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Gaafar, A., and T. Marei, "COMBINED TRANSAORTIC AND TRANSMITRAL MYECTOMY FOR HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY.", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 20, issue 3-4, pp. 55-59, 2012.
Gaafar, K., H. E. Nazer, S. Salama, and S. E. Batran, "Interaction of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with antihypertensive and diuretic agents in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)- salt hypertensive rats", Proceedings of the Egyptian Academy of Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 27-40, 1996. Abstractinteraction_of_nonsteroidal.pdf

The effect of one month treatment with Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT); Captopril, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), Diclofenac, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and their different combinations was studied in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats (HR). It was observed that HCT causes a reduction of serum sodium, potassium and creatinine levels concomitant with an increase in serum aldosterone. Captopril also reduced serum sodium and creatinine but increased serum potassium and had no effect on aldosterone. The administration of HCT with Captopril produced a simple additive interaction, thus reducing serum sodium and creatinine, prevented hyperaldosteronism and reversed the hypokalemic effect induced by HCT. On the other hand, Diclofenac alone exerted a significant increase in serum sodium and creatinine while its biosynthesis of renal and/or extrarenal prostaglandins which are compounds known to modulate the vasoconstrictive effect of norepinephrine and to represent important mediators for the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (Brown et al., 1986). Moreover, Brown et al. (1986) reported that sodium retention is a characteristic effect of virtually all NSAIDs.

Gaafar, K., A. R. laila khalek, N. K.El-Sayed, and S. H. Karam, "Histoenzyme changes in chronic methyl alcohol retinotoxicity in rats", the egyptian journal of histology, vol. 14, pp. 377-384, 1991. Abstracthistoenzyme_changes.pdf

Male albino rats were administered methyl alcohol in their drinking water as 2,4 ad 6% solutions for four weeks. Methyl alcohol concentration was determind in the sera of rats after 1,2 and 4 weeks and was found too increase significantly.

Retinal tissue was removed at similar time intervals for histopathologic and histoenzymologic examination. The retinal damage was directed at the photoreceptors primarily and the neuronal elements. A significant finding was the loss of outer layers of the retina after prolonged methyl alcohol intake. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) increased and NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreased indicating enhanced aerobic glycolysis and depressed anaerobic glycolysis. Acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities were notably increased in the pigment epithelium, choroid and sites of enzyme activities in the retina. The increase in ALP and ATPase in the pigment epithelium may be attributable to the increased demands of the retina for metabolic exchange and reflect modified membrane permeability induced by the toxin.

Gaafar, R., Y. A. Sallam, H. E. Shafik, F. A. Aboulkassem, M. Emara, and H. Khaled, "Impact of New Chemotherapeutic agents on the out-come of Egyptian patients with Advanced Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma", The Gulf journal of oncology, vol. 1, issue 16, pp. 56-63, 2014. Abstract
n/a
Gaafar, R. M., A. A. Bahnasy, O. M. Mansour, N. M. Allahloubi, I. A. Malash, and S. M. Shaarawy, "Genetic profiling of breast cancer confirms a pivotal role of EGFR pathway in the development of acquired resistance to tamoxifen", Cancer Research 75(9 Supplement):P2-05-11-P2-05-11, vol. 75, issue 9 Supplement, pp. P2-05-11, 2015. abstract_p2-05-11_genetic_profiling_of_breast_cancer_confirms_a_pivotal_role_of_egfr_pathway_in_the.pdf
Gaafar, T., F. abdelraouf, and M. o Brien, "* Focused molecular analysis of smallcell lung cancer: feasibility in routine clinicalpractice. ", BMC Res Notes (2015), issue 8:688 DOI 10.1186/s13104-015-1675-x, 2015. sclc_paper_fatma.pdf
Gaafar, H. M., G. A. A. Moety, and W. E. Khayat, "Three-dimensionalultrasonographyusingtheVOCAL technique forestimationofreferencerangebetween 7 and11weeksembryonicvolume", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 18, pp. 115-119, 2013.
Gaafar, A., and T. Marei, "Pericardial Patch Enlargement With Fragmentation of The Posterior Leaflet: A Novel Technique For Repair Of Rheumatic Mitral Regurgitation.", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 137-44, 2013.
Gaafar, K., A. Ramadan, E. Ashour, M. Afify, Y. M. Shaker, and H. S. Badawy, "Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism during pregnancy among egyptian women", journal of the egyptian german society of zoology, vol. 37 (A), pp. 265-283, 2002. Abstractnew.pdf

