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Mohamed, N. A., and N. A. A. El-Ghany, " Evaluation of the stability of rigid poly(vinyl chloride)/biologically active phthalimido phenyl urea composites using thermogravimetric analysis", Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 140, pp. 95-103, 2017.
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Amin, S., and Y. Menaissy, " Follow Up Of The Mid-term Results For Mitral Valve Repair For Rheumatic Mitral Regurgitation ", Heart Valve Society 2nd Annual Meeting, New York, USA, 18 March, 2016.
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Mostafa, A., A. E. Hassanien, and H. A. Hefny, " Grey Wolf Optimization-Based Segmentation Approach for Abdomen CT Liver Images", Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Innovations and Trends, USA, IGI, 2017. Abstract

In the recent days, a great deal of researches is interested in segmentation of different organs in medical images. Segmentation of liver is as an initial phase in liver diagnosis, it is also a challenging task due to its similarity with other organs intensity values. This paper aims to propose a grey wolf optimization based approach for segmenting liver from the abdomen CT images. The proposed approach combines three parts to achieve this goal. It combines the usage of grey wolf optimization, statistical image of liver, simple region growing and Mean shift clustering technique. The initial cleaned image is passed to Grey Wolf (GW) optimization technique. It calculated the centroids of a predefined number of clusters. According to each pixel intensity value in the image, the pixel is labeled by the number of the nearest cluster. A binary statistical image of liver is used to extract the potential area that liver might exist in. It is multiplied by the clustered image to get an initial segmented liver. Then region growing (RG) is used to enhance the segmented liver. Finally, mean shift clustering technique is applied to extract the regions of interest in the segmented liver. A set of 38 images, taken in pre-contrast phase, was used for liver segmentation and testing the proposed approach. For evaluation, similarity index measure is used to validate the success of the proposed approach. The experimental results of the proposed approach showed that the overall accuracy offered by the proposed approach, results in 94.08% accuracy.

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Elsayed, E., M. A. Mahmoud, and N. E. ElDien, " Ichthiophthiriasis: Atypical outbreak In Two Suscetible Ornamental Fish Species In Egypt Under The Same Environmental Conditions ", 29th ANNUAL EASTERN FISH HEALTH WORKSHOP, U.S.A., March 22-26, 2004.
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Mahmoud, H., N. Bianchi, G.Bacco, and N. Chiodetto, " Nonlinear Analytical Computation of the Magnetic Field in Reluctance Synchronous Machines", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, issue 6, pp. 5373 - 5382, 2017.
Mahmoud, H., and N. Bianchi, " Nonlinear Analytical Model of Eccentric Synchronous Reluctance Machines Considering the Iron Saturation and Slotting Effect", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, issue 3, pp. 2007 - 2015, 2017.
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Kassab, Fabienne, Etienne, Emmanuel, Masrour, M. F. Aly, and Hammad, H., " Paleoenvironmental conditions during the Aptian early Albian in the Essaouira - Agadir Basin, western Morocco. INA 16 - Athens, Greece", INA 16 - Athens, Greece, 2017.
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Al-Naggar, A. M. M., R. Shabana, M. S. Hassanein, T. A. Elewa, A. S. M. Younis, and A. M. a Metwally, " Secondary Traits and Selection Environment of Plant Density Tolerance in Maize Inbreds and Testcrosses ", Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology , vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 1-13, 2017. secondary_traits.pdf
Mohamed, N. A., and N. A. A. El-Ghany, " Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan hydrazide derivative ", International journal of polymeric materials and polymeric biomaterials, vol. 66 , issue 8, pp. 410-415, 2017.
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Moussa, T. A. A., M. S. Khalil, and H. M. K. Abdel-Fatah, " " Screening For the Production of Lovastatin by Different Aspergillus Species" ", RJPBCS , vol. 6, issue 4, pp. 1883-1888, 2015.
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El-Sheemy, M. S., A. M. Shouman, A. I. Shoukry, W. Aboulela, A. A. Hussein, K. Daw, and H. A. Mors, " "556 Selection criteria for initial urinary drainage in relation to definitive stone management in obstructive calcular anuria with acute renal failure in children less than 4 years in age"", European Urology Supplements, vol. 13, no. 1: Elsevier Science, pp. e556–e556a, 2014. Abstract, 2014.
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Elsheemy, M. S., A. I. Shoukry, A. M. Shouman, A. ElShenoufy, W. Aboulela, K. Daw, A. A. Hussein, and H. A. Morsi, " "Management of obstructive calcular anuria with acute renal failure in children less than 4 years in age: a protocol for initial urinary drainage in relation to planned definitive stone management.",", Journal of pediatric urology, vol. 10, issue 6, pp. 1126-32, 2014 Dec. Abstrac, 2014.
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Hassan, R., G. Ghonemy, A. Mokhtar, and E. Earaky, " "Study The Effect Of Hormonal Contraceptive Methods On Female Sexual Function". ", The Medical Journal Of Cairo University, March 2015,, , vol. Vol.83, issue No.1, 2015.
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Abou-Zeid, S. M., H. O. AbuBakr, M. A. Mohamed, and A. El-Bahrawy, " (2018):Ameliorative effect of pumpkin seed oil against emamectin induced toxicity in mice. ", Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 98, pp. 242–251, 2018.
Mohamed, N., F. A. Z. Sayed, A. S. Monem, and M. M. Rageh, " (2019). DNA Damage in Ehrlich Carcinoma induced by Gold Nanorods Mediated Photothermal Therapy", Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences. C, Physiology and Molecular Biology, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 117-126, 2020.
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Moustafa, H., R. Riad, O. W, Z. A. H. E. R. A, and E. Ebied, " 99mTc-MIBI in the assesment of response to chemotherapy and detection of the recurence in bone and soft tissue tumors of the extrimitties", The quarterly J of nuclear medicine , vol. 47 , pp. 51-57 , 2003.
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M, Z. F., and Z. A. F, " A comparative clinical study for two synthetic bone grafts in the treatment of intrabony defects.", Egyptian Dental Journal, vol. 45, issue 1, pp. 3849-3857, 1999.
El-Khayat, W., A. Maged, and H. Omar, " A comparative study between isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) versus misoprostol prior to hysteroscopy ", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 15, issue 4, pp. 278-280, 2010.
Naglaa, M. S., and E. N. M. Mohamed, " A COMPARISON BETWEEN CLAYPOOL AND SCHMOKER METHODS IN A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF KHARITA AND KHATATBA SOURCE ROCKS, NORTH WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT", Inventi Rapid: Energy&Power, vol. 2013, issue 2, pp. 1-5, 2013. paper.pdf
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