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G.Shaker, O., S. Fayez, W. Zarouk, and M. Shehata, "Fibrinogen b-455 G/A and Prothrombin 20210 G/A Polymorphisms and Coronary Heart Disease: an Egyptian Case", Medical Research Journal, 2011. Abstract

Objective Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a complex disease with both environmental and genetic determinants. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of fibrinogen b-chain (FGB)-455 G/A and prothrombin (PT) 20210 G/A polymorphisms in CHD Egyptian patients and to correlate the co-existence of both polymorphisms with the clinical and laboratory data of the patients.

G.W.Eldeeb, N.Zayed, and I.A.Yassine, "Alzheimer’s Disease Classification Using Bag-Of-Words Based On Visual Pattern Of Diffusion Anisotropy For DTI Imaging", 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), July, 2018.
G.Youssef, AE. Basyony, M. K. S. M. S. M. G., "Effect of soaking, germination and cooking on antinutritional factors and nutritional value of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.)", First Conference of Role of Biochemistry in Environmental and Agriculture. Feb. 6-8.: Biochem Dep., Fac. of Agric., Cairo Univ.,Egypt, 2001. Abstract
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GA, A. E. - H., H. GM, F. IF, A. SM, F. A, T. O, and A. NA., " Impact of cis-acting elements' frequency in transcription activity in dicot and monocot plants", 3 Biotech, vol. 5, issue 6, pp. 1007-1019, 2015.
GA, A. E. - H., H. GM, F. IF, A. SM, F. A, T. O, and A. NA., "Impact of cis-acting elements’ frequency in transcription activity in dicot and monocot plants", 3 Biotech, vol. 5, pp. 1007-1019, 2015. Abstract
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Gaabour, L. H., Y. E. E. D. Gamal, and G. Abdellatif, "Numerical Investigation of the Plasma Formation in Distilled Water by Nd-YAG Laser Pulses of Different Duration ", Journal of Modern Physics , vol. 3, pp. 1683-1691 , 2012. paper_4_water_2012.pdf
Gaabour, L., M. M. Badahdah, and Y. E. E. - D. Gamal, "Studying the Role of the Physical Processes dependence on gas pressure in The Breakdown of Molecular Oxygen by 1064 nm Laser Radiation", Life Science Journal, vol. 10, issue 4, pp. 2548-2556, 2013. Abstract341_21524life1004_2548_2556.pdf

This work presents an investigation of the experimental measurements that carried out to study the
breakdown threshold dependence on gas pressure in the breakdown of molecular oxygen by a Nd: YAG laser source
operating at wavelengths 1064 nm with a pulse duration of 5.5 ns over a gas pressure range varies between 190-
3000 torr. The study is devoted to find out the role played by the physical processes in determining the threshold
intensity of molecular oxygen breakdown as a function of gas pressure. In doing so a previously developed electron
cascade model is modified and applied. The modification assigned the inclusion of an electron diffusion term to
account for electron losses out of the focal volume on the experimentally tested low pressure regime. Besides, the
model takes into account most of the physical processes which might take place during the interaction between the
laser beam and the oxygen molecules. The result of computations showed reasonable agreement between the
calculated threshold intensities and the experimentally measured ones over the tested gas pressure range. This
proves the validity of the model. In addition the study of the performed of the electron energy distribution function,
EEDF, and its correlated parameters viz, temporal evolution of: electron density, excitation rate, ionization rate and
electron mean energy as well as the variation of the EEDF during the laser pulse verified the exact correlation
between gas pressure and the physical process responsible for the production and loss of electrons or their energy
during the breakdown phase.

