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Loffredo, C. A., Y. E. Shaker, I. A. Jillson, D. N. K. Boulos, D. A. Saleh, M. Garas, M. J. Ostrowski, X. Sun, X. Chen, B. Shander, et al., "Prevalence and correlates of substance use by Egyptian school youth", The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 37-51, 2017.
Loffredo, C. A., D. N. K. Boulos, D. 'aA. Saleh, I. A. Jillson, M. Garas, N. Loza, P. Samuel, Y. E. Shaker, M. - J. Ostrowski, and S. Amr, "Substance use by Egyptian youth: current patterns and potential avenues for prevention.", Substance use & misuse, vol. 50, issue 5, pp. 609-18, 2015 Apr. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Substance abuse in Egypt is a serious public health threat. Recent studies have demonstrated increases in the prevalence of the use of tobacco, illegal drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, particularly among youth.

METHODS: We conducted focus groups with a total of 40 male and female youth participants, ages 12-14 and 15-18, recruited from two different areas (Cairo and Alexandria) in 2012. We investigated their knowledge and perceptions regarding current substance use, its sources, and promoting and protecting factors, broadly addressing the use of tobacco products, illicit and prescription drugs, inhaled substances such as glue and solvents, and alcohol.

RESULTS: Our findings suggest that: (1) youth in Egypt had access to and were actively using substances encountered in similar research worldwide, including tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, glue sniffing, and pharmaceutical agents; (2) smoking cigarettes and using hashish were the most common practices, and Tramadol was the most commonly used pharmaceutical drug; (3) peer pressure from friends stood out as the most common reason to start and continue using substances, followed by adverse life events and having a parent or family member who used substances; (4) strict parenting, religiosity, and having non-user friends were among the factors perceived by youth to prevent substance use or help them quit using substances; (5) most youths were aware of the adverse health effects of substance use.

CONCLUSION: These findings will inform the design of quantitative surveys aimed at estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors related to substance use among youth and potential avenues for prevention.

Loey, M., G. Manogaran, M. H. N. Taha, and N. E. M. Khalifa, "Fighting against COVID-19: A novel deep learning model based on YOLO-v2 with ResNet-50 for medical face mask detection", Sustainable cities and society, vol. 65, issue -, pp. 102600, 2021. 1-s2.0-s2210670720308179-main.pdf
Loey, M., G. Manogaran, and N. E. M. Khalifa, "A deep transfer learning model with classical data augmentation and CGAN to detect COVID-19 from chest CT radiography digital images.", Neural computing & applications, pp. 1-13, 2020. Abstract

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the fastest transmittable virus caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The detection of COVID-19 using artificial intelligence techniques and especially deep learning will help to detect this virus in early stages which will reflect in increasing the opportunities of fast recovery of patients worldwide. This will lead to release the pressure off the healthcare system around the world. In this research, classical data augmentation techniques along with Conditional Generative Adversarial Nets (CGAN) based on a deep transfer learning model for COVID-19 detection in chest CT scan images will be presented. The limited benchmark datasets for COVID-19 especially in chest CT images are the main motivation of this research. The main idea is to collect all the possible images for COVID-19 that exists until the very writing of this research and use the classical data augmentations along with CGAN to generate more images to help in the detection of the COVID-19. In this study, five different deep convolutional neural network-based models (AlexNet, VGGNet16, VGGNet19, GoogleNet, and ResNet50) have been selected for the investigation to detect the Coronavirus-infected patient using chest CT radiographs digital images. The classical data augmentations along with CGAN improve the performance of classification in all selected deep transfer models. The outcomes show that ResNet50 is the most appropriate deep learning model to detect the COVID-19 from limited chest CT dataset using the classical data augmentation with testing accuracy of 82.91%, sensitivity 77.66%, and specificity of 87.62%.

Loey, M., M. W. Jasim, H. M. EL-Bakry, M. H. N. Taha, and N. E. M. Khalifa, "Breast and Colon Cancer Classification from Gene Expression Profiles Using Data Mining Techniques ", Symmetry , vol. 12, pp. 408, 2020.
Loebsin, C., M. Samer, and K. Schröter, "Heat stress in dairy cows: possibilities of reduction", the 10th International BTU Conference “Construction, Technology and Environment in Farm Animal Husbandry”, Kiel, Germany, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, pp. 292-299, 2011.
Loebsin, C., O. Tober, M. Samer, M. Fiedler, and K. Schröter, "Wind profile measurements in a naturally ventilated dairy barn and measurements of physiological parameters as possible indicators of stress", Annual Conference on Supporting Stable Climate, Dummerstorf, Germany, October 5, 2011.
Lockwood, F. C., T. Mahmud, and M. A. Yehia, "Mathematical Modelling of Some Semi-Industrial Pulverised Coal Flames", ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL PITTSBURGH COAL CONFERENCE: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING CENTRE FOR ENERGY, pp. 41–46, 1991. Abstract
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Lockwood, F. C., T. Mahmud, and M. A. Yehia, "Simulation of pulverised coal test furnace performance", Fuel, vol. 77, no. 12: Elsevier, pp. 1329–1337, 1998. Abstractsimulation_of_pulverised_coal_test_furnace_performance.pdf

