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2021
AbdelMassih, A. F., R. Menshawey, J. H. Ismail, R. J. Husseiny, Y. M. Husseiny, S. Yacoub, A. Kamel, R. Hozaien, E. Yacoub, EsraaMenshawey, et al., "PPAR agonists as effective adjuvants for COVID-19 vaccines, by modifying immunogenetics: a review of literature.", Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 82, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several coronavirus vaccine have been fast-tracked to halt the pandemic, the usage of immune adjuvants that can boost immunological memory has come up to the surface. This is particularly of importance in view of the rates of failure of seroconversion and re-infection after COVID-19 infection, which could make the vaccine role and response debatable. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have an established immune-modulatory role, but their effects as adjuvants to vaccination have not been explored to date. It is increasingly recognized that PPAR agonists can upregulate the levels of anti-apoptotic factors such as MCL-1. Such effect can improve the results of vaccination by enhancing the longevity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). The interaction between PPAR agonists and the immune system does not halt here, as T cell memory is also stimulated through enhanced T regulatory cells, antagonizing PD-L1 and switching the metabolism of T cells to fatty acid oxidation, which has a remarkable effect on the persistence of T memory cells. What is even of a more significant value is the effect of PPAR gamma on ensuring a profound secretion of antibodies upon re-exposure to the offending antigen through upregulating lipoxin B4, therefore potentially assisting the vaccine response and deterring re-infection.

SHORT CONCLUSION: In view of the above, we suggest the use of PPAR as adjuvants to vaccines in general especially the emerging COVID-19 vaccine due to their role in enhancing immunologic memory through DNA-dependent mechanisms.

Ma, W. - X., M. S. Osman, S. Arshed, N. Raza, and H. M. Srivastava, "Practical analytical approaches for finding novel optical solitons in the single-mode fibers", Chinese Journal of Physics, vol. 72: Elsevier, pp. 475-486, 2021. Abstract
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Cromwell, E. A., J. C. P. Osborne, T. R. Unnasch, M. - G. Basáñez, K. M. Gass, K. A. Barbre, E. Hill, K. B. Johnson, K. M. Donkers, S. Shirude, et al., "Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.", PLoS neglected tropical diseases, vol. 15, issue 7, pp. e0008824, 2021. Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. In order to classify IUs that include locations that are environmentally suitable, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify an optimal threshold for suitability concordant with locations where onchocerciasis has been previously detected. This threshold value was then used to classify IUs (more suitable or less suitable) based on the location within the IU with the largest mean prediction. Mean estimates of environmental suitability suggest large areas across West and Central Africa, as well as focal areas of East Africa, are suitable for onchocerciasis transmission, consistent with the presence of current control and elimination of transmission efforts. The ROC analysis identified a mean environmental suitability index of 0·71 as a threshold to classify based on the location with the largest mean prediction within the IU. Of the IUs considered for mapping surveys, 50·2% exceed this threshold for suitability in at least one 5 × 5-km location. The formidable scale of data collection required to map onchocerciasis endemicity across the African continent presents an opportunity to use spatial data to identify areas likely to be suitable for onchocerciasis transmission. National onchocerciasis elimination programmes may wish to consider prioritising these IUs for mapping surveys as human resources, laboratory capacity, and programmatic schedules may constrain survey implementation, and possibly delaying MDA initiation in areas that would ultimately qualify.

