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2021
Elbatrawy, A. A., S. J. Hyeon, N. Yue, E. E. A. Osman, S. H. Choi, S. Lim, Y. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Cui, and G. Nam, ""Turn-On" Quinoline-Based Fluorescent Probe for Selective Imaging of Tau Aggregates in Alzheimer's Disease: Rational Design, Synthesis, and Molecular Docking.", ACS sensors, vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 2281-2289, 2021. Abstract

Tau aggregation is believed to have a strong association with the level of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, optical brain imaging of tau aggregates has recently gained substantial attention as a promising tool for the early diagnosis of AD. However, selective imaging of tau aggregates is a major challenge due to sharing similar β-sheet structures with homologous Aβ fibrils. Herein, four quinoline-based fluorescent probes (Q-tau) were judiciously designed using the donor-acceptor architecture for selective imaging of tau aggregates. In particular, probe Q-tau 4 exhibited a strong intramolecular charge transfer and favorable photophysical profile, such as a large Stokes' shift and fluorescence emission wavelength of 630 nm in the presence of tau aggregates. The probe also displayed a "turn-on" fluorescence behavior toward tau fibrils with a 3.5-fold selectivity Aβ fibrils. In addition, Q-tau 4 exhibited nanomolar binding affinity to tau aggregates ( = 16.6 nM), which was 1.4 times higher than that for Aβ fibrils. The mechanism of "turn-on" fluorescence was proposed to be an environment-sensitive molecular rotor-like response. Moreover, labeling of human AD brain sections demonstrated favorable colocalization of Q-tau 4 and the phosphorylated tau antibody, while comparable limited staining was observed with Aβ fibrils. Molecular docking was conducted to obtain insights into the tau-binding mode of the probe. Collectively, Q-tau 4 has successfully been used as a tau-specific fluorescent imaging agent with lower background interference.

El-Hawary, S. S., M. M. Mubarek, R. A. Lotfy, A. R. Hassan, M. Sobeh, and M. O. N. A. M. OKBA, "Validation of Antidiabetic Potential of Gymnocarpos decandrus Forssk", Natural Product Research, 2021.
Elhawary, S. S., M. M. Mubarek, R. A. Lotfy, A. R. Hassan, M. Sobeh, and M. M. Okba, "Validation of Antidiabetic Potential of Gymnocarpos decandrus Forssk", Natural Product Research, vol. 35, issue 24, pp. 5954-5959, 2021. validation_of_antidiabetic_potential_of_gymnocarpos_decandrus_forssk.pdf
Osama Al Saadawy, B., N. Abdo, E. Embaby, and A. R. Youssef, "Validity and reliability of smartphones in measuring joint position sense among asymptomatic individuals and patients with knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.", The Knee, vol. 29, pp. 313-322, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Quantifying proprioception deficit in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) may be important in evaluating treatment effectiveness. This study investigated the concurrent and known-groups validity as well as test-retest reliability of a smartphone application in assessing joint position sense (JPS) in asymptomatic individuals and patients with knee OA.

METHODS: Sixty-four knees, from 16 asymptomatic controls and 16 patients with bilateral OA, were assessed twice with a 1-week interval in between. The smartphone Goniometer Pro application and isokinetic dynamometer simultaneously quantified JPS, in terms of absolute repositioning error (RE) angle, during active and passive limb movements at selected angles.

RESULTS: Both devices showed moderate to almost perfect correlations in measuring JPS; whether active (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.87) or passive (ICC >0.97). The mean RE angle differences between the two devices were <0.77° (passive JPS) and <2.76° (active JPS). Both devices were capable of distinguishing patients and asymptomatic controls at 55° and 80°. The smartphone showed moderate test-retest reliability of active JPS measurement (ICC = 0.51) in the two groups, similar to that of the isokinetic dynamometer (ICC = 0.62), but with a high measurement error.

CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone application is a valid alternative to the isokinetic dynamometer in assessing JPS in patients with knee OA and asymptomatic controls. The two devices could distinguish patients and asymptomatic volunteers during passive JPS measured at 55° and 80°. Both devices have moderate reliability in quantifying active JPS, but reliability results should be considered with caution.

