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Gaafar, K. M., L. R. Abdel-Khalek, N. K. el-Sayed, and G. A. Ramadan, "Lipidemic effect as a manifestation of chloroquine retinotoxicity", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 45, issue 11, pp. 1231-5, 1995. Abstractlipidemic_effect_as_a_manifestation.pdf

The effect of long-term treatment of chloroquine (CAS 54-05-7) (20 mg/kg body weight) on serum lipid components and its relation to to the retinotoxic effect was studied in albino rats. Chloroquine was found to form lamellar lysosome-like structures within the photoreceptive layer, as well as the pigment epithelium and neurooretinal layers. Biochemically, hypolipidemia in the serum was observed mainly due to the decrease in phospholipid portion. It was hypothesized that due to the inhibition of the degradation process in the defective lysosomes, the retinal cells were denied the re-use of their own phospholipids, and thereby resort to their uptake from the serum.

Gaafar, K., E. W. Jwanny, M. M. Rashad, N. K. El-Sayed, and S. A. Moharib, "Evaluation with rats of methanol pichia pinus protein", Proceedings of the Egyptian Academy of Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 89-98, 1990. Abstractevaluation_with_rats.pdf

Pichia pinus biomass obtained from growth on methanol medium was fed to rats as 10% protein of the diet. Its nutritional, Physiological and histological effects were estimated. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) and the apparent digestibility of the biomass (Dapp) were 2.74 ± 0.107 and 73.99 ± 1.21, respectively, while that of casein (control) were 2.91 ± 0.127 and 90.16 ± 0.64, respectively. the alkaline phosphatase levels mostly showed no significant difference from the control. While the GOT levels were mostly significantly lowered, and the GPT levels did not show consistency. The urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in serum were unchanged, While that of uric acid was only significantly increased after 35 feeding days. Histologically no changes were observed.

Gaafar, R. M., R. Hamza, H. M. Khaled, M. Elserafi, O. Mansour, N. A. Karim, D. Abdelmoneim, I. El Attar, and S. Soliman, "Gemcitabine and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: National Cancer Institute Cairo experience.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 1-7, 2004 Mar. Abstract

AIM OF THE WORK: The aim of the present study is to document the antitumor activity of the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, asses the nature and severity of the side effects and elicit the impact of the combination chemotherapy on progression free survival and overall survival.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 1997 to August 2001, we conducted a phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in 60 chemonaive patients (21 stage IIIB and 39 stage IV). For the first 34 cases, gemcitabine was given at a dose of 1,000 mg/m2 IV on days 1, 8 and 15 with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 15, every 28 days. In the following 26 patients, the regimen was modified to gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m2 days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 day 1, every 21 days.

RESULTS: Patients included 53 males and 7 females [median age, 52 years (range, 28-69)]. Twenty-nine had adenocarcinoma, 18 large-cell carcinoma and 13 squamous-cell carcinoma. Thirty-one patients had a performance status (PS) of 2 and 22 presented with weight loss. All patients were evaluable for response. Three patients achieved a complete response (CR) and 22 had partial response (PR), giving an overall response of 41.7%, with a median duration of 10 months (range, 4-46 months). The time to progression (TTP) was 8 months (range, 2-46 months), with a median overall survival of 9 months (range, 2-46 months). The one-year survival rate was 30.3% for the entire study population, 44% for responders, and statistically improved in patients with a PS of I and those with no weight loss. A total of 255 cycles were administered (median, four cycles/patient). Myelosuppression was significant (but manageable) with grade 3/4 neutropenia in 32.6% of cases, anemia in 18.6% and thrombocytopenia in 20.4%. Nonhematologic toxicity was limited to grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting in 28.8% of cases and impaired liver enzymes in 13.6%.

CONCLUSION: Inspite of the relatively poor prognostic characteristics in the study population, gemcitabine and cisplatin, was an effective combination with tolerable, manageable toxicity in advanced NSCLC.

Gaafar, R., A. R. A. M. Rahman, F. Aboulkasem, and A. E. Bastawisy, "Mistletoe preparation (Viscum Fraxini-2) as palliative treatment for malignant pleural effusion: a feasibility study with comparison to bleomycin", ecancer , vol. 8:424 DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2014.424, 2014.
Gaafar, T., F. abdelraouf, and M. o Brien, "* Focused molecular analysis of smallcell lung cancer: feasibility in routine clinicalpractice. ", BMC Res Notes (2015), issue 8:688 DOI 10.1186/s13104-015-1675-x, 2015. sclc_paper_fatma.pdf
Gaafar, A., and T. Marei, "Intra-Operative Transesophageal Echocardiography In Rheumatic Mitral Valve Surgery : Diagnostic Accuracy and Predictability of Repair .", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 73-82, 2013.
Gaafar, K., S. I. Salem, S. O. EL-bassiouni, A. A. Ayad, and A. M. mehrevan Moneim, "Evaluation of serum ferritin in egyptian children with proten energy malnutrition: An index of infection", journal of the egyptian german society of zoology, vol. 21, pp. 1-16, 1996. Abstractevaluation_of_serum.pdf