Gaafar, K., H. E. Nazer, S. Salama, and S. E. Batran, "Interaction of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with antihypertensive and diuretic agents in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)- salt hypertensive rats", Proceedings of the Egyptian Academy of Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 27-40, 1996. Abstractinteraction_of_nonsteroidal.pdf

The effect of one month treatment with Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT); Captopril, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), Diclofenac, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and their different combinations was studied in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats (HR). It was observed that HCT causes a reduction of serum sodium, potassium and creatinine levels concomitant with an increase in serum aldosterone. Captopril also reduced serum sodium and creatinine but increased serum potassium and had no effect on aldosterone. The administration of HCT with Captopril produced a simple additive interaction, thus reducing serum sodium and creatinine, prevented hyperaldosteronism and reversed the hypokalemic effect induced by HCT. On the other hand, Diclofenac alone exerted a significant increase in serum sodium and creatinine while its biosynthesis of renal and/or extrarenal prostaglandins which are compounds known to modulate the vasoconstrictive effect of norepinephrine and to represent important mediators for the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (Brown et al., 1986). Moreover, Brown et al. (1986) reported that sodium retention is a characteristic effect of virtually all NSAIDs.

Gaafar, K., A. R. laila khalek, N. K.El-Sayed, and S. H. Karam, "Histoenzyme changes in chronic methyl alcohol retinotoxicity in rats", the egyptian journal of histology, vol. 14, pp. 377-384, 1991. Abstracthistoenzyme_changes.pdf

Male albino rats were administered methyl alcohol in their drinking water as 2,4 ad 6% solutions for four weeks. Methyl alcohol concentration was determind in the sera of rats after 1,2 and 4 weeks and was found too increase significantly.

Retinal tissue was removed at similar time intervals for histopathologic and histoenzymologic examination. The retinal damage was directed at the photoreceptors primarily and the neuronal elements. A significant finding was the loss of outer layers of the retina after prolonged methyl alcohol intake. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) increased and NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreased indicating enhanced aerobic glycolysis and depressed anaerobic glycolysis. Acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities were notably increased in the pigment epithelium, choroid and sites of enzyme activities in the retina. The increase in ALP and ATPase in the pigment epithelium may be attributable to the increased demands of the retina for metabolic exchange and reflect modified membrane permeability induced by the toxin.

Gaafar, H. M., G. A. A. Moety, and W. E. Khayat, "Three-dimensionalultrasonographyusingtheVOCAL technique forestimationofreferencerangebetween 7 and11weeksembryonicvolume", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 18, pp. 115-119, 2013.
Gaafar, A., and M. Salah, "Papillary Muscle Sling as An Adjunctive Procedure For The Repair of Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.", Journal of The Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 119-126, 2013.
Gaafar, K., A. Ramadan, E. Ashour, M. Afify, Y. M. Shaker, and H. S. Badawy, "Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism during pregnancy among egyptian women", journal of the egyptian german society of zoology, vol. 37 (A), pp. 265-283, 2002. Abstractnew.pdf

Objectives: To evaluate the levels of some parameters related to bone metabolism during pregnancy i.e. total calcium (CA), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Vit.D), parathormone hormone (PTH), phosphorous, osteocalcin, total acid phosphatase and its tartrate resistant isoform (TrACP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and its isoenzmes activities, total protein, albumin, globulin in sera and haemoglobin in blood in a group of egyptian pregnant women who are living in cairo and under reasonable medical care.
Cases: The study was conducted on 33 healthy pregnant women (age range from 20 to 38 years) and 16 healthy non-pregnant women within the same age range to serve as controls. Twenty blood samples were collected from the pregnant women at the end of first trimester of pregnancy (Week-11), twenty four were collected at the end of third trimester (Week-38).
Results: Regarding the osteoblastic activity, the T.ALP was significantly increased due to placental T.ALP and to a lesser degree to bone ALP, while osteocalcin levels. Showed a non significant increment in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy with significant increase in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy .concerning the osteoclastic activity, The TrACP isoform decreased significantly in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, Then returned to the normal values of non-pregnant control levels. Women in the last trimester of pregnancy have higher estrogen level than any other time of life. Although, estrogens at physiologic concentration inhibit osteoclastic activity, hight estrogen concentration increases osteoclastic activity.
As regards the factors that responsible for calcium homeostasis, significant decrease in serum intact PTH was concurrent with significant increase in Vit.D. The total serum calcium level was significantly decreased through the pregnancy, while the ionized calcium did not change, and the serum phosphorus was highly significantly increased.
Conclusion: From these results it has been concluded that, the pregnancy imposes major changes in the mother's nutritional requirement and causes physiological alternation in maternal bone metabolism. Minimal changes affecting the bone turnover were demonstrated among egyptian women throughout pregnancy due to the nutritional statue of the women and thier supplementation with Ca and/or Vit.D. Also,the changes in the haemodynamic parameters of the mother may be due to heamodilution that occur during pregnancy. The obtained patterns showed that the egyptian women who are living in urban areas (e.g. cairo), and under reasonable medical care are in good health compared to other communities in which the nutritional status and the poor medical care are the main reasons for the dramatic changes in the bone metabolism.