Elbeltagi, A., N. Kumari, J. K. Dharpure, A. Mokhtar, K. Alsafadi, M. Kumar, B. Mehdinejadiani, H. Ramezani Etedali, Y. Brouziyne, T. Islam, et al., "Prediction of combined terrestrial evapotranspiration index (CTEI) over large river basin based on machine learning approaches", Water, vol. 13, no. 4: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, pp. 547, 2021. Abstract
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Othman, K. M. M., and H. Abdelwahab, "Prediction of the optimum asphalt content using artificial neural networks", Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, vol. 27, issue 2, pp. 227-242, 2021. Abstract
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Othman, K., and H. Abdelwahab, "Prediction of the soil compaction parameters using deep neural networks", Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology: Springer US, pp. 1-18, 2021. Abstract
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El-Raey, F., M. Alboraie, N. Youssef, A. Yousef, A. A. Abdelmoaty, E. Hassan, S. M. Hassany, S. Abd-Elsalam, R. Elsharkawy, K. Farrag, et al., "Predictors for Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers", Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, vol. 14: Dove Press, pp. 2973, 2021. Abstract
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Omran, D., M. AlSoda, E. Bahbah, G. Esmat, H. Shousha, A. Elgebaly, M. A. Ghaffar, M. Alsheikh, E. El Sayed, shimaa afify, et al., "Predictors of severity and development of critical illness of Egyptian COVID-19 patients: A multicenter study.", PloS one, vol. 16, issue 9, pp. e0256203, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We conducted the present multicenter, retrospective study to assess the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with critical illness among patients with COVID-19 from Egypt.

METHODS: The present study was a multicenter, retrospective study that retrieved the data of all Egyptian cases with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to hospitals affiliated to the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes (GOTHI) through the period from March to July 2020. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) laboratory test.

RESULTS: This retrospective study included 2724 COVID-19 patients, of whom 423 (15.52%) were critically ill. Approximately 45.86% of the critical group aged above 60 years, compared to 39.59% in the non-critical group (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed that many factors were predictors of critically illness, including age >60 years (OR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.05, 1.61], p = 0.014), low oxygen saturation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.91, 0.95], p<0.001), low Glasgow coma scale (OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.67, 0.84], p<0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.26, 2.08], p<0.001), cancer (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.41, 4.35], p = 0.002), and serum ferritin (OR = 1.004, 95% CI [1.0003, 1.008], p = 0.031).

CONCLUSION: In the present report, we demonstrated that many factors are associated with COVID-19 critical illness, including older age groups, fatigue, elevated temperature, increased pulse, lower oxygen saturation, the preexistence of diabetes, malignancies, cardiovascular disease, renal diseases, and pulmonary disease. Moreover, elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, and ferritin are associated with worse outcomes. Further studies are required to identify independent predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19.

Okasha, H., M. Wahba, H. A. El-Fol, and Y. Elsherif, "Preoperative EUS-guided tattooing of a small, firm, deep pancreatic mass.", Gastrointestinal endoscopy, vol. 93, issue 3, pp. 769-771, 2021.
Metwally, S. A., M. A. Abo-Shadi, N. F. Abdel Fattah, A. B. Barakat, O. A. Rabee, A. M. Osman, A. M. Helal, T. Hashem, M. M. Moneer, W. Chehadeh, et al., "Presence of HPV, EBV and HMTV Viruses Among Egyptian Breast Cancer Women: Molecular Detection and Clinical Relevance.", Infection and drug resistance, vol. 14, pp. 2327-2339, 2021. Abstract

Background: Oncogenic viruses, their possible association with breast cancer (BC) and effect on its clinical course are interesting issue. The present study evaluates the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), and human mammary tumor virus (HMTV) in BC and their relation with clinico-pathological characteristics.

Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 80 Egyptian women with BC and 30 control women without known oncological disease. Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, forty fresh tissue samples, and white blood cells (WBCs) of BC patients and WBCs of controls were subjected to a qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure viral loads in fresh tissues of BC. The result was correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics of BC.

Results: HPV was detected in 33 (41.25%), EBV in 30 (37.5%) and HMTV in 33 (41.25%) BC patients. None of the control women was positive for HPV or EBV while HMTV was detected in 7 (23.3%). Among 40 BC WBCs specimens, HPV/HMTV were found together in 25%, followed by EBV/HMTV in 2.5% and EBV/HPV in 2.5%. However, the three viruses (HPV/EBV/HMTV) were found together in only 5%. In the 40 fresh BC tissues, the three viruses were found together in 12 (30%), EBV/HMTV in 7 (17.5%), HPV/HMTV in 4 (10%), and HPV/EBV in 4 (10%). EBV, HMTV, or multiple viral infections were associated with younger age of BC women. HPV, EBV, and HMTV median loads in fresh tissues were 4.8×10 copies/μL, 6.3×10 copies/μL, and 97 copies/μL, respectively.