Serum ferritin, Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein (α1AGP), c-reactive protein (CRP), and ceruloplasmin (CER) were studied in 83 children with an age range of three to thirty six months. Fifty nine cases suffered from protein energy Malnutrition (PEM), 29 marasmus and 30 kwashiorkor (KWO). Twenty four healthy children were included as controls. the malnourished group exhibited significant reduction in anthropometric measurement scores and in serum albumin and prealbumin levels than those of the control group. CER was significantly reduced in PEM cases. Evidence of infection by an elevated α1AGP, A positive CRP and the preence of diarrhea was also demonstrated in the malnourished group but not in the control one. Ferritin level was significantly elevated in the KWO group, While in the marasmus one the elevation was non-significant. At the same time 100% of the KWO and 89.7% of the marasmus cases had a hemoglobin level of less than 11 g/dL. Also 46.4% of the KWO and 48.2% of the marasmus cases had a serum iron of less than 50 µg/dL. In such circumstances the elevation in serum ferritin level, in accordance with other acute phase proteins, could reflect increased secretion and/or possible leakage from damaged tissues especially when evidence of increased body iron stores is lacking.

Gaafar, K. M., M. M. Badawy, and A. A. Hamza, "The protective effects of ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifidipine on diethyldithiocarbamate-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats", Drug and chemical toxicology, vol. 34, issue 4, pp. 405-19, 2011. Abstractddcliver_damage.pdf

The aim of the present work was to clarify the involvement of free radicals, cytochrome P450 toxic metabolites, and deregulation of calcium homeostasis in the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) hepatotoxicity. This was elucidated through the preadministration of ascorbic acid (a free radical scavenger), cimetidine (an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes), or nifedipine (a calcium-blocking agent) before DDC treatment to male albino rats. DDC was administered either as a single dose [800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneously, s.c.] or daily repeated doses for 30 days (400 mg/kg b.w., s.c.). Oxidative stress indicators [e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD)] showed that single or repeated DDC doses induce an increase in MDA level and a decrease in SOD activity in the liver, whereas it causes depletion in hepatic GSH after a single dose and an elevation in its value after repeated doses. Severe histopathological changes were also observed in the livers of rats treated with single or repeated DDC doses. Ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine pretreatments were found to induce highly protective effects against the evinced DDC hepatotoxicity, manifesting that free radical, cytochrome P450, and calcium-dependent processes contribute to DDC liver toxicity. Finally, although multiple mechanisms may be involved in the hepatotoxic changes induced by DDC, calcium disarrangement and free radical formation play a more critical role than cytochrome P450 in metabolic events leading to toxic effects of DDC.

Gaafar, K., H. el Nazer, S. Salama, and S. el Batran, "Study on the possible interaction between an ace inhibitor, a diuretic and an anti-inflammatory drug in normal rats.", Bollettino chimico farmaceutico, vol. 134, issue 4, pp. 216-219, 1995. Abstractstudy_on_the_possible_interaction.pdf

Captopril was effective in the long term reduction of serum sodium and aldosterone in normotensive rats, the addition of HCT produced a further decrease in serum sodium and was also useful in preventing hypokalemia produced by HCT. On the other hand, the concurrent therapy with Diclofenac attenuated the hypotensive effect of Captopril and HCT, it was observed that to combine Diclofenac with captopril was more beneficial as regards the metabolic parameters.

Gaafar, R. M., V. F. Surmont, G. V. Scagliotti, R. V. J. Klaveren, D. Papamichael, J. J. Welch, B. Hasan, and V. T. P. andJan van Meerbeeck, "A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Intergroup Study of Gefitinib in Patients with Advanced NSCLC, non Progressing After First Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (EORTC 08021/ILCP 01/03)", European Journal of Cancer, 2011. Abstract

Background: EORTC study 08021/ILCP 01/03 evaluated the role of consolidation gefitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), administered in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), not progressing following standard 1st-line chemotherapy.

