mobility and not to thermal creation of additional mobile charge carriers. The replacement of Fe 3+ by La on octahedral sites and the presence of Co2+ as well as Zn2+ ions on the tetrahedral sites play a significant role in the electrical and magnetic properties behavior of the investigates samples. The values of the activation energy obtained indicate the semi-conducting behavior of the investigated ferrite. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Othman, A. A., S. A. Syed, A. H. Newman, and N. D. Eddington, "Transport, metabolism, and in vivo population pharmacokinetics of the chloro benztropine analogs, a class of compounds extensively evaluated in animal models of drug abuse.", The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, vol. 320, issue 1, pp. 344-53, 2007 Jan. AbstractWebsite

Recently, extensive behavioral research has been conducted on the benztropine (BZT) analogs with the goal of developing successful therapeutics for cocaine abuse. The present study was conducted to characterize the contribution of dispositional factors in mediating the behavioral differences among the chloro BZT analogs and to identify cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in their metabolism. Bidirectional transport and efflux studies of four of the chloro BZT analogs were conducted. Screening with a panel of human and rat Supersomes was performed for 4',4''-diCl BZT. In addition, pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies for 4'-Cl and 4',4''-diCl BZT in Sprague-Dawley rats were conducted. The permeability of the chloro analogs ranged from 8.26 to 32.23 and from 1.37 to 21.65 x 10(-6) cm/s, whereas the efflux ratios ranged from 2.1 to 6.9 and from 3.3 to 28.4 across Madin-Darby canine kidney-multidrug resistance 1 (MDCK-MDR1) and Caco-2 monolayers, respectively. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil reduced the efflux ratios and enhanced the absorptive transport of the chloro BZT analogs. 4',4''-diCl BZT was a substrate of human CYP2D6 and 2C19 and rat 2C11 and 3A1. The brain uptake for 4'-Cl and 4',4''-diCl BZT was comparable and higher than previously reported for cocaine (brain-to-plasma partition coefficient = 4.6-4.7 versus 2.1 for cocaine). The rank order for t(1/2) was 4',4''-diCl BZT > 4'-Cl BZT > cocaine and for steady-state volume of distribution was 4'-Cl BZT > 4',4''-diCl BZT > cocaine. In conclusion, the chloro analogs differ significantly in their clearance and duration of action, which correlates to their behavioral profiles and abuse liability. Furthermore, these results suggest that the distinctive behavioral profile of these analogs is not due to limited brain exposure.

A.L.Aboul-Nasr, H.Hamza, Z.Abou-El-Maaty, H. Gaber, and O.Azzam, "Transvaginal ultrasound appearance of the ovary in infertile women with oligomenorrhea: association with clinical and endocrine profiles. ", Middle East Fertil. Soc. J, vol. 9, issue 2, pp. 140-149, 2004.
Osman, M. S., H. Rezazadeh, and M. Eslami, "Traveling wave solutions for (3+1) dimensional conformable fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with power law nonlinearity", Nonlinear Engineering, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 559–567, 2019.
Srivastava, H. M., D. Baleanu, J. T. Machado, M. S. Osman, R. Rezazadeh, S. Arshed, and H. Günerhan, "Traveling wave solutions to nonlinear directional couplers by modified Kudryashov method", Physica Scripta, vol. 95, issue 7, pp. 075217, 2020.
Idriss, N. K., H. G. Sayyed, A. Osama, and D. Sabry, "Treatment Efficiency of Different Routes of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Injection in Rat Liver Fibrosis Model.", Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, vol. 48, issue 5, pp. 2161-2171, 2018 Aug 16. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The most appropriate route for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation in the management of liver fibrosis remains controversial. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous and intrasplenic BM-MSC transplantation on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced rat liver fibrosis.

METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 10 rats per group): healthy control group, CCl4 group, CCl4/ recovery group, CCl4/BM-MSC intravenous group, and CCl4/BM-MSC intrasplenic group. BM-MSCs were isolated, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), and injected into fibrotic rats either intravenously or intrasplenically. Gene expression of interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), interferon (INF)-γ, hepatic growth factor, and the hepatocyte-specific marker cytokeratin 18 was estimated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor was detected by western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. At 2 weeks after intravenous and intrasplenic BM-MSC injections, GFP-positive cells were detected in liver tissue.