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Lockwood, F.C., T. T., and M. Yehia, "Simulation of Pulverised Coal Combustion in a Blast Furnace", Proceedings of Fifth International Conference of Fluid Mechanics, Cairo, 1995. Abstract
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Locke, J. B., R. K. Aziz, M. R. Vicknair, V. Nizet, and J. T. Buchanan, "Streptococcus iniae M-like protein contributes to virulence in fish and is a target for live attenuated vaccine development", PLoS One, vol. 3, no. 7: Public Library of Science, pp. e2824, 2008. Abstract
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Locke, A. J., L. Hossain, G. McCrostie, D. A. Ronato, A. Fitieh, T. A. Rafique, F. Mashayekhi, M. Motamedi, J. - Y. Masson, and I. H. Ismail, "SUMOylation mediates CtIP's functions in DNA end resection and replication fork protection.", Nucleic acids research, vol. 49, issue 2, pp. 928-953, 2021. Abstract

Double-strand breaks and stalled replication forks are a significant threat to genomic stability that can lead to chromosomal rearrangements or cell death. The protein CtIP promotes DNA end resection, an early step in homologous recombination repair, and has been found to protect perturbed forks from excessive nucleolytic degradation. However, it remains unknown how CtIP's function in fork protection is regulated. Here, we show that CtIP recruitment to sites of DNA damage and replication stress is impaired upon global inhibition of SUMOylation. We demonstrate that CtIP is a target for modification by SUMO-2 and that this occurs constitutively during S phase. The modification is dependent on the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases and the PI-3-kinase-related kinase ATR on CtIP's carboxyl-terminal region, an interaction with the replication factor PCNA, and the E3 SUMO ligase PIAS4. We also identify residue K578 as a key residue that contributes to CtIP SUMOylation. Functionally, a CtIP mutant where K578 is substituted with a non-SUMOylatable arginine residue is defective in promoting DNA end resection, homologous recombination, and in protecting stalled replication forks from excessive nucleolytic degradation. Our results shed further light on the tightly coordinated regulation of CtIP by SUMOylation in the maintenance of genome stability.

Lobna A Aly, H. E. - Menoufy, Rehab Tarek Elsharkawy, Mona Z Zaghloul, and D. Sabry, "Maternal chronic oral infection with periodontitis and pericoronitis as a possible risk factor for preeclampsia in Egyptian pregnant women (microbiological and serological study)", Future Dental Journal, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 23-32, 2015.
Lobna A Aly, H. E. - Menoufy, Hesham S Sadeq, A. Ragae, and D. Sabry, "Efficiency of systemic versus intralesional bone marrow-derived stem cells in regeneration of oral mucosa after induction of formocresol induced ulcers in dogs", Dental research journal, vol. 11, issue 2, pp. 212, 2014.
Lo, A. - C. a, A. S. a g Soliman, N. b El-Ghawalby, M. b Abdel-Wahab, O. b Fathy, H. M. c Khaled, S. c Omar, S. R. d Hamilton, J. K. e Greenson, and J. L. f Abbruzzese, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors in relation to pancreatic cancer risk", Pancreas, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 120-129, 2007. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Egypt. METHODS: We obtained detailed information on smoking, occupational, medical, and reproductive histories from 194 pancreatic cancer cases and 194 controls. RESULTS: Compared with not smoking, smoking cigarettes alone or in conjunction with other smoking methods (eg, water pipe, cigar) was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 4.5 and 7.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.9-10.7 and 3.0-20.6, respectively). Passive smoking was also a significant risk factor (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.4-14.8). The risk of pancreatic cancer was elevated among subjects exposed to pesticides (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.97-7.2). A prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for a period of 10 years was associated with higher risk (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5-19.9). For women, having 7 or more live births and lactating for 144 months or longer were associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.5 and 0.2; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3 and 0.1-0.9, respectively). No association was found between family history, allergy, or obesity and pancreatic cancer in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tobacco consumption methods, passive smoking, pesticide exposures, and diabetes are associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Prolonged lactation and increased parity are associated with a reduced risk for pancreatic cancer. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Lo, A. - C. a, A. S. a Soliman, H. M. b Khaled, A. c Aboelyazid, and J. K. d Greenson, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors and risk of colorectal cancer", Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 830-837, 2010. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: Lifestyle factors and environmental exposures might help explain the risk of colorectal carcinoma in countries where the incidence is low, but unique patterns of young onset and a high proportion of rectal cancer exist. METHODS: We obtained detailed lifestyle information from 421 patients with colorectal cancer and 439 hospital-controls in Egypt. Logistic regression models were computed to evaluate the risk factors of colorectal carcinoma. RESULTS: A history of pesticide exposure and more frequently eating food directly from farms were significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal carcinoma (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-5.9, and odds ratio = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.5-14.6, respectively). Parous women who reported 7 or more live births or breastfed for 19 months or longer per live birth had a significantly lower risk for colorectal carcinoma (odds ratio = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.2-0.7, and odds ratio = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1-0.4, respectively). Compared with patients aged 40 years or older, industrial exposures were more common in younger patients (P =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Agricultural and industrial exposures were associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma, whereas prolonged lactation and increased parity were inversely associated with colorectal carcinoma in women. Further research to elucidate the biological role of intense environmental and industrial exposures and reproductive factors including lactation may further clarify the etiology of colorectal cancer.

