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2022
, Jouini R, "Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with paediatric cancer in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries: a multicentre, international, observational cohort study", BMJ Open, vol. 12, no. 4: British Medical Journal Publishing Group, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Objectives Paediatric cancer is a leading cause of death for children. Children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) were four times more likely to die than children in high-income countries (HICs). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic had affected the delivery of healthcare services worldwide, and exacerbated the disparity in paediatric cancer outcomes between LMICs and HICs.Design A multicentre, international, collaborative cohort study.Setting 91 hospitals and cancer centres in 39 countries providing cancer treatment to paediatric patients between March and December 2020.Participants Patients were included if they were under the age of 18 years, and newly diagnosed with or undergoing active cancer treatment for Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms’ tumour, sarcoma, retinoblastoma, gliomas, medulloblastomas or neuroblastomas, in keeping with the WHO Global Initiative for Childhood Cancer.Main outcome measure All-cause mortality at 30 days and 90 days.Results 1660 patients were recruited. 219 children had changes to their treatment due to the pandemic. Patients in LMICs were primarily affected (n=182/219, 83.1%). Relative to patients with paediatric cancer in HICs, patients with paediatric cancer in LMICs had 12.1 (95% CI 2.93 to 50.3) and 7.9 (95% CI 3.2 to 19.7) times the odds of death at 30 days and 90 days, respectively, after presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, patients with paediatric cancer in LMICs had 15.6 (95% CI 3.7 to 65.8) times the odds of death at 30 days (p<0.001).Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic has affected paediatric oncology service provision. It has disproportionately affected patients in LMICs, highlighting and compounding existing disparities in healthcare systems globally that need addressing urgently. However, many patients with paediatric cancer continued to receive their normal standard of care. This speaks to the adaptability and resilience of healthcare systems and healthcare workers globally.Data are available on reasonable request. Deidentified date will be shared on request.

Elkazzaz, M., A. Ahmed, Y. E. - E. Abo-Amer, T. Hydara, A. Haikal, D. A. E. N. Razek, W. A. Eltayb, X. Wang, T. M. Karpiński, D. Hamza, et al., "In Silico Discovery of GPCRs and GnRHRs as Novel Binding Receptors of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Could Explain Neuroendocrine Disorders in COVID-19.", Vaccines, vol. 10, issue 9, 2022. Abstract

Despite the intense research work since the beginning of the pandemic, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not yet clearly understood. The previous mechanism of COVID-19, based on ACE2 tropism and explained through a single receptor, is insufficient to explain the pathogenesis due to the absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in most of the affected organs. In the current study, we used the PatchDock server to run a molecular docking study of both the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR) with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were run to analyze the stability of the complexes using the GROMACS package. The docking results showed a high affinity between the spike protein with the GnRHR (-1424.9 kcal/mol) and GPCR (-1451.8 kcal/mol). The results of the MD simulations revealed the significant stability of the spike protein with the GnRHR and GPCR up to 100 ns. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein had strong binding interactions with the GPCRs and GnRHRs, which are highly expressed in the brain, endocrine organs, and olfactory neurons. This study paves the way towards understanding the complex mechanism of neuroendocrine involvement and peripheral organ involvement, may explain the changing symptoms in patients due to new variants, and may lead to the discovery of new drug targets for COVID-19. In vitro studies involving genetic engineering or gene knockdown of the GPCRs and GnRHRs are needed to further investigate the role of these receptors in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

Aguirre, A. O., M. A. R. Soliman, S. Azmy, A. Khan, P. K. Jowdy, J. P. Mullin, and J. Pollina, "Incidence of major and minor vascular injuries during lateral access lumbar interbody fusion procedures: a retrospective comparative study and systematic literature review.", Neurosurgical review, vol. 45, issue 2, pp. 1275-1289, 2022. Abstract

During lateral lumbar fusion, the trajectory of implant insertion approaches the great vessels anteriorly and the segmental arteries posteriorly, which carries the risk of vascular complications. We aimed to analyze vascular injuries for potential differences between oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedures at our institution. This was coupled with a systematic literature review of vascular complications associated with lateral lumbar fusions. A retrospective chart review was completed to identify consecutive patients who underwent lateral access fusions. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used for the systematic review with the search terms "vascular injury" and "lateral lumbar surgery." Of 260 procedures performed at our institution, 211 (81.2%) patients underwent an LLIF and 49 (18.8%) underwent an OLIF. There were no major vascular complications in either group in this comparative study, but there were four (1.5%) minor vascular injuries (2 LLIF, 0.95%; 2 OLIF, 4.1%). Patients who experienced vascular injury experienced a greater amount of blood loss than those who did not (227.5 ± 147.28 vs. 59.32 ± 68.30 ml) (p = 0.11). In our systematic review of 63 articles, major vascular injury occurred in 0-15.4% and minor vascular injury occurred in 0-6% of lateral lumbar fusions. The systematic review and comparative study demonstrate an increased rate of vascular injury in OLIF when compared to LLIF. However, vascular injuries in either procedure are rare, and this study aids previous literature to support the safety of both approaches.