RESULTS: Both routes achieved a similar enhancement of liver function, which was confirmed by histopathological examination. The intravenous route was more effective than the intrasplenic route in reducing gene expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and INF-γ. However, fibrotic changes were still observed in the recovery group.

CONCLUSION: Intravenous BM-MSC injection was an efficient and appropriate route for BM-MSC transplantation for the management of liver fibrosis.

El-Haddad, M., M. El-Sebaie, R. Ahmad, E. Khalil, M. Shahin, R. Pant, M. Memon, A. Al-Hebshi, Y. Khafaga, M. Al-Shabanah, et al., "Treatment of aggressive fibromatosis: the experience of a single institution", Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 10: Elsevier, pp. 775–780, 2009. Abstract
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Wiersma, S. T., B. McMahon, J. M. Pawlotsky, C. L. Thio, M. Thursz, S. G. Lim, P. Ocama, G. Esmat, M. Mendy, D. Bell, et al., "Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in resource-constrained settings: expert panel consensus (vol 31, pg 755, 2011)", LIVER INTERNATIONAL, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 174, JAN, 2012. Abstract
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OA, A., B. DA, E. L. - H. MS, E. M. ZM, S. RM, and E. L. - M. MS, "Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids by fractional carbon dioxide laser: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.", Lasers Med Sci., vol. 24, 2015.
Omar, M. T. A., A. A. - E. L. - G. Ebid, and A. M. E. Morsy, "Treatment of Post-Mastectomy lymphedema with Laser therapy Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Study", Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 165, issue 1, pp. 82–90, 2011. CU-PDF.pdf
Hashem, M. Y., I. I. ISMAIL, and E. E. Omar, "Treatment of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F.(Bruchidae: Coleoptera) with low oxygen atmospheres containing carbon dioxide", Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, vol. 101, 1994. Abstract
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Bourne, R., J. D. Steinmetz, S. Flaxman, P. S. Briant, H. R. Taylor, S. Resnikoff, R. J. Casson, A. Abdoli, E. Abu-Gharbieh, A. Afshin, et al., "Trends in prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment over 30 years: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study", The Lancet Global Health, issue 20, pp. 1 - 14, 2020/12//. AbstractWebsite
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Mohamed, A., T. A. Osman, A. Khattab, and M. Zaki, "Tribological behavior of carbon nanotubes as an additive on lithium grease", Journal of Tribology, vol. 137, issue 1, 2015.
Khalil, W., A. Mohamed, M. Bayoumi, and T. A. Osman, "Tribological properties of dispersed carbon nanotubes in lubricant", Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon NanostructuresFullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures, vol. 24, issue 7: Taylor & Francis, pp. 479 - 485, 2016. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACTThis study examined the tribological properties of two lubricating oils, mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles used as additives with various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 wt.%). The friction and wear experiments were performed using a four ball tribotester. The samples were tested for their anti-wear, load carrying capacity, and friction coefficients according to ASTM D-2783, ASTM D-2596, and ASTM D-5183 standards. The experimental results show that the addition of MWCNTs to base oils exhibit good friction reduction and anti-wear properties. The wear test results show a decreased wear by 68% and 39% in the case of MWCNTs-based mineral oil as compared with base mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, respectively. Furthermore, the friction reduction results show a decrease of friction about 57% and 49% in the case of MWCNTs-based mineral oil as compared with base mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, respectively. The weld load of the base oil containing 1% MWCNTs was found to be 400 kgf and 125 kgf as compared with base mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, respectively, which got welded at 200 kgf and 100 kgf. The morphologies and typical element distribution of the worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The SEM micrographs and EDX chemical analysis confirm the formation of a tribolayer composed of the elements from the nanoparticles.ABSTRACTThis study examined the tribological properties of two lubricating oils, mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles used as additives with various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 wt.%). The friction and wear experiments were performed using a four ball tribotester. The samples were tested for their anti-wear, load carrying capacity, and friction coefficients according to ASTM D-2783, ASTM D-2596, and ASTM D-5183 standards. The experimental results show that the addition of MWCNTs to base oils exhibit good friction reduction and anti-wear properties. The wear test results show a decreased wear by 68% and 39% in the case of MWCNTs-based mineral oil as compared with base mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, respectively. Furthermore, the friction reduction results show a decrease of friction about 57% and 49% in the case of MWCNTs-based mineral oil as compared with base mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, respectively. The weld load of the base oil containing 1% MWCNTs was found to be 400 kgf and 125 kgf as compared with base mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils, respectively, which got welded at 200 kgf and 100 kgf. The morphologies and typical element distribution of the worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The SEM micrographs and EDX chemical analysis confirm the formation of a tribolayer composed of the elements from the nanoparticles.