Shaheen, I. A., R. Aboukhalil, N. Abulata, Rasha Abdel-Raouf, B. Meligy, and Omnia Abdel-Dayem, "Vitamin D Insufficiency is Not Associated With Pediatric and Adolescent Immune Thrombocytopenia A Study in Conjunction With its Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms", Pediatric Hematology / Oncology , vol. 43, issue 3, pp. 1-4, 2021.
Shaheen, I. I. A., R. Aboukhalill, N. Abulata, Rasha Abdel-Raouf, B. Meligy, and Omnia Abdel-Dayem, "Vitamin D Insufficiency is Not Associated With Pediatric and Adolescent Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Study in Conjunction With its Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms", J Pediatr Hematol Oncol  , vol. 43, issue 1, pp. e1-e5, 2021.
Shaheen, I. A. M., R. Aboukhalil, N. Abulata, Rasha Abdel-Raouf, B. Meligy, and Omnia Abdel-Dayem, "Vitamin D Insufficiency is Not Associated With Pediatric and Adolescent Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Study in Conjunction With its Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms.", Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology, vol. 43, issue 1, pp. e1-e6, 2021. Abstract

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a heterogeneous immunologic disorder. Vitamin D has immune-modulatory effects. The pleiotropic effects of vitamin D are exerted via vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its genetic alterations could influence its functions. In our study, we measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 98 Pediatric and Adolescent ITP patients, in addition to 100 apparently healthy controls. Genetic polymorphisms of the VDR gene FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI were tested using specific restriction enzymes for each polymorphism. Vitamin D deficiency in the studied Pediatric age was a dominant factor, but it was found not to be associated with Pediatric ITP. However, patients carrying the FokI CC genotype had statistically higher vitamin D levels compared with those carrying other genotypes (P=0.036). Patients who were carriers of the BsmI G allele had a nearly 2-fold higher risk of ITP (odds ratio: 2.203; 95% confidence interval: 1.467-3.309). Therefore, the BsmI polymorphism of VDR could be considered a molecular risk factor for ITP.

Osman, T., E. Kenawy, K. I. Abdrabo, D. Shaw, A. Alshamndy, M. Elsharif, M. Salem, M. Alwetaishi, R. M. Aly, and B. Elboshy, "Voluntary Local Review Framework to Monitor and Evaluate the Progress towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals at a City Level: Buraidah City, KSA and SDG11 as A Case Study", Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 17: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, pp. 9555, 2021. Abstract
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Saliou, Y., S. Abbagari, A. Houwe, M. S. Osman, D. S. Yamigno, K. T. Crépin, and M. Inc, "W-shape bright and several other solutions to the (3+ 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations", Modern Physics Letters B, vol. 35, issue 30: World Scientific, pp. 2150468, 2021. Abstract
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Kumar, S., R. Kumar, M. S. Osman, and B. Samet, "A wavelet based numerical scheme for fractional order SEIR epidemic of measles by using Genocchi polynomials", Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, vol. 37, pp. 1250–1268, 2021.
OMAR, A. L. A. A. A., S. H. AHMED, Y. A. E. Mobdy, H. A. Amra, and E. A. Abdel-Rahim, "Well-Developed Nanostructure Incorporated with Euphorbia Umbellata Extract into A Unique Form with Greater Biocompatibility ", PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, vol. 22, issue 27-28, pp. 143-156 , 2021.
Hawary, E. R., S. Meshaal, A. A. Mauracher, L. Opitz, A. D. Elaziz, S. Lotfy, A. Eldash, J. Boutros, N. Galal, P. J. Schmid, et al., "Whole‐exome sequencing of T‐B+ severe combined immunodeficiency in Egyptian infants, JAK3 predominance and novel variants", Clinical and experimental immunology, vol. 203, issue 3, pp. 448-457, 2021.
Osman, E. E. A., A. Rehemtulla, and N. Neamati, "Why All the Fury over Furin?", Journal of medicinal chemistry, 2021. Abstract

Analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 sequence revealed a multibasic furin cleavage site at the S1/S2 boundary of the spike protein distinguishing this virus from SARS-CoV. Furin, the best-characterized member of the mammalian proprotein convertases, is an ubiquitously expressed single pass type 1 transmembrane protein. Cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by furin promotes viral entry into lung cells. While furin knockout is embryonically lethal, its knockout in differentiated somatic cells is not, thus furin provides an exciting therapeutic target for viral pathogens including SARS-CoV-2 and bacterial infections. Several peptide-based and small-molecule inhibitors of furin have been recently reported, and select cocrystal structures have been solved, paving the way for further optimization and selection of clinical candidates. This perspective highlights furin structure, substrates, recent inhibitors, and crystal structures with emphasis on furin's role in SARS-CoV-2 infection, where the current data strongly suggest its inhibition as a promising therapeutic intervention for SARS-CoV-2.

Badawy, A. A., M. O. Alotaibi, A. M. Abdelaziz, M. S. Osman, A. M. A. Khalil, A. M. Saleh, A. E. Mohammed, and A. H. Hashem, "{Enhancement of seawater stress tolerance in barley by the endophytic fungus aspergillus ochraceus}", Metabolites, vol. 11, no. 7, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Eldin, M. M., A. S. Hassan, T. A. Tareef, M. Baraka, M. Gabr, and A. H. Omar, "Platelet Concentrate In Lumbar Interbody Cage Fusion: A New Era of Modality Of Fusion", Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021. oamjms-9b-356.pdf
Kachapila, M., A. O. Ademuyiwa, B. M. Biccard, D. N. Ghosh, J. Glasbey, M. Monahan, R. Moore, D. G. Morton, R. Oppong, R. Pearse, et al., "Preliminary model assessing the cost-effectiveness of preoperative chlorhexidine mouthwash at reducing postoperative pneumonia among abdominal surgery patients in South Africa", PLOS ONE, vol. 16, no. 8: Public Library of Science, pp. 1-19, 08, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background Pneumonia is a common and severe complication of abdominal surgery, it is associated with increased length of hospital stay, healthcare costs, and mortality. Further, pulmonary complication rates have risen during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This study explored the potential cost-effectiveness of administering preoperative chlorhexidine mouthwash versus no-mouthwash at reducing postoperative pneumonia among abdominal surgery patients. Methods A decision analytic model taking the South African healthcare provider perspective was constructed to compare costs and benefits of mouthwash versus no-mouthwash-surgery at 30 days after abdominal surgery. We assumed two scenarios: (i) the absence of COVID-19; (ii) the presence of COVID-19. Input parameters were collected from published literature including prospective cohort studies and expert opinion. Effectiveness was measured as proportion of pneumonia patients. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of parameter uncertainties. The results of the probabilistic sensitivity analysis were presented using cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results In the absence of COVID-19, mouthwash had lower average costs compared to no-mouthwash-surgery, $3,675 (R 63,770) versus $3,958 (R 68,683), and lower proportion of pneumonia patients, 0.029 versus 0.042 (dominance of mouthwash intervention). In the presence of COVID-19, the increase in pneumonia rate due to COVID-19, made mouthwash more dominant as it was more beneficial to reduce pneumonia patients through administering mouthwash. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curves shown that mouthwash surgery is likely to be cost-effective between $0 (R0) and $15,000 (R 260,220) willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusions Both the absence and presence of SARS-CoV-2, mouthwash is likely to be cost saving intervention for reducing pneumonia after abdominal surgery. However, the available evidence for the effectiveness of mouthwash was extrapolated from cardiac surgery; there is now an urgent need for a robust clinical trial on the intervention on non-cardiac surgery.