Lo, A. - C. a, A. S. a Soliman, H. M. b Khaled, A. c Aboelyazid, and J. K. d Greenson, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors and risk of colorectal cancer", Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 830-837, 2010. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: Lifestyle factors and environmental exposures might help explain the risk of colorectal carcinoma in countries where the incidence is low, but unique patterns of young onset and a high proportion of rectal cancer exist. METHODS: We obtained detailed lifestyle information from 421 patients with colorectal cancer and 439 hospital-controls in Egypt. Logistic regression models were computed to evaluate the risk factors of colorectal carcinoma. RESULTS: A history of pesticide exposure and more frequently eating food directly from farms were significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal carcinoma (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-5.9, and odds ratio = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.5-14.6, respectively). Parous women who reported 7 or more live births or breastfed for 19 months or longer per live birth had a significantly lower risk for colorectal carcinoma (odds ratio = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.2-0.7, and odds ratio = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1-0.4, respectively). Compared with patients aged 40 years or older, industrial exposures were more common in younger patients (P =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Agricultural and industrial exposures were associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma, whereas prolonged lactation and increased parity were inversely associated with colorectal carcinoma in women. Further research to elucidate the biological role of intense environmental and industrial exposures and reproductive factors including lactation may further clarify the etiology of colorectal cancer.

Lo, A. - C., A. S. Soliman, H. M. Khaled, A. Aboelyazid, and J. K. Greenson, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors and risk of colorectal cancer.", Diseases of the colon and rectum, vol. 53, issue 5, pp. 830-7, 2010 May. Abstract

PURPOSE: Lifestyle factors and environmental exposures might help explain the risk of colorectal carcinoma in countries where the incidence is low, but unique patterns of young onset and a high proportion of rectal cancer exist.

METHODS: We obtained detailed lifestyle information from 421 patients with colorectal cancer and 439 hospital-controls in Egypt. Logistic regression models were computed to evaluate the risk factors of colorectal carcinoma.

RESULTS: A history of pesticide exposure and more frequently eating food directly from farms were significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal carcinoma (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-5.9, and odds ratio = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.5-14.6, respectively). Parous women who reported 7 or more live births or breastfed for 19 months or longer per live birth had a significantly lower risk for colorectal carcinoma (odds ratio = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.2-0.7, and odds ratio = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1-0.4, respectively). Compared with patients aged 40 years or older, industrial exposures were more common in younger patients (P = .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Agricultural and industrial exposures were associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma, whereas prolonged lactation and increased parity were inversely associated with colorectal carcinoma in women. Further research to elucidate the biological role of intense environmental and industrial exposures and reproductive factors including lactation may further clarify the etiology of colorectal cancer.