Ali, J., I. Jan, H. Ullah, N. Ahmed, M. Alam, R. Ullah, M. El-Sharnouby, H. Kesba, M. Shukry, Samy Sayed, et al., "Influence of Ascophyllum nodosum Extract Foliar Spray on the Physiological and Biochemical Attributes of Okra under Drought Stress", Plants, vol. 11, issue 790, 2022. plants-11-00790.pdf
Abu Salem, H., K. Gemail, N. Junakova, A. Ibrahim, and A. Nosair, "An Integrated Approach for Deciphering Hydrogeochemical Processes during Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers", Water, vol. 14, issue 7, pp. 1165, 2022.
Kumar, S., J. Saxena, V. K. Srivastava, S. Kaushik, H. Singh, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, M. M. Abdel-Daim, A. Jyoti, and R. Saluja, "The Interplay of Oxidative Stress and ROS Scavenging: Antioxidants as a Therapeutic Potential in Sepsis.", Vaccines, vol. 10, issue 10, 2022. Abstractvaccines-10-01575.pdf

Oxidative stress resulting from the disproportion of oxidants and antioxidants contributes to both physiological and pathological conditions in sepsis. To combat this, the antioxidant defense system comes into the picture, which contributes to limiting the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the reduction of oxidative stress. However, a strong relationship has been found between scavengers of ROS and antioxidants in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. ROS is widely believed to cause human pathology most specifically in sepsis, where a small increase in ROS levels activates signaling pathways to initiate biological processes. An inclusive understanding of the effects of ROS scavenging in cellular antioxidant signaling is essentially lacking in sepsis. This review compiles the mechanisms of ROS scavenging as well as oxidative damage in sepsis, as well as antioxidants as a potent therapeutic. Direct interaction between ROS and cellular pathways greatly affects sepsis, but such interaction does not provide the explanation behind diverse biological outcomes. Animal models of sepsis and a number of clinical trials with septic patients exploring the efficiency of antioxidants in sepsis are reviewed. In line with this, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were effective, and results from recent studies are promising. The usage of these potent antioxidants in sepsis patients would greatly impact the field of medicine.

J.-L.Godet, and M.S.A.El-Kader, "Isotropic and anisotropic collision-induced light scattering spectra of krypton gas simultaneously fitted by ground state interatomic potential", Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 288, pp. 108251, 2022.
Nataliya Di Donato, 1, 2 Renzo Guerrini, 3 Charles J. Billington Jr, 4 A. James Barkovich, 1 Philine Dinkel, 5 Elena Freri, 7 Michael Heide, 6, 9 Elliot S. Gershon, 8, 10 Tracy S. Gertler, 11 Robert J. Hopkin, et al., "Monoallelic and biallelic mutations in RELN underlie a graded series of neurodevelopmental disorders", Brain, vol. 145, issue 145, pp. 3274–3287, 2022.
Lazarus, J. V., D. Romero, C. J. Kopka, S. A. Karim, L. J. Abu-Raddad, G. Almeida, R. Baptista-Leite, J. A. Barocas, M. L. Barreto, Y. Bar-Yam, et al., "A multinational Delphi consensus to end the COVID-19 public health threat.", Nature, vol. 611, issue 7935, pp. 332-345, 2022. Abstract

Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries and territories to recommend specific actions to end this persistent global threat to public health. The panel developed a set of 41 consensus statements and 57 recommendations to governments, health systems, industry and other key stakeholders across six domains: communication; health systems; vaccination; prevention; treatment and care; and inequities. In the wake of nearly three years of fragmented global and national responses, it is instructive to note that three of the highest-ranked recommendations call for the adoption of whole-of-society and whole-of-government approaches, while maintaining proven prevention measures using a vaccines-plus approach that employs a range of public health and financial support measures to complement vaccination. Other recommendations with at least 99% combined agreement advise governments and other stakeholders to improve communication, rebuild public trust and engage communities in the management of pandemic responses. The findings of the study, which have been further endorsed by 184 organizations globally, include points of unanimous agreement, as well as six recommendations with >5% disagreement, that provide health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help to bring this public health threat to an end.

