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Fadel, M., M. Salah, N. Samy, and M. Soliman, "Liposomal methylene blue hydrogel for selective photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris", Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 983 – 990, 2009. AbstractWebsite
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and T. Youssef, "Photodynamic efficacy of hypericin targeted by two delivery techniques to hepatocellular carcinoma cells", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 5: Springer-Verlag, pp. 675–683, 2010. Abstract
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, D. A. Abdel Fadeel, M. Nasr, and N. M. E. Ghoubary, "Comparative enhancement of curcumin cytotoxic photodynamic activity by nanoliposomes and gold nanoparticles with pharmacological appraisal in HepG2 cancer cells and Erlich solid tumor model", Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1809 – 1816, 2018. AbstractWebsite
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Fadel, F., N. El-Anwar, F. A. W. A. Maksoud, N. Mohamed, and Y. Ramadan, Cardiovascular Complications and Indoxyl Sulfate Are Related to Longer Duration of End Stage Renal Disease in Children, , vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 50 - 56, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Background: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a non-dialyzable gut-derived uremic toxin that is reported to be cardiotoxic in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease stages.Aim of the Work: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IS as a risk factor for cardiovascular complications in children with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on regular HD.Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytical study that included children with ESKD on regular hemodialysis (HD) for at least 6 months following at Nephrology Unit of Cairo University Pediatric Hospitals. Serum IS level was measured for all patients by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cardiac complications was assessed using the M mode and 2D transthoracic echocardiography.Results: The study comprised 88 children with ESKD on regular HD for a mean ± SD of 31.94 ± 26.05 months, with a mean age ± SD of 9 ± 3.2 years (range 3.3- 14 years). Of them 52 (59.1%) were males. Obstructive uropathy (28.4%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (20.5%), were the main causes of ESKD in the study group. Cardiovascular complications were identified in 48 (54.5%) patients in the form of dilated cardiomyopathy in 44 (50%) children with decreased fractional shortening <30% and moderate to severe left ventricular hypertrophy above 95th for age and gender in 10 (11.4%). Cardiovascular affection correlated with duration of HD, hypertension, and IS serum level (p=<0.001 for each). Hypertension was reported in 55 (62.5%) of patients, and vascular access related complications were evident in 40 (45.4%) patients with thrombosis being the commonest complication in 16 (18.1%). The mean IS was 29.14 ± 17.43 μg/ml in ESKD patients with normal cardiac function, and 77 ± 15.18 μg/ml among those with cardiac compromise (p < 0.001). The IS level correlated with longer duration of HD (p= 0.002), and older age (p= 0.043). IS level and duration of HD did not predict cardiomyopathy, (p=0.192), and (p=0.760) respectively.Conclusion: Cardiac complications are common among children on HD. Both cardiovascular complications and IS accumulation correlated positively with longer duration of HD, and age of children with ESKD. IS is non-dialysable and there is a need to control its production from the gut.

Fadel, F., N. El-Anwar, F. A. W. A. Maksoud, N. Mohamed, and Y. Ramadan, Cardiovascular complications and indoxyl sulfate are related to longer duration of end stage renal disease in children, , vol. 3, issue 1: Cairo University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, pp. 50 - 56, 2023. Abstract
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and D. A. Fadeel, "Zinc phthalocyanine-loaded PLGA biodegradable nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in tumor-bearing mice", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 2: Springer-Verlag, pp. 283–292, 2010. Abstract
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, D. A. Abdel Fadeel, and M. A. Farag, "Topical photodynamic therapy of tumor bearing mice with meso-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin loaded in ethosomes", Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, vol. 30, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Fadel, F. I., M. A. Kotb, M. A. Abdel Mawla, R. M. Hasanin, amr mohamed salem, M. G. Fathallah, K. S. Amr, H. A. Ahmed, and D. M. Salah, "Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in children: Clinical classification, renal replacement therapy, and outcome in a single centre experience.", Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy, 2021. Abstract

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare disease that is challenged by the overproduced oxalate and commonly presented with radiopaque renal stones or obstructive uropathy. This study aimed to report clinical presentations, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and outcome of PH1 in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) children. This is an observational cohort study. Data of 22 patients with ESKD due to PH1 were analyzed at Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University. Infantile onset patients (n = 10) had worst renal outcome (80% with ESRD at presentation, p = 0.019) and worse patient outcome (mortality 40%, p = 0.016) than juvenile (n = 9) and late onset (PH1 n = 3) patients. RRT modalities include peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 7 (31.8%), hemodialysis (HD) in 11 (50%), and combined liver kidney transplantation (CLKT) in 4 (18.2%) patients. Infectious complications were encountered in 42.8% of PD patients. Better HD adequacy was observed with frequent HD (n = 6) and/or HD via arteriovenous fistula (AVF) than with infrequent dialysis (n = 5) and/or via central venous line (CVL) (p = 0.0001 and 0.0047, respectively). Morbidity and mortality (infection related) rates of the whole cohort were 63.6% and 31.8%, respectively. Clinical presentation of PH1 varies according to the age of onset (infantile onset being the most aggressive form). Aggressive HD (better through AVF) is needed to achieve acceptable HD adequacy, PD was challenged by infection. Infection found to be the main cause of mortality even after successful CLKT.