Gaafar, A. E., A. A. El-Aal, M. Alboraie, H. M. Hassan, adel el tahan, Y. Abdelrahman, M. - N. Wifi, D. Omran, A. himaa Mansour, W. M. Hassan, et al., "Prevalence of prolonged QT interval in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease", The Egyptian Heart Journal, vol. 71, issue 15, pp. 1-7, 2019.
Gaafar, S. A., K. H. Mahmoud, S. I. Bannan, and M. F. H. Abd Elkader, Biophysical Studies of γ-irradiate Glycogen/PVA blends doped with Dye, , Giza, Cairo University, 2007.
Gaafar, T., H. Ali, S. O. H. A. I. R. MAHFOUZ, H. A. Mubarak, M. Ahmed, and D. Sabry, "Angiogenesis in Rat Ischemic Hindlimb: Role of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 79, no. 2, 2011. Abstract
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Gaafar, T. M., I. I. Raafat, A. A. Aly, N. A. E. L. - G. Mohamed, R. J. Farid, N. E. Saad, R. EL-Hawary, N. Mostafaa, and M. M. Ahmed, "Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients", Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, issue 2, pp. 231-236, 2015.
Gaafar, T., W. Attia, S. Mahmoud, D. Sabry, O. AbdElAziz, D. I. N. A. RASHEED, and H. Hamza, "Cardioprotective Effects of Wharton Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in a Rodent Model of Myocardial Injury.", International journal of stem cells, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 48-59, 2017 May 30. Abstract

Background: Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable alternative source that possess multipotent properties, easy to obtain and available in large scale compared to BMMSCs. We investigated the possibility of cardiac function improvement post isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in a rat model following human WJMSCs transplantation.

Materials and Methods: MSCs were extracted and cultured from cord WJ, characterized by morphology, Immunophenotyping and differentiation to osteoblast and adipocytes. WJMSCs were labeled with PKH2 linker dye. Wistar rats were divided into control group, ISO group (injected with 2 doses of isoproterenol) to induce myocardial injury and ISO group transplanted with labelled WJMSCs. ECG, electrocardiographic patterns, cardiac marker enzymes, tracing of labeled MSCs and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial cryosections were studied.

Results and Conclusions: WJ derived MSCs were expanded for more than 14 passages while maintaining their undifferentiated state, were positive for MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipocyte and osteoblast. We demonstrated that intravenously administered WJMSCs were capable of homing predominently in the ischemic myocardium. Cardiac markers were positively altered in stem cell treated group compared to ISO group. ECG and ECHO changes were improved with higher survival rate. WJMSCs could differentiate into cardiac-like cells (positive for cardiac specific proteins) in vivo. WJMSCs infusion promoted cardiac protection and reduced mortality, emphasizing a promising therapeutic role for myocardial insufficiency.

Gaafar, T. M., H. A. A. Rahman, W. Attia, H. S. Hamza, K. Brockmeier, and R. E. E. Hawary, "Comparative characteristics of endothelial-like cells derived from human adipose mesenchymal stem cells and umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial cells", Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 177-184, 2014.
Gaafar, T., and et al, "Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients", ID design, Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. vol 3 no 2 [2015], 2015.
Gaafar, T., W. Attia, S. Mahmoud, D. Sabry, O. AbdElAziz, D. I. N. A. RASHEED, and H. Hamza, "Cardioprotective effects of Wharton Jelly derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rodent model of myocardial injury", International journal of stem cells, vol. 10, issue No1, pp. 48-59, 2017. ijsc16063.pdf
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, W. Attia, A. Osman, and H. Hamza, "Gene expression profiling of endometrium versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: up regulation of cytokine genes", Molecular and cellular biochemistry, vol. 395, issue 1-2, pp. 29-43, 2014.
Gaafar, T., S. Shawky, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, "The role of angiotensin II in cardiomyogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells", Comparative Clinical Pathology, 2014.
Gaafar, K., and H. M. taha, "Blood indices in relation to methyl alcohol toxicity in rats", the egyptian medical journal, vol. 6, pp. 595-601, 1989. Abstractblood_indices.pdf

The effect of methyl alcohol toxicity on some blood indices in adult male rats were studied. Male albino rats were injected intraperitoneally with absolute methanol (4 ml/kg body weight). The data revealed a highly significant decrease in total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts concomitant with an increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin following methanol administration. It was concluded that blood indices, in particular mean corpuscular volume, may be used as a test to verify meyhanol toxicity.

Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, ". Gene expression profiling of endometrial versus bone marrow derived MSCs : upregulation of cytokine genes", Mol Cell Biochem ; DOI 10.1007/s11010-014-2109-0, 2014. paper_published_in_molecular__cellular_biochemistry.pdf
Gaafar, A., and M. Salah, "Papillary Muscle Sling as An Adjunctive Procedure For The Repair of Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 119-126, 2013.