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Fadda, A. A., F. M. Abdelrazek, K. Samir, H. Ghieth, and H. A. Etman, "Synthetic applications of benzothiazole containing cyanoacetyl group.", Eur. J. Chem., vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 90-95., 2010.
Fadda, A. A., F. M. Abdelrazek, and A. M. Fouda, "Studies with Aza-Heterocyclic N-Oxides: Synthesis of Some New Aromatic N-Oxide Derivatives", European J. Chem, 2011. Abstract

Benzofuroxan derivative 1a reacts with the cyanoacetanilide 2a-d to give the benzimidazole derivatives 3a-d. Benzofuroxan

Fadda, S., H. Nassar, S. M. Gamal, and H. Alazizi, "Subclinical atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and its relationship to disease activity and damage indices.", Z Rheumatol., vol. 74, issue 6, pp. 529–532, 2015. Abstract

To detect the incidence of premature atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to study its association with disease activity and damage indices.
This study involved 50 adult female SLE patients with mean age 26.24 ± 8.63 years and mean disease duration 3.44 ± 4.01 years. The control group comprised 25 healthy adult females. All patients were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and laboratory investigations, and full case history was recorded. Assessment of disease activity was performed according to the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and disease damage was assessed using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) score. B mode ultrasound was used to measure the intima-media wall thickness (IMT) and detect the presence of carotid plaques.
In 15 patients (30 %), positive ultrasonographic findings represented by a significant increase in IMT (> 0.9 mm) could be shown; plaques were found in 3 of these patients (6 %). A significant difference was found between SLE patients and controls in terms of IMT (P < 0.0001). On subgrouping the SLE patients according to their IMT, there was a significant difference between those with thickened and normal IMT in terms of SLEDAI (P < 0.0001) and SLICC (p = 0.035) scores.
Subclinical atherosclerosis is frequent in SLE patients. Increased disease activity and damage are associated with the occurrence of premature atherosclerosis.

Fadda, S. M. H., S. M. Gamal, N. Y. Elsaid, and A. M. Mohy, "Resistin in inflammatory and degenerative rheumatologic diseases. Relationship between resistin and rheumatoid arthritis disease progression.", Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie, vol. 72, issue 6, pp. 594-600, 2013 Aug. Abstract

AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assess and compare resistin levels in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; an inflammatory rheumatologic disease) and osteoarthritis (OA; a degenerative rheumatologic disease) and to study the relationship between resistin levels and prognostic factors of RA disease progression.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included a total of 50 patients: 25 with RA and 25 with OA. Full case history was documented for all patients and all underwent a thorough clinical examination and laboratory testing. Body mass index (BMI) values were also calculated. Radiographs were made of OA patients' knees and RA patients' hands. Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) was calculated for RA patients. Serum and synovial fluid samples were obtained from the effused knees of all patients and tested for resistin level.

RESULTS: Serum resistin levels were higher in RA patients than in those with OA (p < 0.01). Synovial fluid resistin levels were also higher in RA than OA patients (p < 0.001). While serum resistin levels correlated with Larsen score and total leukocyte count (TLC), synovial fluid resistin levels correlated with rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels in addition to Larsen score and TLC.

CONCLUSION: Resistin levels were found to be higher in the serum and synovial fluid of RA patients than in those with OA. This may suggest a role for resistin in inflammatory rheumatologic diseases. The observed statistically significant correlation between synovial fluid resistin levels and RF, ACPA and Larsen score may suggest that high synovial fluid resistin levels can be considered a poor prognostic factor for RA progression. However, further studies employing a larger cohort of patients are needed to confirm the relevance of resistin as a prognostic marker in RA patients.

Fadda, A. A., F. M. Abdelrazek, and A. M. Fouda, "Studies with aza-heterocyclic N-oxides: Synthesis of some new aromatic N-oxide derivatives.", Eur. J. Chem., vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 51-57, 2011.
Fadeel, D. A. A., M. Fadel, A. Tawfik, and Y. Omar, "Transfersomal eosin topical delivery assisted by fractional CO2 laser for photodynamic treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis: case study", Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 2022. AbstractWebsite
Fadel, F. I., H. N. A. E. Mooty, H. M. Bazaraa, and S. M. Sabry, "Central venous catheters as a vascular access modality for pediatric hemodialysis", International urology and nephrology, vol. 40, issue 2, pp. 489-496, 2008.
Fadel, F. I., H. M. Bazaraa, M. A. Abdel Mawla, and D. M. Salah, "Pediatric focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: favorable transplantation outcome with plasma exchange.", Italian journal of pediatrics, vol. 47, issue 1, pp. 236, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although kidney transplantation (KTX) is the treatment of choice for pediatric end stage kidney disease (ESKD); concerns for recurrence in cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are still present. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of KTX in children with ESKD secondary to FSGS, with implementation of preemptive perioperative plasma exchange (PE) for non-genetically proven patients.