Lo, A. - C. a, A. a Georgopoulos, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, H. G. f Omar, J. A. g Douglas, et al., "Analysis of RhoC expression and lymphovascular emboli in inflammatory vs non-inflammatory breast cancers in Egyptian patients", Breast, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 55-59, 2009. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the molecular factors that distinguish inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) from non-IBC is important for IBC diagnosis. We reviewed the records of 48 IBC patients and 64 non-IBC patients from Egypt. We determined RhoC expression and tumor emboli and their relationship to demographic and reproductive characteristics. Compared with non-IBC patients, IBC patients had significantly lower parity (P = 0.018) and fewer palpable tumors (P < 0.0001). IBC tumors showed RhoC overexpression more frequently than non-IBC tumors (87% vs. 17%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). Tumor emboli were significantly more frequent in IBC tumors than non-IBC tumors (Mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 14.0 vs. 7.0 ± 12.9, respectively) (P < 0.0001). This study illustrates that RhoC overexpression and tumor emboli are more frequent in tumors of IBC relative to non-IBC from Egypt. Future studies should focus on relating epidemiologic factors to molecular features of IBC in this population. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lo, A. - C. a, A. a Georgopoulos, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, H. G. f Omar, J. A. g Douglas, et al., "Analysis of RhoC expression and lymphovascular emboli in inflammatory vs non-inflammatory breast cancers in Egyptian patients", Breast, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 55-59, 2009. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the molecular factors that distinguish inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) from non-IBC is important for IBC diagnosis. We reviewed the records of 48 IBC patients and 64 non-IBC patients from Egypt. We determined RhoC expression and tumor emboli and their relationship to demographic and reproductive characteristics. Compared with non-IBC patients, IBC patients had significantly lower parity (P = 0.018) and fewer palpable tumors (P < 0.0001). IBC tumors showed RhoC overexpression more frequently than non-IBC tumors (87% vs. 17%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). Tumor emboli were significantly more frequent in IBC tumors than non-IBC tumors (Mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 14.0 vs. 7.0 ± 12.9, respectively) (P < 0.0001). This study illustrates that RhoC overexpression and tumor emboli are more frequent in tumors of IBC relative to non-IBC from Egypt. Future studies should focus on relating epidemiologic factors to molecular features of IBC in this population. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lo, A. - C., A. S. Soliman, N. El-Ghawalby, M. Abdel-Wahab, O. Fathy, H. M. Khaled, S. Omar, S. R. Hamilton, J. K. Greenson, and J. L. Abbruzzese, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors in relation to pancreatic cancer risk.", Pancreas, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 120-9, 2007 Aug. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Egypt.

METHODS: We obtained detailed information on smoking, occupational, medical, and reproductive histories from 194 pancreatic cancer cases and 194 controls.

RESULTS: Compared with not smoking, smoking cigarettes alone or in conjunction with other smoking methods (eg, water pipe, cigar) was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 4.5 and 7.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.9-10.7 and 3.0-20.6, respectively). Passive smoking was also a significant risk factor (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.4-14.8). The risk of pancreatic cancer was elevated among subjects exposed to pesticides (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.97-7.2). A prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for a period of 10 years was associated with higher risk (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5-19.9). For women, having 7 or more live births and lactating for 144 months or longer were associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.5 and 0.2; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3 and 0.1-0.9, respectively). No association was found between family history, allergy, or obesity and pancreatic cancer in Egypt.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tobacco consumption methods, passive smoking, pesticide exposures, and diabetes are associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Prolonged lactation and increased parity are associated with a reduced risk for pancreatic cancer.

Lo, A. - C. a, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, J. A. f Douglas, S. H. g Alford, S. D. h Merajver, et al., "Molecular epidemiologic features of inflammatory breast cancer: A comparison between Egyptian and US patients", Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 141-147, 2008. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a lethal form of breast cancer with unknown etiology. A higher frequency of IBC and a more aggressive IBC phenotype was reported in Egypt than in the United States. This difference in disease frequency and presentation might be related to molecular epidemiologic factors. Methods: We used tumor blocks and demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data of 48 IBC patients from Egypt and 12 patients from the United States. We counted tumor emboli in tumors before and after immunohistochemical staining with lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and measured the expression of RhoC GTPase protein in the two groups. Results: Erythema, edema, and peau d'orange were found in 77% of the Egyptian patients as compared with 29% found in the US patients (P = 0.02). The number of tumor emboli was significantly higher in tumors from Egypt (mean ± SD, 14.1 ± 14.0) than in the tumors from the United States (5.0 ± 4.0

Lo, A. - C. a, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, J. A. f Douglas, S. H. g Alford, S. D. h Merajver, et al., "Molecular epidemiologic features of inflammatory breast cancer: A comparison between Egyptian and US patients", Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 141-147, 2008. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a lethal form of breast cancer with unknown etiology. A higher frequency of IBC and a more aggressive IBC phenotype was reported in Egypt than in the United States. This difference in disease frequency and presentation might be related to molecular epidemiologic factors. Methods: We used tumor blocks and demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data of 48 IBC patients from Egypt and 12 patients from the United States. We counted tumor emboli in tumors before and after immunohistochemical staining with lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and measured the expression of RhoC GTPase protein in the two groups. Results: Erythema, edema, and peau d'orange were found in 77% of the Egyptian patients as compared with 29% found in the US patients (P = 0.02). The number of tumor emboli was significantly higher in tumors from Egypt (mean ± SD, 14.1 ± 14.0) than in the tumors from the United States (5.0 ± 4.0

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