Objectives: To evaluate the levels of some parameters related to bone metabolism during pregnancy i.e. total calcium (CA), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Vit.D), parathormone hormone (PTH), phosphorous, osteocalcin, total acid phosphatase and its tartrate resistant isoform (TrACP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and its isoenzmes activities, total protein, albumin, globulin in sera and haemoglobin in blood in a group of egyptian pregnant women who are living in cairo and under reasonable medical care.
Cases: The study was conducted on 33 healthy pregnant women (age range from 20 to 38 years) and 16 healthy non-pregnant women within the same age range to serve as controls. Twenty blood samples were collected from the pregnant women at the end of first trimester of pregnancy (Week-11), twenty four were collected at the end of third trimester (Week-38).
Results: Regarding the osteoblastic activity, the T.ALP was significantly increased due to placental T.ALP and to a lesser degree to bone ALP, while osteocalcin levels. Showed a non significant increment in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy with significant increase in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy .concerning the osteoclastic activity, The TrACP isoform decreased significantly in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, Then returned to the normal values of non-pregnant control levels. Women in the last trimester of pregnancy have higher estrogen level than any other time of life. Although, estrogens at physiologic concentration inhibit osteoclastic activity, hight estrogen concentration increases osteoclastic activity.
As regards the factors that responsible for calcium homeostasis, significant decrease in serum intact PTH was concurrent with significant increase in Vit.D. The total serum calcium level was significantly decreased through the pregnancy, while the ionized calcium did not change, and the serum phosphorus was highly significantly increased.
Conclusion: From these results it has been concluded that, the pregnancy imposes major changes in the mother's nutritional requirement and causes physiological alternation in maternal bone metabolism. Minimal changes affecting the bone turnover were demonstrated among egyptian women throughout pregnancy due to the nutritional statue of the women and thier supplementation with Ca and/or Vit.D. Also,the changes in the haemodynamic parameters of the mother may be due to heamodilution that occur during pregnancy. The obtained patterns showed that the egyptian women who are living in urban areas (e.g. cairo), and under reasonable medical care are in good health compared to other communities in which the nutritional status and the poor medical care are the main reasons for the dramatic changes in the bone metabolism.

Gaafar, K., S. Salama, and S. el Batran, "Studies on the glycemic and lipidemic effect of atenolol and propranolol in normal and diabetic rats.", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 44, issue 4, pp. 496-501, 1994. Abstractstudies_on_the_glycemic.pdf

The effects of the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol (CAS 525-66-6) and the cardioselective drug atenolol (CAS 29122-68-7) on serum glucose, insulin levels and some serum lipid components, were compared in normal and diabetic rats receiving glibenclamide. The two beta-blockers, when administered concurrently with glibenclamide in normal rats, exerted a significant hypoglycemic effect (p < 0.01), while in diabetic rats the two drugs caused a more significant decrease (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, resp.). Serum insulin levels were mainly unaffected by the two beta-blockers. Propranolol was found to exhibit a hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats when administered alone or in combination with glibenclamide. In comparison atenolol, when used alone, exerted a significant increase in triglycerides and total lipid levels (p < 0.05) in normal rats. This effect was masked when atenolol was administered concurrently with glibenclamide, but a hypercholesterolemic effect (p < 0.01) was noticed. Paradoxically in diabetic rats, atenolol caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in triglycerides level, while its combined use with glibenclamide showed no effect.

Gaafar, K., A. M. Soliman, A. Bashter, H. Hamdi, A. M. Badr, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "Towards Establishing Ethical Committee for Animal Research: Challenges and Opportunities", 2013 IACUC Conference, 2013. Abstract000000000.pdf

Although animal research ethics committees (AREC) are
well established in Western
countries this field is
weakly developed and its concept is poorly understood
in the Middle East and North Africa region. Our
main objective was to establish the first animal ethics committee to introduce the concept and
requirements of ethical approaches in dealing with experimental animal models in Egypt.
To achieve this we established our standard oper
ating producers (SOP) according to international
guidelines. Our SOP constituted the AREC responsi
bilities, committee member
s selection, evaluation
procedures emphasizing the regional cultures, etc. T
he challenges encountered by the committee were
diverse such as the absence of laws that control the
use of animal models in scientific research, lack of
guidelines (protocols for animal subjects in research) and mandatory ethical approval for any
experimental animal research. To ov
ercome the challenges, high univer
sity authorities were approached
to approve the establishment of an AREC committee.
Moreover, workshops were instigated in different
universities to: 1) emphasize the legal requirement
of animal research ethics approval; 2) describe the
guidelines how ethical evaluation of scie
ntific proposal will be carried out; 3)
facilitate interaction with best
practices and research experts and 4) teach young rese
arches how to write protocol involving the use of
animal subjects in research. In three months, we were able to conduct three workshops after each
workshop questionnaire and evaluation was obtained to overcome weak points.

Gaafar, K. M., K. I. Fayek, H. M. Taha, and O. A. Kishta, "Lipidemic effect of methanol", Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Physiology, vol. 109, issue 3, pp. 661-666, 1994. Abstractlipidemic_effect_of_methanol.pdf

The effect of methanol on some of the lipid components in serum was studied in rats. Methanol was administered by stomach tube in doses of 2 and 6 ml/kg b.wt daily for 21 and 6 days, respectively. Methanol was found to accumulate lipids; thus, cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides increased significantly. Concurrently, modification of the lipoid content of organs has been considered. It was concluded that methanol and not only formate, is toxic to rats, inspite of the alleged difference in routes of its metabolism in primates and rodents.

