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G.Youssef, AE. Basyony, M. K. S. M. S. M. G., "Effect of soaking, germination and cooking on antinutritional factors and nutritional value of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.)", First Conference of Role of Biochemistry in Environmental and Agriculture. Feb. 6-8.: Biochem Dep., Fac. of Agric., Cairo Univ.,Egypt, 2001. Abstract
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GA, A. E. - H., H. GM, F. IF, A. SM, F. A, T. O, and A. NA., " Impact of cis-acting elements' frequency in transcription activity in dicot and monocot plants", 3 Biotech, vol. 5, issue 6, pp. 1007-1019, 2015.
Gaabour, L. H., Y. E. E. D. Gamal, and G. Abdellatif, "Numerical Investigation of the Plasma Formation in Distilled Water by Nd-YAG Laser Pulses of Different Duration ", Journal of Modern Physics , vol. 3, pp. 1683-1691 , 2012. paper_4_water_2012.pdf
Gaabour, L., M. M. Badahdah, and Y. E. E. - D. Gamal, "Studying the Role of the Physical Processes dependence on gas pressure in The Breakdown of Molecular Oxygen by 1064 nm Laser Radiation", Life Science Journal, vol. 10, issue 4, pp. 2548-2556, 2013. Abstract341_21524life1004_2548_2556.pdf

This work presents an investigation of the experimental measurements that carried out to study the
breakdown threshold dependence on gas pressure in the breakdown of molecular oxygen by a Nd: YAG laser source
operating at wavelengths 1064 nm with a pulse duration of 5.5 ns over a gas pressure range varies between 190-
3000 torr. The study is devoted to find out the role played by the physical processes in determining the threshold
intensity of molecular oxygen breakdown as a function of gas pressure. In doing so a previously developed electron
cascade model is modified and applied. The modification assigned the inclusion of an electron diffusion term to
account for electron losses out of the focal volume on the experimentally tested low pressure regime. Besides, the
model takes into account most of the physical processes which might take place during the interaction between the
laser beam and the oxygen molecules. The result of computations showed reasonable agreement between the
calculated threshold intensities and the experimentally measured ones over the tested gas pressure range. This
proves the validity of the model. In addition the study of the performed of the electron energy distribution function,
EEDF, and its correlated parameters viz, temporal evolution of: electron density, excitation rate, ionization rate and
electron mean energy as well as the variation of the EEDF during the laser pulse verified the exact correlation
between gas pressure and the physical process responsible for the production and loss of electrons or their energy
during the breakdown phase.

Gaafar, T., F. abdelraouf, and M. o Brien, "* Focused molecular analysis of smallcell lung cancer: feasibility in routine clinicalpractice. ", BMC Res Notes (2015), issue 8:688 DOI 10.1186/s13104-015-1675-x, 2015. sclc_paper_fatma.pdf
Gaafar, A., and T. Marei, "Intra-Operative Transesophageal Echocardiography In Rheumatic Mitral Valve Surgery : Diagnostic Accuracy and Predictability of Repair .", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 73-82, 2013.
Gaafar, K., S. I. Salem, S. O. EL-bassiouni, A. A. Ayad, and A. M. mehrevan Moneim, "Evaluation of serum ferritin in egyptian children with proten energy malnutrition: An index of infection", journal of the egyptian german society of zoology, vol. 21, pp. 1-16, 1996. Abstractevaluation_of_serum.pdf

Serum ferritin, Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein (α1AGP), c-reactive protein (CRP), and ceruloplasmin (CER) were studied in 83 children with an age range of three to thirty six months. Fifty nine cases suffered from protein energy Malnutrition (PEM), 29 marasmus and 30 kwashiorkor (KWO). Twenty four healthy children were included as controls. the malnourished group exhibited significant reduction in anthropometric measurement scores and in serum albumin and prealbumin levels than those of the control group. CER was significantly reduced in PEM cases. Evidence of infection by an elevated α1AGP, A positive CRP and the preence of diarrhea was also demonstrated in the malnourished group but not in the control one. Ferritin level was significantly elevated in the KWO group, While in the marasmus one the elevation was non-significant. At the same time 100% of the KWO and 89.7% of the marasmus cases had a hemoglobin level of less than 11 g/dL. Also 46.4% of the KWO and 48.2% of the marasmus cases had a serum iron of less than 50 µg/dL. In such circumstances the elevation in serum ferritin level, in accordance with other acute phase proteins, could reflect increased secretion and/or possible leakage from damaged tissues especially when evidence of increased body iron stores is lacking.

