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2021
Alam, M. N., E. Bonyah, M. Fayz-Al-Asad, M. S. Osman, and K. M. Abualnaja, "Stable and functional solutions of the Klein-Fock-Gordon equation with nonlinear physical phenomena", Physica Scripta, vol. 96, issue 5: IOP Publishing, pp. 055207, 2021. Abstract
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Liang, C., A. B. Rios-Miguel, M. Jarick, P. Neurgaonkar, M. Girard, P. François, J. Schrenzel, E. S. Ibrahim, K. Ohlsen, and T. Dandekar, "Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Data and Metabolic Modelling Investigate the Interplay of Ser/Thr Kinase PknB, Its Phosphatase Stp, the glmR/yvcK Regulon and the cdaA Operon for Metabolic Adaptation", Microorganisms, vol. 9, no. 10: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, pp. 2148, 2021. Abstract
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Owolabi, M. O., A. G. Thrift, S. Martins, W. Johnson, J. Pandian, F. Abd-Allah, C. Varghese, A. Mahal, J. Yaria, H. T. Phan, et al., "The state of stroke services across the globe: Report of World Stroke Organization-World Health Organization surveys.", International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society, vol. 16, issue 8, pp. 889-901, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Improving stroke services is critical for reducing the global stroke burden. The World Stroke Organization-World Health Organization- Commission on Stroke conducted a survey of the status of stroke services in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared to high-income countries.

METHODS: Using a validated World Stroke Organization comprehensive questionnaire, we collected and compared data on stroke services along four pillars of the stroke quadrangle (surveillance, prevention, acute stroke, and rehabilitation) in 84 countries across World Health Organization regions and economic strata. The World Health Organization also conducted a survey of non-communicable diseases in 194 countries in 2019.

RESULTS: Fewer surveillance activities (including presence of registries, presence of recent risk factors surveys, and participation in research) were reported in low-income countries than high-income countries. The overall global score for prevention was 40.2%. Stroke units were present in 91% of high-income countries in contrast to 18% of low-income countries (p < 0.001). Acute stroke treatments were offered in ∼ 60% of high-income countries compared to 26% of low-income countries (p = 0.009). Compared to high-income countries, LMICs provided less rehabilitation services including in-patient rehabilitation, home assessment, community rehabilitation, education, early hospital discharge program, and presence of rehabilitation protocol.

CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to improve access to stroke units and services globally especially in LMICs. Countries with less stroke services can adapt strategies from those with better services. This could include establishment of a framework for regular monitoring of stroke burden and services, implementation of integrated prevention activities and essential acute stroke care services, and provision of interdisciplinary care for stroke rehabilitation.

Akinyemi, R. O., B. Ovbiagele, O. A. Adeniji, F. S. Sarfo, F. Abd-Allah, T. Adoukonou, O. S. Ogah, P. Naidoo, A. Damasceno, R. W. Walker, et al., "Stroke in Africa: profile, progress, prospects and priorities.", Nature reviews. Neurology, vol. 17, issue 10, pp. 634-656, 2021. Abstract

Stroke is a leading cause of disability, dementia and death worldwide. Approximately 70% of deaths from stroke and 87% of stroke-related disability occur in low-income and middle-income countries. At the turn of the century, the most common diseases in Africa were communicable diseases, whereas non-communicable diseases, including stroke, were considered rare, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, evidence indicates that, today, Africa could have up to 2-3-fold greater rates of stroke incidence and higher stroke prevalence than western Europe and the USA. In Africa, data published within the past decade show that stroke has an annual incidence rate of up to 316 per 100,000, a prevalence of up to 1,460 per 100,000 and a 3-year fatality rate greater than 80%. Moreover, many Africans have a stroke within the fourth to sixth decades of life, with serious implications for the individual, their family and society. This age profile is particularly important as strokes in younger people tend to result in a greater loss of self-worth and socioeconomic productivity than in older individuals. Emerging insights from research into stroke epidemiology, genetics, prevention, care and outcomes offer great prospects for tackling the growing burden of stroke on the continent. In this article, we review the unique profile of stroke in Africa and summarize current knowledge on stroke epidemiology, genetics, prevention, acute care, rehabilitation, outcomes, cost of care and awareness. We also discuss knowledge gaps, emerging priorities and future directions of stroke medicine for the more than 1 billion people who live in Africa.