Conclusion: WBCs could be a more suitable specimen instead of fresh tissue for HMTV detection in BC patients to avoid invasive procedures. The presence of HPV, EBV, and HMTV together in Egyptian women with BC was significantly associated with younger age.

Osman, K., E. E. Abdeen, W. S. Mousa, S. Y. Abdelsalam, H. S. Heikal, R. R. Shawish, M. Nooruzzaman, M. M. Soliman, G. E. Batiha, A. Hamad, et al., "Prevalence and Characterization of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci from Food Products and Human Specimens in Egypt", Antibiotics, vol. 10, issue 75, 2021.
Baghdadi, H. B., E. O. M. Omer, D. M. Metwally, and R. Abdel-Gaber, "Prevalence of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation among schools workers in the Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia", Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 28, pp. 5662–5666, 2021.
Saeed, A., M. S. H-Elaga, M. Osama, and S. M. Shousha, "The prevalence of keratoconus in children with allergic eye disease in an Egyptian population", European Journal of ophthalmology, pp. 1-6, 2021.
Haberfellner, E., M. Elbaroody, A. F. Alkhamees, A. Alaosta, S. Eaton, E. Quint, S. Shahab, A. O'Connor, J. Im, A. Khan, et al., "Primary Spinal Melanoma: Case Report and Systematic Review.", Clinical neurology and neurosurgery, vol. 205, pp. 106649, 2021. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Primary malignant melanoma of the spinal cord (PSM) is a rare condition with limited evidence regarding its diagnosis (clinical and radiographic), management, and prognosis. Our aim was to report an extremely rare two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the spine one of them is sacral melanoma which represents the second reported case in the literature and to conduct a systematic review of the relevant literature.

METHODS: The diagnosis and management of these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Using the PRISMA guideline, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to analyze different management strategies and the prognosis of such pathology.

RESULTS: All two patients were operated on, and received gross total removal of their tumors, with extended follow up for tumor recurrences. One of the cases involved a sacral tumor, which was resected without adjuvant therapy. The other one was seen by oncology and received post-operative chemo- and radio- therapy. In addition to the aforementioned cases, we present a comprehensive review of the literature on PSM from 1950 to the present, demonstrating that PSM is a very rare tumor, with a limited counted number of cases reported worldwide.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we report an exceedingly rare two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the spine. Early surgical intervention is key to the management of these rare and aggressive tumors. GTR should be attempted if possible.

Haberfellner, E., M. Elbaroody, A. F. Alkhamees, A. Alaosta, S. Eaton, E. Quint, S. Shahab, A. O'Connor, J. Im, A. Khan, et al., "Primary Spinal Melanoma: Case Report and Systematic Review.", Clinical neurology and neurosurgery, vol. 205, pp. 106649, 2021. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Primary malignant melanoma of the spinal cord (PSM) is a rare condition with limited evidence regarding its diagnosis (clinical and radiographic), management, and prognosis. Our aim was to report an extremely rare two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the spine one of them is sacral melanoma which represents the second reported case in the literature and to conduct a systematic review of the relevant literature.

METHODS: The diagnosis and management of these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Using the PRISMA guideline, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to analyze different management strategies and the prognosis of such pathology.

RESULTS: All two patients were operated on, and received gross total removal of their tumors, with extended follow up for tumor recurrences. One of the cases involved a sacral tumor, which was resected without adjuvant therapy. The other one was seen by oncology and received post-operative chemo- and radio- therapy. In addition to the aforementioned cases, we present a comprehensive review of the literature on PSM from 1950 to the present, demonstrating that PSM is a very rare tumor, with a limited counted number of cases reported worldwide.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we report an exceedingly rare two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the spine. Early surgical intervention is key to the management of these rare and aggressive tumors. GTR should be attempted if possible.