Mayne, P. W., S. S. Agaiby, and Z. Ouyang, "Analytical Effective Stress Piezocone Methods for Assessing Geoparameters of Offshore Clay", 4th International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics, Austin, TX, 10 Nov., 2021.
Osama, M., "Questioning the Sustainability of Rebel to Party Transformation: The Case of Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM)", The 78th Annual Midwest Political Science Association (MPSA) Conference, Peace Processes Panel, Virtual Conference, 17 April, 2021.
Al-Surhanee, A. A., M. Afzal, N. A. Bouqellah, S. A. Ouf, S. Muhammad, M. Jan, S. Kaleem, M. Hashem, S. Alamri, A. A. H. A. Latef, et al., "The Antifungal Activity of Ag/CHI NPs against Rhizoctonia solani Linked with Tomato Plant Health", Plants, vol. 10, issue 11, pp. 2283, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Pathogenic infestations are significant threats to vegetable yield, and have become an urgent problem to be solved. Rhizoctonia solani is one of the worst fungi affecting tomato crops, reducing yield in some regions. It is a known fact that plants have their own defense against such infestations; however, it is unclear whether any exogenous material can help plants against infestation. Therefore, we performed greenhouse experiments to evaluate the impacts of R. solani on 15- and 30-day old tomato plants after fungal infestation, and estimated the antifungal activity of nanoparticles (NPs) against the pathogen. We observed severe pathogenic impacts on the above-ground tissues of tomato plants which would affect plant physiology and crop production. Pathogenic infection reduced total chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, which subsequently disturbed plant physiology. Further, total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly increased in pathogen treatments. Constitutively, enhanced activities were estimated for catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS)in pathogen-treated plants. Moreover, pathogenesis-related genes, namely, chitinase, plant glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL1), pathogenesis-related protein (PR12), and pathogenesis-related protein (PR1) were evaluated, with significant differences between treated and control plants. In vitro and greenhouse antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), chitosan nanoparticles, and Ag NPs/CHI NPs composites and plant health was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. We found astonishing results, namely, that Ag and CHI have antifungal activities against R. solani. Overall, plant health was much improved following treatment with Ag NPs/CHI NPs composites. In order to manage R. solani pathogenicity and improve tomato health, Ag/CHI NPs composites could be used infield as well as on commercial levels based on recommendations. However, there is an urgent need to first evaluate whether these NP composites have any secondary impacts on human health or the environment.

Elsherif, H. M. R., A. Orabi, A. S. Ali, and A. Samy, Castor and propolis extracts as antibiotic alternatives to enhance broiler performance, intestinal microbiota and humoral immunity, , vol. 9, issue 5, pp. 734 - 742, 2021. Abstract
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Emam, S. H., A. Sonousi, E. O. Osman, D. Hwang, G. - D. Kim, and R. A. Hassan, "Design and synthesis of methoxyphenyl- and coumarin-based chalcone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents by inhibition of NO production and down-regulation of NF-κB in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells", Bioorganic, vol. 107, pp. 104630, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Exaggerated inflammatory responses may cause serious and debilitating diseases such as acute lung injury and rheumatoid arthritis. Two series of chalcone derivatives were prepared as anti-inflammatory agents. Methoxylated phenyl-based chalcones 2a-l and coumarin-based chalcones 3a-f were synthesized and compared for their inhibition of COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production suppression. Methoxylated phenyl-based chalcones showed better inhibition to COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide suppression than the coumarin-based chalcones. Among the 18 synthesized chalcone derivatives, compound 2f exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of nitric oxide concentration in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages (IC50 = 11.2 μM). The tested compound 2f showed suppression of iNOS and COX-2 enzymes. Moreover, compound 2f decreases in the expression of NF-κB and phosphorylated IκB in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Finally, docking studies suggested the inhibition of IKKβ as a mechanism of action and highlighted the importance of 2f hydrophobic interactions.

Akowuah, E., R. A. Benson, E. J. Caruana, G. Chetty, J. Edwards, S. Forlani, G. Gradinariu, G. J. Murphy, A. Y. Oo, A. J. Patel, et al., "Early outcomes and complications following cardiac surgery in patients testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019: An international cohort study", The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular SurgeryThe Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 162, issue 2: Elsevier, pp. e355 - e372, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Glasbey, J., A. Ademuyiwa, A. Adisa, E. Alameer, A. P. Arnaud, F. Ayasra, J. Azevedo, A. Minaya-Bravo, A. Costas-Chavarri, J. Edwards, et al., "Effect of COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on planned cancer surgery for 15 tumour types in 61 countries: an international, prospective, cohort study", The Lancet OncologyThe Lancet Oncology, vol. 22, issue 11: Elsevier, pp. 1507 - 1517, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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