Omran, M. H., B. E. Foutouh, W. G. Shosha, and A. Ismail, "Strong Correlation of MTHER Gene Polymophism with Breast Cancer and its Prognostic Clinical Factors among Egyptian Females ", Asian pacific journal of cancer prevention , vol. 22, issue 2, pp. 617-626, 2021.
Kohyama, A., M. J. Kim, R. Yokoyama, S. Sun, A. M. Omar, N. D. Phan, M. R. Meselhy, K. Tsuge, S. Awale, and Y. Matsuya, "Structure-activity relationship and mechanistic study on guggulsterone derivatives; Discovery of new anti-pancreatic cancer candidate", Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry: Elsevier, pp. 116563, 2021. Abstract
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Gyebi, G. A., A. A. Elfiky, O. M. Ogunyemi, I. M. Ibrahim, A. P. Adegunloye, J. O. Adebayo, C. O. Olaiya, J. Ocheje, and M. M. Fabusiwa, Structure-based virtual screening suggests inhibitors of 3-Chymotrypsin-Like Protease of SARS-CoV-2 from Vernonia amygdalina and Occinum gratissimum, , 2021. Abstract
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Kumar, S., H. Almusawa, S. K. Dhiman, M. S. Osman, and A. Kumar, "A study of Bogoyavlenskii’s (2+ 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation: Lie symmetry, dynamical behaviors and closed-form solutions", Results in Physics, vol. 29: Elsevier, pp. 104793, 2021. Abstract
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Osman, R., S. Fathy, H. A. N. A. N. SHAFIK, N. Momen, R. Kandil, and R. Zayed, "Study of epigenetic regulation of H3K27me3 in acute myeloid leukemia.", International journal of laboratory hematology, 2021.
Kayum, M., R. Roy, A. M. Akbar, and M. S. Osman, "Study of W-shaped, V-shaped, and other type of surfaces of the ZK-BBM and GZD-BBM equations", Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 53, issue 7: Springer, pp. 1-20, 2021. Abstract
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Kayum, M. A., R. Roy, A. M. Akbar, and M. S. Osman, "Study of W‑shaped, V‑shaped, and other type of surfaces of the ZK‑BBM and GZD‑BBM equations", Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 53, pp. 387, 2021.
Okello, E., D. R. Williams, W. R. ElAshmawy, J. Adams, R. V. Pereira, T. W. Lehenbauer, and S. S. Aly, "Survey on Antimicrobial Drug Use Practices in California Preweaned Dairy Calves", Front Vet Sci, vol. 2021 Apr 22, issue 8, pp. 636670, 2021. Abstract