Zahra, H. O., G. A. Omran, A. G. Gewely, A. F. Eldehn, W. Abdo, E. K. Elmahallawy, and T. M. Okda, "Prognostic Value of Serum Thyroglobulin and Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients following Thyroidectomy.", Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 11, issue 11, 2021. Abstract

Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is a malignant head and neck tumor with a very high incidence. Thyroidectomized WDTC patients have been referred to nuclear medicine for radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy and/or annual follow-up with diagnostic whole-body imaging. Serum thyroglobulin (TG) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) are biochemical tumor markers used to monitor WDTC. A global rise in the prevalence of WDTC is increasing the number of thyroidectomized patients requiring lifelong monitoring for persistent or recurrent diseases. The present study aimed to identify the most successful prognostic factors in well-defined thyroid carcinoma patients following total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy, followed by an estimation of the cutoff value of TG and TGAb. In this context, a total of 100 subjects were recruited and classified as follows: 60 thyroid carcinoma patients underwent total thyroidectomy and successful RAI therapy, while 40 normal healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status constituted the control group. Interestingly, the levels of TG did not differ significantly between the relapsed and non-relapsed cases, but the levels of TGAb differed significantly between the relapsed and non-relapsed cases. Collectively, TG and TGAb are considered the most successful prognostic factors in well-defined thyroid carcinoma patients after total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy. The present study also concluded that the TGAb determination was better than that of the TG level, with a cutoff value of 10 ng/mL. These findings provide baseline information for follow-up and lifelong monitoring of thyroidectomized WDTC patients. Further research is warranted to explore more about serum TG and TGAb in thyroid carcinoma patients on a larger scale.

Sitohy, M., S. Taha, M. Abdel-Hamid, A. Abdelbacki, A. Hamed, and A. Osman, "Protecting potato plants against PVX and PVY viral infections by the application of native and chemically modified legume proteins", Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 1101-1114, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Sitohy, M., S. Taha, M. Abdel-Hamid, A. Abdelbacki, A. Hamed, and A. Osman, "Protecting potato plants against PVX and PVY viral infections by the application of native and chemically modified legume proteins", Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 128, no. 4: Springer, pp. 1101–1114, 2021. Abstract
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Almusawa, H., K. K. Ali, A. - M. Wazwaz, M. S. Mehanna, D. Baleanu, and M. S. Osman, "Protracted study on a real physical phenomenon generated by media inhomogeneities", Results in Physics, vol. 31, pp. 104933, 2021.
Omar, S., H. H. Zedan, and M. T. Ibrahim, "Quorum sensing inhibitory effect of bergamot oil and aspidosperma extract against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.) 203:4663–4675", Archives of Microbiology , issue 203, pp. 4663–4675 , 2021.
Abd-Elghany, A. A., A. A. Sulieman, E. Osman, and K. Alzimami, "Radiation exposure during therapeutic cardiac interventional procedures", Radiation physics and chemistry, vol. 188, 2021. radiation_exposure_during_therapeutic_cardiac_interventional_procedures.pdf
Majmundar, A. J., F. Buerger, T. A. Forbes, V. Klämbt, R. Schneider, K. Deutsch, T. M. Kitzler, S. E. Howden, M. Scurr, K. S. Tan, et al., "Recessive variants impair actin remodeling and cause glomerulopathy in humans and mice.", Science advances, vol. 7, issue 1, 2021. Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. We found recessive variants in two families with early-onset NS by exome sequencing. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) , but not cDNA constructs bearing patient variants, increased active CDC42 and promoted filopodia and podosome formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of CDC42 or its effectors, formin proteins, reduced NOS1AP-induced filopodia formation. knockdown reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR), which was rescued by overexpression of WT but not by constructs bearing patient variants. PMR in knockdown podocytes was also rescued by constitutively active or the formin Modeling a patient variant in knock-in human kidney organoids revealed malformed glomeruli with increased apoptosis. mice recapitulated the human phenotype, exhibiting proteinuria, foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis. These findings demonstrate that recessive variants impair CDC42/DIAPH-dependent actin remodeling, cause aberrant organoid glomerulogenesis, and lead to a glomerulopathy in humans and mice.

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