Gaafar, K. M., M. M. Badawy, and A. A. Hamza, "The protective effects of ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifidipine on diethyldithiocarbamate-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats", Drug and chemical toxicology, vol. 34, issue 4, pp. 405-19, 2011. Abstractddcliver_damage.pdf

The aim of the present work was to clarify the involvement of free radicals, cytochrome P450 toxic metabolites, and deregulation of calcium homeostasis in the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) hepatotoxicity. This was elucidated through the preadministration of ascorbic acid (a free radical scavenger), cimetidine (an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes), or nifedipine (a calcium-blocking agent) before DDC treatment to male albino rats. DDC was administered either as a single dose [800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneously, s.c.] or daily repeated doses for 30 days (400 mg/kg b.w., s.c.). Oxidative stress indicators [e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD)] showed that single or repeated DDC doses induce an increase in MDA level and a decrease in SOD activity in the liver, whereas it causes depletion in hepatic GSH after a single dose and an elevation in its value after repeated doses. Severe histopathological changes were also observed in the livers of rats treated with single or repeated DDC doses. Ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine pretreatments were found to induce highly protective effects against the evinced DDC hepatotoxicity, manifesting that free radical, cytochrome P450, and calcium-dependent processes contribute to DDC liver toxicity. Finally, although multiple mechanisms may be involved in the hepatotoxic changes induced by DDC, calcium disarrangement and free radical formation play a more critical role than cytochrome P450 in metabolic events leading to toxic effects of DDC.

Gaafar, R. M., V. F. Surmont, G. V. Scagliotti, R. V. J. Klaveren, D. Papamichael, J. J. Welch, B. Hasan, and V. T. P. andJan van Meerbeeck, "A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Intergroup Study of Gefitinib in Patients with Advanced NSCLC, non Progressing After First Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (EORTC 08021/ILCP 01/03)", European Journal of Cancer, 2011. Abstract

Background: EORTC study 08021/ILCP 01/03 evaluated the role of consolidation gefitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), administered in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), not progressing following standard 1st-line chemotherapy.

Gaafar, K., H. el Nazer, S. Salama, and S. el Batran, "Study on the possible interaction between an ace inhibitor, a diuretic and an anti-inflammatory drug in normal rats.", Bollettino chimico farmaceutico, vol. 134, issue 4, pp. 216-219, 1995. Abstractstudy_on_the_possible_interaction.pdf

Captopril was effective in the long term reduction of serum sodium and aldosterone in normotensive rats, the addition of HCT produced a further decrease in serum sodium and was also useful in preventing hypokalemia produced by HCT. On the other hand, the concurrent therapy with Diclofenac attenuated the hypotensive effect of Captopril and HCT, it was observed that to combine Diclofenac with captopril was more beneficial as regards the metabolic parameters.