Moustafa, B. S. Azzam, A. S. H.R, and T. A. Osman, "TRIBOLOGICAL, MECHANICAL AND NOISE PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR BRAKES OF HIGH SPEED TRAINS ", nternational Journal of Development Research, vol. 06, issue 08, pp. 8856-8861, 2016. 5999.pdf
Fahim, M. M., M. F. Attia, K. A. Abada, and A. K. Okasha, "Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent against root and crown rots of strawberry", Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology (Egypt), 1989. Abstract
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Zaki, S. A., S. A. Ouf, F. M. Albarakaty, M. M. Habeb, A. A. Aly, and K. A. Abd-Elsalam, "Trichoderma harzianum-Mediated ZnO Nanoparticles: A Green Tool for Controlling Soil-Borne Pathogens in Cotton", Journal of Fungi, vol. 7, no. 11, 2021. AbstractWebsite

ZnO-based nanomaterials have high antifungal effects, such as inhibition of growth and reproduction of some pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Therefore, we report the extracellular synthesis of ZnONPs using a potential fungal antagonist (Trichoderma harzianum). ZnONPs were then characterized for their size, shape, charge and composition by visual analysis, UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The TEM test confirmed that the size of the produced ZnONPs was 8–23 nm. The green synthesized ZnONPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies to reveal the functional group attributed to the formation of ZnONPs. For the first time, trichogenic ZnONPs were shown to have fungicidal action against three soil–cotton pathogenic fungi in the laboratory and greenhouse. An antifungal examination was used to evaluate the bioactivity of the mycogenic ZnONPs in addition to two chemical fungicides (Moncut and Maxim XL) against three soil-borne pathogens, including Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. The findings of this study show a novel fungicidal activity in in vitro assay for complete inhibition of fungal growth of tested plant pathogenic fungi, as well as a considerable reduction in cotton seedling disease symptoms under greenhouse conditions. The formulation of a trichogenic ZnONPs form was found to increase its antifungal effect significantly. Finally, the utilization of biocontrol agents, such as T. harzianum, could be a safe strategy for the synthesis of a medium-scale of ZnONPs and employ it for fungal disease control in cotton.

Zaki, S. A., S. A. Ouf, K. A. Abd-Elsalam, A. A. Asran, M. M. Hassan, A. Kalia, and F. M. Albarakaty, "Trichogenic Silver-Based Nanoparticles for Suppression of Fungi Involved in Damping-Off of Cotton Seedlings", Microorganisms, vol. 10, no. 2, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Mycogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by some biocontrol agents have shown the ability to inhibit the growth of numerous plant pathogenic fungi, which may be a unique method of disease management. This study describes the extracellular production of AgNPs by Trichoderma harzianum. The size, shape, charge, and composition of the AgNPs were subsequently studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, DLS, zeta potential, TEM, SEM, and EDX, among other methods. The AgNPs had sizes ranging from 6 to 15 nm. The antifungal activities of bio-synthesized AgNPs and two commercial fungicides (Moncut and Maxim XL) were tested against three soil-borne diseases (Fusarium fujikuroi, Rhizoctonia solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina). Cotton seedling illnesses were significantly reduced under greenhouse settings after significant in vitro antifungal activity was documented for the control of plant pathogenic fungi. The use of biocontrol agents such as T. harzianum, for example, may be a safe strategy for synthesizing AgNPs and using them to combat fungus in Egyptian cotton.