The California (CA) dairy industry was surveyed in July 2017 to evaluate producers' knowledge and perceptions and antimicrobial drug (AMD) use in preweaned dairy calves following the implementation of the nationwide veterinary feed directive final rule (VFD) in January 2017 and prior to statewide implementation of CA Senate Bill (SB) 27 in January 2018. Together, these regulations require veterinary oversight for all uses of medically important antimicrobial drugs (MIADs) administered to livestock in CA. Survey questionnaire was mailed to 1,361 CA Grade A milk producing dairies and calf ranches across CA resulting in a 12% (169) response. Most respondents (83%) were aware of the VFD and SB 27 changes. Use of antibiotics was perceived as important (77%) in raising preweaned dairy calves and judicious use of antibiotics was ranked as the most important antimicrobial stewardship practice, amongst record keeping, observing withdrawal periods, having a valid Veterinarian-Client-Patient-Relationship (VCPR), and use of alternatives to antibiotics. Treating sick calves was the major indication for AMD use (90.5%); however, few producers reported use of antibiotics to control (12.7%) or prevent disease (11%). Neomycin sulfate, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and sulfamethazine were the most used AMD. The respondents reported a decreased use of AMD in milk (10%) and in solid feed (5%), and discontinuation of one or more AMDs used in milk (18.6%) or in solid feed (5%) post-VFD rule implementation in 2017. Most respondents reported keeping treatment records and the information recorded included date (82%), dose (44%) and route (15%) of AMD used. A few respondents reported they had initiated use of alternatives to AMDs, such as vitamins (32.6%), minerals (25.6%), herbal remedies (11.6%) and pathogen specific antibodies (7%), post-VFD. The limited changes noted in AMD use could be attributed to the short period between the implementation of the VFD and the time of the survey. Our study outcomes identified opportunities to improve AMD use practices, including record keeping and use of AMD alternatives, and provides a baseline for future evaluation of the impact of these regulatory changes, as well as guidance for the future recommendations on best practices to promote judicious AMD use.

shimaa afify, B. Eysa, F. A. Hamid, O. M. Abo-Elazm, M. A. Edris, R. Maher, A. Abdelhalim, M. M. Abdel Ghaffar, D. A. Omran, and H. I. Shousha, "Survival and outcomes for co-infection of chronic hepatitis C with and without cirrhosis and COVID-19: A multicenter retrospective study.", World journal of gastroenterology, vol. 27, issue 42, pp. 7362-7375, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis, is associated with worse outcomes in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

AIM: To assess outcomes of COVID-19 infection among patients with pre-existing hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis.

METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included all cases of confirmed co-infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and chronic hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis who were admitted to six hospitals (Al-Sahel Hospital, Al-Matareya Hospital, Al-Ahrar Hospital, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Al-Gomhoreya Hospital, and the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute) affiliated with the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes in Egypt. Patients were recruited from May 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Demographic, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes were collected. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting mortality.

RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included 125 patients with chronic hepatitis C and COVID-19 co-infection, of which 64 (51.20%) had liver cirrhosis and 40 (32.00%) died. Fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms in patients with liver cirrhosis. Cough, sore throat, fatigue, myalgia, and diarrhea were significantly more common in patients with liver cirrhosis than in non-cirrhotic patients. There was no difference between patients with and without cirrhosis regarding comorbidities. Fifteen patients (23.40%) with liver cirrhosis presented with hepatic encephalopathy. Patients with liver cirrhosis were more likely than non-cirrhotic patients to have combined ground-glass opacities and consolidations in CT chest scans: 28 (43.75%) 4 (6.55%), respectively ( value < 0.001). These patients also were more likely to have severe COVID-19 infection, compared to patients without liver cirrhosis: 29 (45.31%) 11 (18.04%), respectively ( value < 0.003). Mortality was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis, compared to those with no cirrhosis: 33 (51.56%) 9 (14.75%), respectively ( value < 0.001). All patients in Child-Pugh class A recovered and were discharged. Cirrhotic mortality occurred among decompensated patients only. A multivariate regression analysis revealed the following independent factors affecting mortality: Male gender (OR 7.17, 95%CI: 2.19-23.51; value = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 4.03, 95%CI: 1.49-10.91; value = 0.006), and liver cirrhosis (OR 1.103, 95%CI: 1.037-1.282; value < 0.0001). We found no differences in liver function, COVID-19 disease severity, or outcomes between patients who previously received direct-acting antiviral therapy (and achieved sustained virological response) and patients who did not receive this therapy.

CONCLUSION: Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible to higher severity and mortality if infected with COVID-19. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis are independent factors associated with increased mortality risk.