Gaafar, S. A., K. H. Mahmoud, S. I. Bannan, and M. F. H. Abd Elkader, Biophysical Studies of γ-irradiate Glycogen/PVA blends doped with Dye, , Giza, Cairo University, 2007.
Gaafar, A. E., A. A. El-Aal, M. Alboraie, H. M. Hassan, adel el tahan, Y. Abdelrahman, M. - N. Wifi, D. Omran, A. himaa Mansour, W. M. Hassan, et al., "Prevalence of prolonged QT interval in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease", The Egyptian Heart Journal, vol. 71, issue 15, pp. 1-7, 2019.
Gaafar, T., H. Ali, S. O. H. A. I. R. MAHFOUZ, H. A. Mubarak, M. Ahmed, and D. Sabry, "Angiogenesis in Rat Ischemic Hindlimb: Role of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 79, no. 2, 2011. Abstract
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Gaafar, T. M., I. I. Raafat, A. A. Aly, N. A. E. L. - G. Mohamed, R. J. Farid, N. E. Saad, R. EL-Hawary, N. Mostafaa, and M. M. Ahmed, "Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients", Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, issue 2, pp. 231-236, 2015.
Gaafar, T. M., H. A. A. Rahman, W. Attia, H. S. Hamza, K. Brockmeier, and R. E. E. Hawary, "Comparative characteristics of endothelial-like cells derived from human adipose mesenchymal stem cells and umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial cells", Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 177-184, 2014.
Gaafar, T., and et al, "Detection of BCR/ABL Translocation in Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Egyptian CML Patients", ID design, Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. vol 3 no 2 [2015], 2015.
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, W. Attia, A. Osman, and H. Hamza, "Gene expression profiling of endometrium versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: up regulation of cytokine genes", Molecular and cellular biochemistry, vol. 395, issue 1-2, pp. 29-43, 2014.
Gaafar, T., W. Attia, S. Mahmoud, D. Sabry, O. AbdElAziz, D. I. N. A. RASHEED, and H. Hamza, "Cardioprotective Effects of Wharton Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in a Rodent Model of Myocardial Injury.", International journal of stem cells, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 48-59, 2017 May 30. Abstract

Background: Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable alternative source that possess multipotent properties, easy to obtain and available in large scale compared to BMMSCs. We investigated the possibility of cardiac function improvement post isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in a rat model following human WJMSCs transplantation.

Materials and Methods: MSCs were extracted and cultured from cord WJ, characterized by morphology, Immunophenotyping and differentiation to osteoblast and adipocytes. WJMSCs were labeled with PKH2 linker dye. Wistar rats were divided into control group, ISO group (injected with 2 doses of isoproterenol) to induce myocardial injury and ISO group transplanted with labelled WJMSCs. ECG, electrocardiographic patterns, cardiac marker enzymes, tracing of labeled MSCs and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial cryosections were studied.

Results and Conclusions: WJ derived MSCs were expanded for more than 14 passages while maintaining their undifferentiated state, were positive for MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipocyte and osteoblast. We demonstrated that intravenously administered WJMSCs were capable of homing predominently in the ischemic myocardium. Cardiac markers were positively altered in stem cell treated group compared to ISO group. ECG and ECHO changes were improved with higher survival rate. WJMSCs could differentiate into cardiac-like cells (positive for cardiac specific proteins) in vivo. WJMSCs infusion promoted cardiac protection and reduced mortality, emphasizing a promising therapeutic role for myocardial insufficiency.

Gaafar, T., S. Shawky, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, "The role of angiotensin II in cardiomyogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells", Comparative Clinical Pathology, 2014.
Gaafar, K., and H. M. taha, "Blood indices in relation to methyl alcohol toxicity in rats", the egyptian medical journal, vol. 6, pp. 595-601, 1989. Abstractblood_indices.pdf

The effect of methyl alcohol toxicity on some blood indices in adult male rats were studied. Male albino rats were injected intraperitoneally with absolute methanol (4 ml/kg body weight). The data revealed a highly significant decrease in total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts concomitant with an increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin following methanol administration. It was concluded that blood indices, in particular mean corpuscular volume, may be used as a test to verify meyhanol toxicity.

Gaafar, T., W. Attia, S. Mahmoud, D. Sabry, O. AbdElAziz, D. I. N. A. RASHEED, and H. Hamza, "Cardioprotective effects of Wharton Jelly derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rodent model of myocardial injury", International journal of stem cells, vol. 10, issue No1, pp. 48-59, 2017. ijsc16063.pdf
Gaafar, T., O. Osman, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, and R. E. Hawary, ". Gene expression profiling of endometrial versus bone marrow derived MSCs : upregulation of cytokine genes", Mol Cell Biochem ; DOI 10.1007/s11010-014-2109-0, 2014. paper_published_in_molecular__cellular_biochemistry.pdf
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