Elassal, A. A., O. O. Al-Radi, R. S. Debis, Z. F. Zaher, G. A. Abdelmohsen, M. S. Faden, N. A. Noaman, A. R. Elakaby, M. E. Abdelmotaleb, A. M. Abdulgawad, et al., "Neonatal congenital heart surgery: contemporary outcomes and risk profile.", Journal of cardiothoracic surgery, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 80, 2022. Abstractneonatal_congenital_heart_surgery_contemporary_outcomes_and_risk_profile.pdf

OBJECTIVE: Many studies still dispute the identification of independent risk factors that influence outcome after neonatal cardiac surgery. We present our study to announce the contemporary outcomes and risk profile of neonatal cardiac surgery at our institute.

METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of neonatal patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart diseases between June 2011 and April 2020. Demographic, operative, and postoperative data were collected from medical records and surgical databases. The primary outcome was the operative mortality (in-hospital death) and secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit stay, duration of mechanical ventilation.

RESULTS: In total, 1155 cardiac surgeries in children were identified; of these, 136 (11.8%) were performed in neonates. Arterial switch operations (48 cases) were the most frequent procedures. Postoperatively, 11 (8.1%) patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 4 (2.9%) patients had complete heart block. Postoperative in-hospital mortality was 11%. The median postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospital length of stay were 6, 18, and 24 days, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The early outcomes of neonatal cardiac surgery are encouraging. The requirement of postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, postoperative intracranial hemorrhage, and acute kidney were identified as independent risk factors of mortality following surgery for congenital heart defects in neonates.

Bohner, M., S. R. Grace, I. Jadlovská, and N. Kılıç, "Nonoscillatory Solutions of Higher-Order Fractional Differential Equations", Mediterranean Journal of Mathematics, vol. 19, issue 3: Springer, pp. 1-14, 2022. Abstract
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JR Graef, S. R. Grace, and E. Tunc, "Oscillation of second-order nonlinear noncanonical dynamic equations with deviating arguments", Acta Mathematica Universitatis Comenianae , vol. 91, issue 2, pp. 113-120, 2022.
Lefrant, J. - Y., R. Pirracchio, D. Benhamou, M. - O. Fischer, R. Njeim, B. Allaouchiche, S. Bastide, M. Biais, L. Bouvet, O. Brissaud, et al., "Peace, not war in Ukraine or anywhere else, please.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 41, issue 3, pp. 101068, 2022.
El Gaafary, M., F. R. Saber, E. A. Mahrous, R. M. Ashour, M. O. N. A. M. OKBA, L. Jin, S. J. Lang, M. Schmiech, T. Simmet, and T. Syrovets, "The phloroglucinol calcitrinone A, a novel mitochondria-targeting agent, induces cell death in breast cancer cells", Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 162: Elsevier, pp. 112896, 2022. Abstract
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El Gaafary, M., F. R. Saber, E. A. Mahrous, R. M. Ashour, M. O. N. A. M. OKBA, L. Jin, S. J. Lang, M. Schmiech, T. Simmet, and T. Syrovets, "The phloroglucinol calcitrinone A, a novel mitochondria-targeting agent, induces cell death in breast cancer cells.", Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, vol. 162, pp. 112896, 2022. Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide. From the leaves of Callistemon citrinus, we have isolated a novel phloroglucinol dimer, calcitrinone A, and analyzed its potential anticancer activity using the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Calcitrinone A decreased the total intracellular ATP levels, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells, but was less toxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of calcitrinone A were confirmed in vivo using breast cancer xenografts grown on chick chorioallantoic membranes. Mechanistic analysis showed mitochondrial membrane-potential dissipation and interference with energy-yielding processes resulting in cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Seahorse assay analysis revealed an early inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). At the molecular level, calcitrinone A inhibited activity of the succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) (mitochondrial complex II). In silico docking identified the coenzyme Q binding pocket as a possible high affinity binding site for calcitrinone A in SQR. Inhibition of complex II was accompanied by strong elevation of mitochondrial superoxide and cytoplasmic ROS. Calcitrinone A might be a promising anticancer lead compound acting through the interference with the mitochondrial complex II activity.

