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Gaafar, T. M., M. O. F. Hanna, M. R. Hammady, H. M.Amr, O. M. Osman, A. Nasef, and A. Osman, "Evaluation of cytokines in follicular fluid and their effect on fertilization and pregnancy outcome", Immunological Investigations, vol. 43, issue 6, pp. 572-584, 2014.
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and E. R. Hawary, "Gene expression profiling of endometrium versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: upregulation of cytokine genes.", Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 395, issue 1-2, pp. 29-34, 2014.
Gaafar, T., H. Ali, S. O. H. A. I. R. MAHFOUZ, H. A. Mubarak, M. Ahmed, and D. Sabry, "Angiogenesis in Rat Ischemic Hindlimb: Role of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 79, no. 2, 2011. Abstract
Gaafar, T., S. Shawky, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, "The role of angiotensin II in cardiomyogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells", Comparative Clinical Pathology, vol. 24, issue 4, pp. 879-885, 2015.
Gaafar, R., H. Khaled, Y. A. Sallam, H. Shafik, F. A. Aboulkassem, and M. Emara, "Impact of relatively new chemotherapeutic agents on the outcome of Egyptian patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma", Forum of Clinical Oncology, vol. 5, issue 1: De Gruyter Open, pp. 29-36, Submitted. Abstract
Gaafar, K., and H. M. taha, "Blood indices in relation to methyl alcohol toxicity in rats", the egyptian medical journal, vol. 6, pp. 595-601, 1989. Abstractblood_indices.pdf

The effect of methyl alcohol toxicity on some blood indices in adult male rats were studied. Male albino rats were injected intraperitoneally with absolute methanol (4 ml/kg body weight). The data revealed a highly significant decrease in total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts concomitant with an increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin following methanol administration. It was concluded that blood indices, in particular mean corpuscular volume, may be used as a test to verify meyhanol toxicity.

Gaafar, R. M., R. Hamza, H. M. Khaled, M. Elserafi, O. Mansour, N. A. Karim, D. Abdelmoneim, I. El Attar, and S. Soliman, "Gemcitabine and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: National Cancer Institute Cairo experience.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 1-7, 2004 Mar. Abstract

AIM OF THE WORK: The aim of the present study is to document the antitumor activity of the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, asses the nature and severity of the side effects and elicit the impact of the combination chemotherapy on progression free survival and overall survival.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 1997 to August 2001, we conducted a phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in 60 chemonaive patients (21 stage IIIB and 39 stage IV). For the first 34 cases, gemcitabine was given at a dose of 1,000 mg/m2 IV on days 1, 8 and 15 with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 15, every 28 days. In the following 26 patients, the regimen was modified to gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m2 days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 day 1, every 21 days.

RESULTS: Patients included 53 males and 7 females [median age, 52 years (range, 28-69)]. Twenty-nine had adenocarcinoma, 18 large-cell carcinoma and 13 squamous-cell carcinoma. Thirty-one patients had a performance status (PS) of 2 and 22 presented with weight loss. All patients were evaluable for response. Three patients achieved a complete response (CR) and 22 had partial response (PR), giving an overall response of 41.7%, with a median duration of 10 months (range, 4-46 months). The time to progression (TTP) was 8 months (range, 2-46 months), with a median overall survival of 9 months (range, 2-46 months). The one-year survival rate was 30.3% for the entire study population, 44% for responders, and statistically improved in patients with a PS of I and those with no weight loss. A total of 255 cycles were administered (median, four cycles/patient). Myelosuppression was significant (but manageable) with grade 3/4 neutropenia in 32.6% of cases, anemia in 18.6% and thrombocytopenia in 20.4%. Nonhematologic toxicity was limited to grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting in 28.8% of cases and impaired liver enzymes in 13.6%.

CONCLUSION: Inspite of the relatively poor prognostic characteristics in the study population, gemcitabine and cisplatin, was an effective combination with tolerable, manageable toxicity in advanced NSCLC.

Gaafar, R., A. R. A. M. Rahman, F. Aboulkasem, and A. E. Bastawisy, "Mistletoe preparation (Viscum Fraxini-2) as palliative treatment for malignant pleural effusion: a feasibility study with comparison to bleomycin", ecancer , vol. 8:424 DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2014.424, 2014.
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, "Gene expression profiling of endometrium versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: upregulation of cytokine genes", Mol Cell Biochem, vol. 395, pp. 29-43, 2014.
Gaafar, T., and et al, "Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients", ID design, Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. vol 3 no 2 [2015], 2015.
Gaafar, K. M., H. taha, and J. seid, "Beneficial effects of capozide on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism", Proceedings of the egyptian Academy of Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 41-56, 1996. Abstractbeneficial_effects.pdf

capozide was administered in a dose of 1.012 mg/200g rat body weight once a day for 4 weeks to normal and diabetic rats. It had no effects on serum potassium urea or creatinine. No increase in lipid concentration to negate its beneficial hypotensive effect, was noted. Form oral glucose tolerance test, it was calculated that the drug improved glucose tolerance concomitant with the increased beta cell function and peripheral insulin response.
The interaction between the two components of capozide, captopril an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, is discussed in regards to carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis.

Gaafar, K., N. K. Elsayed, L. A. R. Khalek, and S. H. Caram, "Changes in some serum and histoenzymes in methyl alcohol hepatotoxicity in rats", the egyptian journal of histology, vol. 14, pp. 385-393, 1991. Abstractchanges_in_some_serum.pdf

Male albino rats were given 2,4 and 6% methyl alcohol solution as drinking water for 4 weeks. Liver tissue was examined for histopathologic and histochemical changes in some liver enzymes. Changes in some serum enzymes and glucose level were also assayed. The histopathologic changes in the liver were in the form of venous congestion, increased influx of inflammatory cells, bile duct proliferation, fatty degeneration and necrosis of liver parenchyma.

Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities increased whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity decreased indicating enhanced aerobic glycolysis and active phosphorylation and inhibition of anaeobic glycolysis. This was accompanied by hyperglycaemia on the first week followed by drop of glucose to normal value sug-gesting its increased utilization as energy source to offset the effects of the toxin.

Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity increased in the liver parenchyma. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was also activated while membrane ATPase was inhibited revealing disturbances in membrane transport processes. Liver dysfunction was also confirmed by increased activity of the serum enzymes gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transaninase (GPT) and LDH.

Gaafar, R., M. R. Hamza, A. A. Rabia, H. Khaled, I. Osman, H. Al-Zawahry, N. M.Ali, M. A. Saber, M. Al-Serafi, and N. G. A. Moula, "Evaluation of recombinant alpha 2B interferon and 5-fluorouracil in advanced and metastatic colorectal carcinoma. ", J. Egypt. Nat. Cancer Inst., vol. 6, issue 4, pp. 741 - 750, 1994.
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, ". Gene expression profiling of endometrial versus bone marrow derived MSCs : upregulation of cytokine genes", Mol Cell Biochem ; DOI 10.1007/s11010-014-2109-0, 2014. paper_published_in_molecular__cellular_biochemistry.pdf
Gaafar, A., and M. Salah, "Papillary Muscle Sling as An Adjunctive Procedure For The Repair of Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 119-126, 2013.
Gaafar, K. M., M. I. Khedr, S. A. Bashandy, O. A. Sharaf, and S. R. el-Zayat, "Effect of chloroquine on glucose metabolism", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 52, issue 5, pp. 400-6, 2002. Abstracteffect_of_chloroquine.pdf

The long- and short-term effects of chloroquine (CAS 54-05-7) on glucose metabolism in rats were assessed. The long-term chronic chloroquine administration (5 and 10 mg/kg b.w. 6 days a week for 6 months) caused a decrease in serum glucose, insulin, calcium, potassium and protein levels, while the glucagon level increased. The short-term acute effect of chloroquine administration (10 mg/kg b.w. 6 days for one week) caused an improvement in glucose tolerance as shown by the decrease in glucose and insulin curves after an oral glucose tolerance test. This was accompanied by an increase in insulin activity, corrected insulin response, and glucose tolerance parameter and a decrease in glucose and insulin areas. Lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increased, too, indicating an increase which provides the needed energy for overcoming the injurious effect of chloroquine.

Gaafar, R. M., M. M. Hussein, N. M. A. Allahloubi, A. A. M. Warith, W. A. A. Allah, S. E. Salem, and E. A. M. Salam, "Toxicity and prediction of survival benefit with metronomic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer.", Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 32, issue 15_suppl, pp. 1045-1045, 2014.
Gaafar, K., "Superoxide dismutase and glutathione in methanol and ethanol treated rats", journal of the egyptian german society of zoology, vol. 15 (A), pp. 461-471, 1994. Abstractsuperoxide_dismutase.pdf

The long term (6 Weeks) effect of both methanol (2 ml/kg) and ethanol (2 ml/kg) on GSH and SOD activities in rats was studied. Blood SOD and GSH activity declined sharply (1st week), then started to increase gradually. Liver GSH was seen to increase significantly (4 and 6 weeks post treatment). This was attributed to their swift usage in scavenging the free radical produced from the metabolism of the alcohols, and their protective response whereby an increase in their synthesis occurs.

Gaafar, K., F. K.I, T. H.M, and kishta O.A, "Methanol and glucose homeostasis", the egyptian journal of medical sciences, vol. 15, pp. 689-698, 1994. Abstractmethanol_and_glucose.pdf

Glucose tolerance curve, glycogen and the calculated glucose tolerance (GT), peripheral insulin activity (A value), beta cell function (CIR) and glucose and insulin areas were studied in rats intoxicated with methanol. The study revealed that a sublethal dose of methanol (2 ml/kg b.wt) increases glucose consumption at the same time having no effect on insuline secretion, While the continued administration of methanol depletes glycogen due to its breakdown to restore glucose levels to normal values. The lethal dose (6 ml/kg b.wt) cause insuline resistance.

Gaafar, R. M., V. F. Surmont, G. V. Scagliotti, R. V. J. Klaveren, D. Papamichael, J. J. Welch, B. Hasan, and V. T. P. andJan van Meerbeeck, "A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Intergroup Study of Gefitinib in Patients with Advanced NSCLC, non Progressing After First Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (EORTC 08021/ILCP 01/03)", European Journal of Cancer, 2011. Abstract

Background: EORTC study 08021/ILCP 01/03 evaluated the role of consolidation gefitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), administered in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), not progressing following standard 1st-line chemotherapy.

Gaafar, R., E. Shash, A. El-Haddad, and S. A. Hady, "Teaching oncology to medical students is a must: The Egyptian NCI step on the road", Journal of Cancer Education, vol. 26, no. 3: Springer New York, pp. 547–548, 2011. Abstract
Gaafar, S. A., K. H. Mahmoud, S. I. Bannan, and M. F. H. Abd Elkader, Biophysical Studies of γ-irradiate Glycogen/PVA blends doped with Dye, , Giza, Cairo University, 2007.
Gaafar, T. M., I. I. Raafat, A. A. Aly, N. A. E. L. - G. Mohamed, R. J. Farid, N. E. Saad, R. EL-Hawary, N. Mostafaa, and M. M. Ahmed, "Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients", Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, issue 2, pp. 231-236, 2015.