Othman, A. I., M. M. Amin, S. K. Abu-Elyazid, and G. A. Abdelbary, "Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride Pulsatile-Release Tablets for the Treatment of Morning Anginal Symptoms: Dual Optimization, Characterization and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation.", Current drug delivery, vol. 18, issue 8, pp. 1182-1196, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This research work aimed to target the early morning peak symptoms of chronic stable angina through formulating antianginal drug, Trimetazidine (TMZ) in a pulsatile-release tablet.

METHODS: The core formulae were optimized using 22 .31 factorial design to minimize disintegration time (DT) and maximize drug release after 5 minutes (Q5min). Different ratios of Eudragit S100 and Eudragit L100 were used as a coating mixture for the selected core with or without a second coating layer of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E50). The different formulation variables were statistically optimized for their effect on lag time and drug release after 7 hours (Q7h) using BoxBehnken design. The optimized formula (PO) was subjected to stability study and pharmacokinetic assessment on New Zealand rabbits.

RESULTS: The optimal core (F8) was found to have 1.76 min disintegration time and 61.45% Q5min PO showed a lag time of 6.17 h with 94.80% Q7h and retained good stability over three months. The pharmacokinetics study confirmed the pulsatile-release pattern with Cmax of 206.19 ng/ml at 5.33 h (Tmax) and 95.85% relative bioavailability compared to TMZ solution.

CONCLUSION: Overall pulsatile-release tablets of TMZ successfully released the drug after a desirable lag time, providing a promising approach for early morning anginal symptoms relief.

Hamdy, M., Osama Tahye, Khaled Farouk, A. E. Hadidy, and S. M. Ashraf Hussein, "Trimetazidine Improves Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease", Journal of the Egyptian Medical Association, Vol. 89, No. 1-12, June, 2006 , Submitted.
SOLIMAN, F. A. T. H. Y. M., M. F. Yousif, S. S. Zaghloul, M. O. N. A. M. OKBA, and A. A. Sleem, "TRITERPENES, PHENOLICS AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM SYRIACUM L. SUBSP. SINAICUM GREUTER AND BURDET AND O. MAJORANA L. HERBS", Bull. Fac. Pharm. Cairo Univ., vol. 47, issue 1, pp. 87-96, 2009. triterpens and phenolic.pdf
f Zekri, A. R. N. a, H. M. A. a El-Din, A. A. b Bahnassy, A. M. R. c El-Shehabi, H. a El-Leethy, A. d Omar, and H. M. e Khaled, "TRUGENE sequencing versus INNO-LiPA for sub-genotyping of HCV genotype-4", Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 412-420, 2005. AbstractWebsite

Hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes determination is an important factor for understanding the epidemiology of the virus, in the pre-treatment evaluation of the patients and in defining better treatment strategies. In the present study, we compared two commercially available assays for HCV genotyping: the reverse hybridization based Innogenetics INNO-LiPA HCV II and the direct sequencing by TRUGENE assay. The study included 31 HCV-RNA positive Egyptian patients; 18 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 8 with HCC, and 5 with cirrhosis. Using the TRUGENE genotyping test, all the samples had genotype 4 (100%) and subtyped as 4a in 18/31(58%), 4c in 10/31 (32%), 4e in 1/31 (3%), 4a/c in 1/31 (3%), and 4g in 1/31 (3%). Using the INNO-LiPA assay, 30 samples had genotype 4 (97%), and 1 sample had genotype 1e (3%). One sample showed mixed infection with type 4f and type 1. Only six samples were subtypable by INNO-LiPA, three were genotype 4c/d, and the other three were 4f, 4e, and 1e. Seven samples gave reactivity in the INNO-LiPA of lines 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, which are considered untypable by the interpretation chart but considered to be a rare HCV genotype 4 by the manufacturer. At the genotype level, there was a 97% concordance between TRUGENE sequencing and INNO-LiPA, but at the subtype level the concordance rate was 3% only. We conclude that the TRUGENE genotyping assay is a reliable test for HCV genotyping for the detection of major types and subtypes detection, while IN NO-LiPA is a good test at the genotype level but unreliable for subtyping especially in the Egyptian population. This is mainly due to the high diversity of genotype 4, which is the most prevalent genotype in Egypt. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

f Zekri, A. R. N. a, H. M. A. a El-Din, A. A. b Bahnassy, A. M. R. c El-Shehabi, H. a El-Leethy, A. d Omar, and H. M. e Khaled, "TRUGENE sequencing versus INNO-LiPA for sub-genotyping of HCV genotype-4", Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 412-420, 2005. AbstractWebsite

Hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes determination is an important factor for understanding the epidemiology of the virus, in the pre-treatment evaluation of the patients and in defining better treatment strategies. In the present study, we compared two commercially available assays for HCV genotyping: the reverse hybridization based Innogenetics INNO-LiPA HCV II and the direct sequencing by TRUGENE assay. The study included 31 HCV-RNA positive Egyptian patients; 18 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 8 with HCC, and 5 with cirrhosis. Using the TRUGENE genotyping test, all the samples had genotype 4 (100%) and subtyped as 4a in 18/31(58%), 4c in 10/31 (32%), 4e in 1/31 (3%), 4a/c in 1/31 (3%), and 4g in 1/31 (3%). Using the INNO-LiPA assay, 30 samples had genotype 4 (97%), and 1 sample had genotype 1e (3%). One sample showed mixed infection with type 4f and type 1. Only six samples were subtypable by INNO-LiPA, three were genotype 4c/d, and the other three were 4f, 4e, and 1e. Seven samples gave reactivity in the INNO-LiPA of lines 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, which are considered untypable by the interpretation chart but considered to be a rare HCV genotype 4 by the manufacturer. At the genotype level, there was a 97% concordance between TRUGENE sequencing and INNO-LiPA, but at the subtype level the concordance rate was 3% only. We conclude that the TRUGENE genotyping assay is a reliable test for HCV genotyping for the detection of major types and subtypes detection, while IN NO-LiPA is a good test at the genotype level but unreliable for subtyping especially in the Egyptian population. This is mainly due to the high diversity of genotype 4, which is the most prevalent genotype in Egypt. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Zekri, A. R. N., H. A. M. El-Din, A. A. Bahnassy, A. M. R. El-Shehabi, H. El-Leethy, A. Omar, and H. M. Khaled, "TRUGENE sequencing versus INNO-LiPA for sub-genotyping of HCV genotype-4.", Journal of medical virology, vol. 75, issue 3, pp. 412-20, 2005 Mar. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes determination is an important factor for understanding the epidemiology of the virus, in the pre-treatment evaluation of the patients and in defining better treatment strategies. In the present study, we compared two commercially available assays for HCV genotyping: the reverse hybridization based Innogenetics INNO-LiPA HCV II and the direct sequencing by TRUGENE assay. The study included 31 HCV-RNA positive Egyptian patients; 18 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 8 with HCC, and 5 with cirrhosis. Using the TRUGENE genotyping test, all the samples had genotype 4 (100%) and subtyped as 4a in 18/31(58%), 4c in 10/31 (32%), 4e in 1/31 (3%), 4a/c in 1/31 (3%), and 4g in 1/31 (3%). Using the INNO-LiPA assay, 30 samples had genotype 4 (97%), and 1 sample had genotype 1e (3%). One sample showed mixed infection with type 4f and type 1. Only six samples were subtypable by INNO-LiPA, three were genotype 4c/d, and the other three were 4f, 4e, and 1e. Seven samples gave reactivity in the INNO-LiPA of lines 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, which are considered untypable by the interpretation chart but considered to be a rare HCV genotype 4 by the manufacturer. At the genotype level, there was a 97% concordance between TRUGENE sequencing and INNO-LiPA, but at the subtype level the concordance rate was 3% only. We conclude that the TRUGENE genotyping assay is a reliable test for HCV genotyping for the detection of major types and subtypes detection, while INNO-LiPA is a good test at the genotype level but unreliable for subtyping especially in the Egyptian population. This is mainly due to the high diversity of genotype 4, which is the most prevalent genotype in Egypt.