METHODS: Forty FSGS pediatric kidney transplant recipients were studied. Of them: 12 patients (30%) had genetically proven NPHS2 mutations/familial and 28 (70%) were sporadic FSGS patients. All sporadic patients electively received 6 perioperative PE sessions. Patients with recurrence of proteinuria (n = 13; including 3 patients with genetic/familial and 10 patients with sporadic FSGS) were managed with PE and Rituximab (RTX). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze graft and recurrence free survival data.

RESULTS: The mean follow-up duration after KTX was 3.8 ± 2.86 years. Recurrence of proteinuria was encountered early postoperative in 11 patients (27.5%) and late (1.6 and 2.9 years after KTX) in 2 patients (5%). All patients with early recurrence achieved complete remission, while patients with late recurrence developed graft failure. Current serum creatinine and proteinuria levels were not different in patients received PE (n = 31) and patients did not PE (n = 9) (p = 0.308 and 0.287 respectively). Current serum creatinine and proteinuria levels in sporadic patients (n = 28) after prophylactic perioperative PE were not different from those of genetic/ familial patients (n = 12) (p = 0.303 and 0.144 respectively). Proteinuria was less in patients underwent native nephrectomy than others immediately postoperative and at assessment (p = 0.002 & 0.0031 respectively). One-year graft and patient survival was 93.8% with a mean 1-year serum creatinine of 0.67 ± 0.25 mg/dl. Three graft losses (7.5%) were due to chronic rejection 3.3, 3.75 and 4.17 years after KTX and 2 patients' mortality (5%) occurred early postoperative (first 2 weeks).

CONCLUSION: FSGS transplanted children have favorable outcomes with perioperative PE for non-genetically proven cases. Early recurrence after KTX can be successfully managed with PE and RTX.

Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and D. A. Fadeel, "Zinc phthalocyanine-loaded PLGA biodegradable nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in tumor-bearing mice", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 2: Springer, pp. 283–292, 2010. Abstract
Fadel, M., and K. Kassab, "Evaluation of the photostability and photodynamic efficacy of Rose Bengal loaded in multivesicular liposomes", Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 10, no. 3, 2011. Abstract
Fadel, M., K. Kassab, D. A. E. A. Fadeel, and M. A. Farag, "Topical photodynamic therapy of tumor bearing mice with meso-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin loaded in ethosomes", Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, vol. 30: Elsevier, pp. 101789, 2020. Abstract
Fadel, F., S. Makar, H. Zekri, and D. Hesham3, "Decreasing Hyperhomocysteinemia by Using On-Line Hemodiafiltration in Children on Regular Hemodialysis", Geget Journal of Egyptian Society Pediatric Nephrology and Transplantation, vol. 13, issue February, pp. 1-9, 2013. 7_hcy_hdf_geget.pdf
Fadel, F., H. Bazaraa, R. Hachem, D. M. Salah, and H. Safouh, "Endothelial Dysfunction in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients", Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, vol. 6, issue 4, pp. 1-6, 2016.
Fadel, M., G. Abdelbary, S. F. Elmenshawe, and E. Eissa, "Toluidine Blue Loaded Transferosomes for Topical Photodynamic Therapy: for-Mulation and Characterization", International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011. Abstract

Targeted drug delivery systems have distinct advantages over conventional dosage forms. In the present ap-proach, flexible liposomal drug carriers (transferosomes) were formulated and their physicochemical properties were studied compared with conventional liposomal and niosomal formulae. Lipid vesicles composed of lecithin, cholesterol, span 60, and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were prepared by thin film hydration method. Photodynamic treatment of subcutaneous Ehrlich tumor using prepared and pharmaceutically studied hydrogel containing 1% hydrophilic toluidine blue (TB) loaded transferosomes was evaluated. The results showed that transferosomes containing both span 60 and SDC were of the highest entrapment efficiency (> 82%), particle size (1.36 ?m) and released 52% of its content within 2 hours. The in vivo study on BALB/C mice showed that there was a marked increase in the survival time and decrease in the tumor size in mice group treated with transferosomal (span 60 and SDC) hydrogel for 1h followed by irradiation with 90J/cm2 from 650 nm diode laser twice weekly compared with animals treated with free TB and irradiated only. Furthermore, there was a marked deep necrosis of tumor cells, which may be attributed to the deep penetration of TB through skin layers. These findings suggest the use of TB loaded transferosomes in topical targeted photodynamic treatment of skin tumors.

Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and T. Youssef, "Photodynamic efficacy of hypericin targeted by two delivery techniques to hepatocellular carcinoma cells", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 5: Springer-Verlag, pp. 675–683, 2010. Abstract
Fadel, M., K. Kassab, T. Youssef, and A. I. El-Kholy, "One-step synthesis of phyto-polymer coated gold nanospheres as a delivery system to enhance resveratrol cytotoxicity", Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 45, issue 6: Taylor & Francis, pp. 937-945, 2019. Abstract
Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and T. Youssef, "Photodynamic efficacy of hypericin targeted by two delivery techniques to hepatocellular carcinoma cells", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 5: Springer-Verlag, pp. 675–683, 2010. Abstract
Fadel, M., D. A. El Fadeel, R. M. Ahmed, M. A. Ibrahim, and M. S. Hanafy, "Antitumor Efficiency of Doxorubicin Loaded in Liposomes and Poly Ethylene Glycol Coated Ferrofluid Nanoparticles", J Nanomater Mol Nanotechnol, vol. 1, issue 4, 2015. Abstract


Fadel, F. I., E. A. Elghoroury, M. F. Elshamaa, H. M. Bazaraa, D. M. Salah, N. M. A. Kassem, M. H. Ibrahim, G. S. El-Saaid, S. A. Nasr, and H. M. Koura, "Lymphocyte Activation Markers in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients.", International journal of biomedical science : IJBS, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 121-30, 2015 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in immune tolerance in experimental transplantation is very important but the clinical significance of circulating Tregs in the peripheral blood is undetermined. We evaluated the association between the frequency of T cell activation markers CD25 and CD71 and clinical parameters that may affect the level of these T cell markers.

METHODS: In 47peditric kidney transplant (KT) recipients and 20 healthy controls, the frequency of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD71 was measured with flow cytometry after transplantation. Two clinical protocols of induction immunosuppression were used: (1) anti-thymocyte globulin (THYMO) group (n =29) and Basiliximab (BSX) group (n=10).

RESULTS: The percentage of circulating CD25 after KT was significantly lower than that in the controls. There is no significant difference between KT and the controls s regard to circulating CD71. The percentage of CD25 was significantly increased in children with acute rejection compared with those without acute rejection. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) decreased the frequency of CD25 but mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor did not. The proportion of CD25 significantly decreased in THYMO group during the first year after transplantation.

CONCLUSION: The frequency of circulating T cell activation marker CD25 in pediatric KT recipients is strongly affected by CNIs, and a high frequency of CD25 is associated with acute rejection during the early posttransplant period. The measurement of T cell activation markers, may become a useful immune monitoring tool after kidney transplantation.

Fadel, F. I., S. H. Makar, A. E. Eskander, and A. H. Aon, "Decreasing intra-dialytic morbid events and assessment of dry weight in children on chronic hemodialysis using non-invasive changes in hematocrit.", Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia, vol. 25, issue 5, pp. 1030-7, 2014 Sep. Abstract

Achieving dry weight after hemodialysis (HD) is critical as chronic fluid over-load can result in left ventricular hypertrophy, while small fluid shifts may result in intra-dialytic morbid events (IME). In the pediatric population, estimating dry weight can be difficult due to growth while on dialysis. Continuous non-invasive monitoring of the hematocrit (NIVM) has been proposed as a more accurate method of estimating dry weight. Fifteen pediatric patients on chronic HD (6 males and 9 females; mean age 11.4 ± 2.28 years) were included in an uncontrolled prospective study involving three phases. In phase 1, patients were observed for one month for their dry weight and frequency of IME. Phase 2 consisted of using NIVM-guided ultrafiltration algorithm for rate of blood volume (BV) reduction and post-dialysis refill, recommending an intra-dialytic reduction in BV of 8% in the first hour and <4% per hour thereafter and without significant post-dialytic vascular refill. Phase 3 comprised a one month period for comparing the results. IME decreased from 33 episodes per 180 sessions in phase 1 to 4 per 180 sessions during phase 3 (P = 0.04), without a significant difference in pre-systolic or post-systolic or mean BP before and after the intervention (all P >0.1). In phase 1, 40% of patients experienced no IME, 33% experienced one or two IME while 27% experienced more than two IME; during phase 3, 80% experienced no IME, 20% experienced one or two IME while no one experienced more than two IME. NIVM can serve as an objective method for determining dry weight as well as predicting and preventing IME in the pediatric population on maintenance HD.

Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and D. A. Fadeel, "Zinc phthalocyanine-loaded PLGA biodegradable nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in tumor-bearing mice", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 2: Springer-Verlag, pp. 283–292, 2010. Abstract