Mohamed, A. - A. H., A. H. Basher, J. Q. M. Almarashi, and S. A. Ouf, "Susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Argon Cold Plasma Jet by Oxygen Admixture", Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 8, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Cold atmospheric pressure sterilization is one of the nominated and efficient techniques to prevent the spread of diseases. Reactive species such as O and OH and other radicals play a major role in the mechanism of plasma sterilization. Therefore, in this work, oxygen was mixed with different parentage from (0.2 to 1.2%) to argon to enhance the generation of the reactive species and increase the argon atmospheric pressure plasma sterilization efficacy. The emission spectra from the jet increase the radicle line intensities by increasing the percentage admixture of O2 with the argon gas to reach a maximum power at 0.8; then, it gradually decreases with a higher O2 percentage. The OH band intensity decreases with increasing the admixture of O2. The jet with different O2 percentages was tested against Gram-positive S. epidermidis, which is the causal agent of nosocomial infections. The maximum reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) was observed at 0.2% O2. No bacterial growth was observed at the later concentration applied for 8 min and the same case was detected at 0.4% O2 applied to 16 min.

Nabila Zein, Samy M. Shaban, Samir Hosny Shafek, Hamza Baghi, I. Aiad, and M. Omran, "Synthesis and characterization of new 1,2,4- triazole anticancer scaffold derivatives: in vitro study", Egyptian journal of chemistry, vol. 64, issue 8, pp. 4005-4015, 2021.
Mohamed El-Bayaa, A. M. Srour;, M. M. Omran;, M. M. Sharaky;, and W. A. El-Sayed, "Synthesis and Cytotoxic Properties of New Substituted Glycosides- Indole Conjugates as Apoptosis Inducers in Cancer Cells", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Journal., vol. 21, pp. 1-11, 2021.
Ahmed, Y. M., W. H. Mahmoud, M. M. Omar, and G. G. Mohamed, "Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of Transition Metals Schiff Base Complexes Derived from 4,6-Diacetylresorcinol and 1,8-Naphthalenediamine", Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, vol. 31, pp. 2339–2359 , 2021. ahmed2021_article_synthesischaracterizationandbi.pdf
Manar E. A. Elasasy, Dina H. Elnaggar, N. A. Abdel-Hafez, M. E. Azab, Abd El-Galil E. Amra, M. M. Omran, and A. M. Mohamed, "Synthesis, characterization and investigation of antiproliferative activity of novel hydrazono thiazolidene and thiazole Derivatives bearing Rhodanine moiety", Russian Journal of General Chemistry, vol. 91, issue 5, pp. 915–925, 2021.
Abou-Seri, S. M., A. A. M. Eissa, M. G. M. Behery, and F. A. Omar, "Synthesis, in vitro anticancer activity and in silico studies of certain isoxazole-based carboxamides, ureates, and hydrazones as potential inhibitors of VEGFR2.", Bioorganic chemistry, vol. 116, pp. 105334, 2021. Abstract

The ensuing research presents the results of in vitro anticancer activity of novel 28 compounds of isoxazole-based carboxamides 3(a-d); ureates 4(a-g), 5, 6, 7a,b, 8; and hydrazones 9(a-f), 10(a-d), 11a,b as potential inhibitors of VEGFR2. The carboxamides and ureates were synthesized by converting 5-(aryl)-isoxzaole-3-carbohydrazides 1a,b to the corresponding carbonylazides 2a,b followed by treatment with the appropriate amines. The hydrazones were directly obtained through condensation of the carbohydrazide 1a,b with aldehydes and/or ketones. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by elemental and spectral analyses. A preliminary in vitro anticancer screening of solutions (10M) on 60 cancer cell lines (NCI, USA) revealed that the carboxamide 3c is the most promising growth inhibitor. Explicitly, 3c showed potent anticancer activity at 10µ M against leukemia (HL-60(TB), K-562 and MOLT-4), colon cancer (KM12) and melanoma (LOX IMVI) cell lines with %GI range = 70.79-92.21. Evaluation of growth inhibitory activity of the synthesized compounds against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), that overexpresses VEGFR2, showed superior activity of compounds 8, 10a and 10c with IC in sub micromolar concentrations of 0.84, 0.79 and 0.69 μM, respectively, which is better than that of the reference drug, Sorafenib (IC = 3.99 µM). Moreover, these compounds displayed high selective cytotoxicity for HepG2 cancer cells over the nontumorigenic THLE2 liver cells (SI range = 26.37-38.60) which reflect their safety. The results of VEGFR2 kinase inhibition assay demonstrate that, compounds 8 and 10a are the most active inhibitors with IC = 25.7 and 28.2 nM, respectively, (Sorafenib IC = 28.1 nM). Molecular docking of the synthesized derivatives to VEGFR2 (PDB: 3WZE) showed similar binding modes to that of the co-crystallized ligand, sorafenib. Moreover, the results of computational assessment of ADME and drug-likeness characteristics inspire further investigations of the new isoxazole-based derivatives to afford more potent, safe and orally active VEGFR2 inhibitors as potential anticancer drug candidates.