Gaafar, K., S. Salama, and S. el Batran, "Studies on the glycemic and lipidemic effect of atenolol and propranolol in normal and diabetic rats.", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 44, issue 4, pp. 496-501, 1994. Abstractstudies_on_the_glycemic.pdf

The effects of the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol (CAS 525-66-6) and the cardioselective drug atenolol (CAS 29122-68-7) on serum glucose, insulin levels and some serum lipid components, were compared in normal and diabetic rats receiving glibenclamide. The two beta-blockers, when administered concurrently with glibenclamide in normal rats, exerted a significant hypoglycemic effect (p < 0.01), while in diabetic rats the two drugs caused a more significant decrease (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, resp.). Serum insulin levels were mainly unaffected by the two beta-blockers. Propranolol was found to exhibit a hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats when administered alone or in combination with glibenclamide. In comparison atenolol, when used alone, exerted a significant increase in triglycerides and total lipid levels (p < 0.05) in normal rats. This effect was masked when atenolol was administered concurrently with glibenclamide, but a hypercholesterolemic effect (p < 0.01) was noticed. Paradoxically in diabetic rats, atenolol caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in triglycerides level, while its combined use with glibenclamide showed no effect.

Gaafar, T., W. Attia, S. Mahmoud, D. Sabry, O. AbdElAziz, D. I. N. A. RASHEED, and H. Hamza, "Cardioprotective Effects of Wharton Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in a Rodent Model of Myocardial Injury.", International journal of stem cells, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 48-59, 2017 May 30. Abstract

Background: Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable alternative source that possess multipotent properties, easy to obtain and available in large scale compared to BMMSCs. We investigated the possibility of cardiac function improvement post isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in a rat model following human WJMSCs transplantation.

Materials and Methods: MSCs were extracted and cultured from cord WJ, characterized by morphology, Immunophenotyping and differentiation to osteoblast and adipocytes. WJMSCs were labeled with PKH2 linker dye. Wistar rats were divided into control group, ISO group (injected with 2 doses of isoproterenol) to induce myocardial injury and ISO group transplanted with labelled WJMSCs. ECG, electrocardiographic patterns, cardiac marker enzymes, tracing of labeled MSCs and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial cryosections were studied.

Results and Conclusions: WJ derived MSCs were expanded for more than 14 passages while maintaining their undifferentiated state, were positive for MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipocyte and osteoblast. We demonstrated that intravenously administered WJMSCs were capable of homing predominently in the ischemic myocardium. Cardiac markers were positively altered in stem cell treated group compared to ISO group. ECG and ECHO changes were improved with higher survival rate. WJMSCs could differentiate into cardiac-like cells (positive for cardiac specific proteins) in vivo. WJMSCs infusion promoted cardiac protection and reduced mortality, emphasizing a promising therapeutic role for myocardial insufficiency.