Gaafar, T. M., R. E. Hawary, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, K. Brockmeier, and O. M. Osman, "Comparative characteristics of amniotic membrane, endometrium and ovarian derived mesenchymal stem cells: A role for amniotic membrane in stem cell therapy", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 19, pp. 156-170, 2014.
Gaafar, R., E. Shash, A. El-Haddad, and S. A. Hady, "Teaching Oncology to Medical Students is a Must: the Egyptian NCI Step on the Road", Journal of Cancer Education, 2011. Abstract

In Egypt, although cancer is now the second leading cause of death, oncology teaching in medical schools is fragmented and is studied within the core of other topics, such as surgery and pathology. This diversity leads to a non-unified approach; and medical students graduate knowing little about the management of cancer patients. Following previous individual attempts, we decided to develop an intense summer course for medical students of Egypt and the Middle East as a step forward to enhance the knowledge of our future physicians.

Gaafar, T., S. Shawky, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, "The role of angiotensin II in cardiomyogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells", Comparative Clinical Pathology, vol. 24, issue 4, pp. 879-885, 2015.
Gaafar, T. M., M. O. F. Hanna, M. R. Hammady, H. M.Amr, O. M. Osman, A. Nasef, and A. Osman, "Evaluation of cytokines in follicular fluid and their effect on fertilization and pregnancy outcome", Immunological Investigations, vol. 43, issue 6, pp. 572-584, 2014.
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and E. R. Hawary, "Gene expression profiling of endometrium versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: upregulation of cytokine genes.", Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 395, issue 1-2, pp. 29-34, 2014.
Gaafar, K., N. K. El-sayed, L. R. Abdel-Khalak, and L. Kamal, "Methyl alcohol induced acidosis and retinal changes in rats", the egyptian medical journal, vol. 6, pp. 411-423, 1989. Abstractmethyl_alcohol.pdf

The effect of acute methyl alcohol poisoning in male albino rats was investigated. rats injected intraperitoneally with median lethal (6 ml/kg body weight) and lethal (10 ml/kg body weight) dose of absolute methanol showed a significant decrease that high concentrations remained in the blood twenty four hours post-injection of the median lethal dose. In addition, microscopic examination of the retina showed edema and considerable damage to the photoreceptprs, nerve cells of the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells, which may result in impairment of vision. It is suggested that rats can be used as experimental models for methanol poisoning and the resulting ocular toxicity studies.

Gaafar, T. M., O. M. Osman, M. R. Hammady, A. Nasef, and A. M. Osman, "Evaluation of cytokines in follicular fluid and their effect on fertilization and pregnancy outcome", Immunological Investigations, vol. 43, issue 6, pp. 572-584, 2014. screen_shot_2016-05-07_at_15.09.00.png
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, "Gene expression profiling of endometrium versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: upregulation of cytokine genes", Mol Cell Biochem, vol. 395, pp. 29-43, 2014.
Gaafar, A. E., A. A. El-Aal, M. Alboraie, H. M. Hassan, adel el tahan, Y. Abdelrahman, M. - N. Wifi, D. Omran, A. himaa Mansour, W. M. Hassan, et al., "Prevalence of prolonged QT interval in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease", The Egyptian Heart Journal, vol. 71, issue 15, pp. 1-7, 2019.
Gaafar, K. M., L. R. Abdel-Khalek, N. K. el-Sayed, and G. A. Ramadan, "Lipidemic effect as a manifestation of chloroquine retinotoxicity", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 45, issue 11, pp. 1231-5, 1995. Abstractlipidemic_effect_as_a_manifestation.pdf

The effect of long-term treatment of chloroquine (CAS 54-05-7) (20 mg/kg body weight) on serum lipid components and its relation to to the retinotoxic effect was studied in albino rats. Chloroquine was found to form lamellar lysosome-like structures within the photoreceptive layer, as well as the pigment epithelium and neurooretinal layers. Biochemically, hypolipidemia in the serum was observed mainly due to the decrease in phospholipid portion. It was hypothesized that due to the inhibition of the degradation process in the defective lysosomes, the retinal cells were denied the re-use of their own phospholipids, and thereby resort to their uptake from the serum.

Gaafar, K., E. W. Jwanny, M. M. Rashad, N. K. El-Sayed, and S. A. Moharib, "Evaluation with rats of methanol pichia pinus protein", Proceedings of the Egyptian Academy of Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 89-98, 1990. Abstractevaluation_with_rats.pdf

Pichia pinus biomass obtained from growth on methanol medium was fed to rats as 10% protein of the diet. Its nutritional, Physiological and histological effects were estimated. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) and the apparent digestibility of the biomass (Dapp) were 2.74 ± 0.107 and 73.99 ± 1.21, respectively, while that of casein (control) were 2.91 ± 0.127 and 90.16 ± 0.64, respectively. the alkaline phosphatase levels mostly showed no significant difference from the control. While the GOT levels were mostly significantly lowered, and the GPT levels did not show consistency. The urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in serum were unchanged, While that of uric acid was only significantly increased after 35 feeding days. Histologically no changes were observed.