Mohammed, E. Z., W. R. Mahmoud, R. F. George, G. S. Hassan, F. A. Omar, and H. H. Georgey, "Synthesis, in vitro anticancer activity and in silico studies of certain pyrazole-based derivatives as potential inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs)", Bioorganic Chemistry, vol. 116, pp. 105347, 2021.
Mohammed, E. Z., W. R. Mahmoud, R. F. George, G. S. Hassan, F. A. Omar, and H. H. Georgey, "Synthesis, in vitro anticancer activity and in silico studies of certain pyrazole-based derivatives as potential inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs)", Bioorganic Chemistry, vol. 116, pp. 105347-105361, 2021.
Mohammed, E. Z., W. R. Mahmoud, R. F. George, G. S. Hassan, F. A. Omar, and H. H. Georgey, "Synthesis, in vitro anticancer activity and in silico studies of certain pyrazole-based derivatives as potential inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs).", Bioorganic Chemistry, vol. 116, pp. 105347, 2021. Bioorganic_2021.pdf
Eesa, N. N., H. Abdel Nabi, R. E. Owaidy, I. Khalifa, A. R. Radwan, A. M. NourEl-Din, M. A. Amer, R. R. El Shereef, E. Hassan, F. Ismail, et al., "Systemic lupus erythematosus children in Egypt: Homeland spectrum amid the global situation.", Lupus, vol. 30, issue 13, pp. 2135-2143, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to present the manifestations of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) across Egypt, to focus on age at onset and gender-driven influence on disease characteristics, and to compare findings to other countries.

METHODS: The study included 404 Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting to one of the specialized rheumatology centers corresponding to 13 major governorates. Juvenile cases age was ≤ 16°years at the time of recruitment. The SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and damage index (DI) were assessed.

RESULTS: The mean age was 13.2 ± 2.4°years; 355 females and 49 males (7.2:1), and the disease duration was 2.3 ± 1.6 years, while age at disease onset was 11.1 ± 2.5°years. Their SLEDAI was 13.5 ± 12.3, and DI, 0.36 ± 0.78. The overall estimated prevalence of childhood-SLE patients in the recruited cohort in Egypt was 1/100,000 population (0.24/100000 males and 1.8/100000 females). 7.4% developed pre-pubertal SLE (≤ 7 years); 73.3%, peri-pubertal; and 19.3% during early adolescence. The differences according to age group were equal for gender and clinical manifestations except skin lesions present in 59.3% of pre-pubertal onset, 74.6% of peri-pubertal, and 84.2% of adolescents ( = 0.029), and renal involvement in 73.8% of peripubertal, 62.1% of pre-pubertal and 58.9% of adolescents ( = 0.03). Laboratory investigations, SLEDAI, and DI were similar among age categories. Lupus nephritis was more common in Egypt compared to JSLE from other countries.

CONCLUSION: Our large multicenter study identified that female gender influenced disease characteristics with more frequent skin involvement. Skin lesions were significantly higher in adolescents, while renal involvement in peri-pubertal children.

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