Fadel, F., H. Bazaraa, R. Hachem, D. M. Salah, and H. Safouh, "Endothelial Dysfunction in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients", Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, vol. 6, issue 4, pp. 1-6, 2016.
Fadel, F. I., M. F. Elshamaa, M. M. Nabhan, R. G. Essam, N. Kantoush, M. M. El Sonbaty, M. Raafat, and D. A. Abd-El Haleem, "Soluble adhesion molecules as markers of native arteriovenous fistula thrombosis in children on uremia", Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis, vol. 25, no. 7: LWW, pp. 675–682, 2014. Abstract
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and T. Youssef, "Photodynamic efficacy of hypericin targeted by two delivery techniques to hepatocellular carcinoma cells", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 5: Springer-Verlag, pp. 675–683, 2010. Abstract
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Fadel, M., M. Nasr, R. M. Hassan, and S. S. Thabet, "Cationic zinc (II) phthalocyanine nanoemulsions for photodynamic inactivation of resistant bacterial strains", Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, vol. 34: Elsevier, pp. 102301, 2021. Abstract
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Fadel, F. I., M. F. Elshamaa, A. Salah, M. Nabhan, M. Rasheed, S. Kamel, D. Kandil, and E. H. Thabet, "Fas/Fas Ligand pathways gene polymorphisms in pediatric renal allograft rejection.", Transplant immunology, vol. 37, pp. 28-34, 2016. Abstract

BACKGROUND: An essential milestone in pediatric transplantation is to find noninvasive biomarkers to monitor acute rejection (AR). In this retrospective (Case-control) study, we examined the role of Fas -670A/G and Fas Ligand (FasL) -843C/T gene polymorphisms in allograft nephropathy in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

METHODS: In 47 pediatric kidney transplant recipients and 20 healthy controls, Fas -670A/G and FasL -843C/T gene polymorphisms as well as serum soluble Fas Ligand level (sFasL) were measured.

RESULTS: Serum sFasL levels were significantly higher in transplant recipients children than that in controls (548.25±298.64pg/ml vs 143.17±44.55pg/ml, p=0.0001). There was no significant difference between patients with AR and those without AR in regards to serum sFasL levels (567.70±279.87pg/ml vs 507.85±342.80pg/ml, p=0.56). Fas -670A/G genotypes or alleles were not significantly different between controls and transplant recipients and among transplant recipients with and without AR. (P>0.05 for all). FasL -843C/T genotypes were not different between transplant recipients and controls and among transplant recipients with and without AR (P>0.05 for all). However, Frequency of C allele in transplant patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (44.68% vs 25%, P=0.03). FasL -843C/T alleles were significantly different between patients with and without AR (P=0.03). The percentages of C allele were higher in children with AR (58.82% vs 36.67%). We found that serum FasL and serum creatinine were variables that were independently associated with AR.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FasL gene polymorphisms in peripheral blood might be accurate in detecting cellular AR.

Fadel, M., and A. I. El-Kholy, "Gold nanoparticles in photodynamic and photothermal therapy", Gold Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery, pp. 365 – 391, 2023. AbstractWebsite
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Fadel, F. I., E. A. Elghoroury, M. F. Elshamaa, H. M. Bazaraa, D. M. Salah, N. M. A. Kassem, M. H. Ibrahim, G. S. El-Saaid, S. A. Nasr, and H. M. Koura, "Lymphocyte Activation Markers in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients.", International journal of biomedical science : IJBS, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 121-30, 2015 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in immune tolerance in experimental transplantation is very important but the clinical significance of circulating Tregs in the peripheral blood is undetermined. We evaluated the association between the frequency of T cell activation markers CD25 and CD71 and clinical parameters that may affect the level of these T cell markers.

METHODS: In 47peditric kidney transplant (KT) recipients and 20 healthy controls, the frequency of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD71 was measured with flow cytometry after transplantation. Two clinical protocols of induction immunosuppression were used: (1) anti-thymocyte globulin (THYMO) group (n =29) and Basiliximab (BSX) group (n=10).