Gaafar, T. M., R. E. Hawary, A. Osman, W. Attia, H. Hamza, K. Brockmeier, and O. M. Osman, "Comparative characteristics of amniotic membrane, endometrium and ovarian derived mesenchymal stem cells: A role for amniotic membrane in stem cell therapy", Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 19, pp. 156-170, 2014.
Gaafar, T., F. abdelraouf, and M. o Brien, "* Focused molecular analysis of smallcell lung cancer: feasibility in routine clinicalpractice. ", BMC Res Notes (2015), issue 8:688 DOI 10.1186/s13104-015-1675-x, 2015. sclc_paper_fatma.pdf
Gaafar, K., A. M. Soliman, A. Bashter, H. Hamdi, A. M. Badr, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "Towards Establishing Ethical Committee for Animal Research: Challenges and Opportunities", 2013 IACUC Conference, 2013. Abstract000000000.pdf

Although animal research ethics committees (AREC) are
well established in Western
countries this field is
weakly developed and its concept is poorly understood
in the Middle East and North Africa region. Our
main objective was to establish the first animal ethics committee to introduce the concept and
requirements of ethical approaches in dealing with experimental animal models in Egypt.
To achieve this we established our standard oper
ating producers (SOP) according to international
guidelines. Our SOP constituted the AREC responsi
bilities, committee member
s selection, evaluation
procedures emphasizing the regional cultures, etc. T
he challenges encountered by the committee were
diverse such as the absence of laws that control the
use of animal models in scientific research, lack of
guidelines (protocols for animal subjects in research) and mandatory ethical approval for any
experimental animal research. To ov
ercome the challenges, high univer
sity authorities were approached
to approve the establishment of an AREC committee.
Moreover, workshops were instigated in different
universities to: 1) emphasize the legal requirement
of animal research ethics approval; 2) describe the
guidelines how ethical evaluation of scie
ntific proposal will be carried out; 3)
facilitate interaction with best
practices and research experts and 4) teach young rese
arches how to write protocol involving the use of
animal subjects in research. In three months, we were able to conduct three workshops after each
workshop questionnaire and evaluation was obtained to overcome weak points.

Gaafar, K. M., K. I. Fayek, H. M. Taha, and O. A. Kishta, "Lipidemic effect of methanol", Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Physiology, vol. 109, issue 3, pp. 661-666, 1994. Abstractlipidemic_effect_of_methanol.pdf

The effect of methanol on some of the lipid components in serum was studied in rats. Methanol was administered by stomach tube in doses of 2 and 6 ml/kg b.wt daily for 21 and 6 days, respectively. Methanol was found to accumulate lipids; thus, cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides increased significantly. Concurrently, modification of the lipoid content of organs has been considered. It was concluded that methanol and not only formate, is toxic to rats, inspite of the alleged difference in routes of its metabolism in primates and rodents.

Gaafar, R. M., V. F. Surmont, G. V. Scagliotti, R. V. J. Klaveren, D. Papamichael, J. J. Welch, B. Hasan, and V. T. P. andJan van Meerbeeck, "A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Intergroup Study of Gefitinib in Patients with Advanced NSCLC, non Progressing After First Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (EORTC 08021/ILCP 01/03)", European Journal of Cancer, 2011. Abstract

Background: EORTC study 08021/ILCP 01/03 evaluated the role of consolidation gefitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), administered in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), not progressing following standard 1st-line chemotherapy.

Gaafar, R., E. Shash, A. El-Haddad, and S. A. Hady, "Teaching oncology to medical students is a must: The Egyptian NCI step on the road", Journal of Cancer Education, vol. 26, no. 3: Springer New York, pp. 547–548, 2011. Abstract
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Gaafar, T. M., M. O. F. Hanna, M. R. Hammady, H. M.Amr, O. M. Osman, A. Nasef, and A. Osman, "Evaluation of cytokines in follicular fluid and their effect on fertilization and pregnancy outcome", Immunological Investigations, vol. 43, issue 6, pp. 572-584, 2014.