Cross, B., K. M. Stepien, C. Gadepalli, A. Kharabish, P. Woolfson, G. Tol, and P. Jenkins, "Pre-operative Considerations in Adult Mucopolysaccharidosis Patients Planned for Cardiac Intervention.", Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, vol. 9, pp. 851016, 2022. Abstract

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare lysosomal storage diseases characterized by multiorgan involvement and shortened longevity. Due to advances in therapies such as enzyme replacement therapy and haematopoietic stem cell therapy, life expectancy has increased posing newer challenges to patients and health professionals. One such challenge is cardiovascular manifestations of MPS, which can be life limiting and cause reduction in quality of life. Any cardiovascular intervention mandates comprehensive, multi-systemic work-up by specialist teams to optimize outcome. We highlight the importance of multidisciplinary evaluation of adult MPS patients requiring cardiovascular intervention. Clinical assessments and investigations are discussed, with a focus on the cardiac, anesthetic, airway, respiratory, radiological and psychosocial factors.

Azeem, M., S. M. Shaheen, A. Ali, P. G. S. A. Jeyasundar, A. Latif, H. Abdelrahman, R. Li, M. Almazroui, N. K. Niazi, A. K. Sarmah, et al., "Removal of potentially toxic elements from contaminated soil and water using bone char compared to plant- and bone-derived biochars: A review", Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 427, pp. 128131, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Conversion of hazardous waste materials to value-added products is of great interest from both agro-environmental and economic points of view. Bone char (BC) has been used for the removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from contaminated water, however, its potential BC for the immobilization of PTEs in contaminated water and soil compared to bone (BBC)- and plant (PBC)-derived biochars has not been reviewed yet. This review presents an elaboration for the potentials of BC for the remediation of PTEs-contaminated water and soil in comparison with PBC and BBC. This work critically reviews the preparation and characterization of BC, BBC, and PBC and their PTEs removal efficiency from water and soils. The mechanisms of PTE removal by BC, BBC, and PBC are also discussed in relation to their physicochemical characteristics. The review demonstrates the key opportunities for using bone waste as feedstock for producing BC and BBC as promising low-cost and effective materials for the remediation of PTEs-contaminated water and soils and also elucidates the possible combinations of BC and BBC aiming to effectively immobilize PTEs in water and soils.

Xu, Z., J. H. Choi, D. L. Dai, J. Luo, R. J. Ladak, Q. Li, Y. Wang, C. Zhang, S. Wiebe, A. C. H. Liu, et al., "SARS-CoV-2 impairs interferon production via NSP2-induced repression of mRNA translation", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 119, no. 32, pp. e2204539119, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Viruses evade the innate immune response by suppressing the production or activity of cytokines such as type I interferons (IFNs). Here we report the discovery of a mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus coopts an intrinsic cellular machinery to suppress the production of the key immunostimulatory cytokine IFN-β. We reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 encoded nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) directly interacts with the cellular GIGYF2 protein. This interaction enhances the binding of GIGYF2 to the mRNA cap-binding protein 4EHP, thereby repressing the translation of the

Dar, A. A., K. Jamal, M. S. Shah, M. Ali, S. Sayed, A. Gaber, H. Kesba, and M. Salah, "Species richness, abundance, distributional pattern and trait composition of butterfly assemblage change along an altitudinal gradient in the Gulmarg region of Jammu & Kashmir, India", Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 29, issue 4, pp. 2262-2269, 2022. sjbs_294__2262-2269.pdf
Alzabut, J., R. P. Agarwal, S. R. Grace, J. M. Jonnalagadda, G. M. A. Selvam, and C. Wang, "A Survey on the Oscillation of Solutions for Fractional Difference Equations", Mathematics, vol. 10, issue 6: MDPI, pp. 894, 2022. Abstract
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Jeon, H. W., A. R. Park, M. Sung, N. Kim, M. Mannaa, G. Han, J. Kim, Y. Koo, and Y. - S. Seo, "Systemic Acquired Resistance-Mediated Control of Pine Wilt Disease by Foliar Application With Methyl Salicylate", Frontiers in Plant Scince, vol. 12, 2022.
Abdelkhalek, S. T., S. S. Abdelgayed, H. Jiang, and M. - Q. Wang, "The Toxicity of Eichhornia crassipes Fractionated Extracts against Aphis craccivora and Its Safety in Albino Rats", Toxins, vol. 14, issue 327, pp. 1-19, 2022. toxins-14-00327.pdf
Jamal, M. A., I. A. El-Khodary, and D. S. Ali, "A Two-Stage Rough Data Envelopment Analysis and Its Application in Three-Level Supply Chain Performance Evaluation", Ingénierie des Systèmes d’Information, vol. Vol. 27, issue No. 2, April, 2022, pp. 275-283, 2022.
Alengebawy, A., B. A. Mohamed, N. Ghimire, K. Jin, T. Liu, M. Samer, and P. Ai, "Understanding the environmental impacts of biogas utilization for energy production through life cycle assessment: An action towards reducing emissions", Environmental Research, vol. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113632, 2022.
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