RESULTS: The percentage of circulating CD25 after KT was significantly lower than that in the controls. There is no significant difference between KT and the controls s regard to circulating CD71. The percentage of CD25 was significantly increased in children with acute rejection compared with those without acute rejection. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) decreased the frequency of CD25 but mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor did not. The proportion of CD25 significantly decreased in THYMO group during the first year after transplantation.

CONCLUSION: The frequency of circulating T cell activation marker CD25 in pediatric KT recipients is strongly affected by CNIs, and a high frequency of CD25 is associated with acute rejection during the early posttransplant period. The measurement of T cell activation markers, may become a useful immune monitoring tool after kidney transplantation.

Fadel, A. M., R. H. El-Gebaly, A. A. Aly, and F. F. Ibrahim, "Control of Ehrlich tumor growth by electromagnetic waves at resonance frequency (in vivo studies)", Electromagnetic biology and medicine, vol. 24, no. 1: Taylor & Francis, pp. 9–21, 2005. Abstract
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Fadel, F. I., H. N. A. E. Mooty, H. M. Bazaraa, and S. M. Sabry, "Central venous catheters as a vascular access modality for pediatric hemodialysis", International urology and nephrology, vol. 40, issue 2, pp. 489-496, 2008.
Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and D. A. Fadeel, "Zinc phthalocyanine-loaded PLGA biodegradable nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in tumor-bearing mice", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 2: Springer-Verlag, pp. 283–292, 2010. Abstract
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Fadel, M., M. Nasr, R. M. Hassan, and S. S. Thabet, "Cationic zinc (II) phthalocyanine nanoemulsions for photodynamic inactivation of resistant bacterial strains", Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, vol. 35, 2021.
Fadel, M., K. Kassab, N. Samy, D. A. El Fadeel, G. Yassin, and M. Nasr, "Nanovesicular photodynamic clinical treatment of resistant plantar warts", Current Drug Delivery: Bentham Science Publishers, 2021. Abstract
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, and D. A. Fadeel, "Zinc phthalocyanine-loaded PLGA biodegradable nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy in tumor-bearing mice", Lasers in medical science, vol. 25, no. 2: Springer, pp. 283–292, 2010. Abstract
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Fadel, M., K. Kassab, D. A. E. A. Fadeel, M. Nasr, and N. M. E. Ghoubary, "Comparative enhancement of curcumin cytotoxic photodynamic activity by nanoliposomes and gold nanoparticles with pharmacological appraisal in HepG2 cancer cells and Erlich solid tumor model", Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 44, pp. 1809-1816, 2018.
Fadel, F. I., M. A. Kotb, M. A. Abdel Mawla, R. M. Hasanin, amr mohamed salem, M. G. Fathallah, K. S. Amr, H. A. Ahmed, and D. M. Salah, "Primary Hyperoxaluria type 1 in children: Clinical Classification, Renal Replacement Therapy and Outcome in a Single Centre Experience.", Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy, 2021. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare disease that is challenged by the overproduced oxalate and commonly presented with radiopaque renal stones or obstructive uropathy. This study aimed to report clinical presentations, renal replacement therapy (RRT) and outcome of PH1 in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) children.

METHODS: This is an observational cohort study. Data of 22 patients with ESKD due to PH1 were analyzed at Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University.

RESULTS: Infantile onset patients (n=10) had worst renal outcome (80% with ESRD at presentation, p=0.019) and worse patient outcome (mortality 40%, p=0.016) than juvenile (n=9) and late onset (PH1 n=3) patients. RRT modalities include peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 7 (31.8%), hemodialysis (HD) in 11(50 %) and, combined liver kidney transplantation (CLKT) in 4 (18.2%) patients. Infectious complications were encountered in 42.8% of PD patients. Better HD adequacy was observed with frequent HD (n=6) and/or HD via arteriovenous fistula (AVF) than with infrequent dialysis (n=5) and/or via central venous line (CVL) (P =0.0001 & 0.0047 respectively). Morbidity and mortality (infection related) rates of the whole cohort were 63.6% and 31.8% respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinical presentation of PH1 varies according to the age of onset (infantile onset being the most aggressive form). Aggressive HD (better through AVF) is needed to achieve acceptable HD adequacy, PD was challenged by infection. Infection found to be the main cause of mortality even after successful CLKT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Fadel, S. A., H. M. Hussien, I. A. Sidhom, and H. E. A. Mahlawy, Early Detection and Treatment of Fungal Infection in High Risk Febrile Neutropenic Pediatric Patients With Hematologic Malignancies, , Cairo, Cairo, 2009.
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