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F El Naggar, R., M. A. Rohaim, A. H. H. Bazid, K. A. Ahmed, H. A. Hussein, and M. Munir, "Biological characterization of wild-bird-origin avian avulavirus 1 and efficacy of currently applied vaccines against potential infection in commercial poultry.", Archives of virology, vol. 163, issue 10, pp. 2743-2755, 2018. Abstract

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the type member of the species Avian avulavirus 1 (formerly known as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1), causes a highly contagious and economically important disease in a myriad of avian species around the globe. While extensive vaccination programs have been implemented in ND-endemic countries, the disease is continuously spreading in commercial, backyard, and wild captive poultry. In order to investigate the evolution of the virus and assess the efficiency of the vaccine regimens that are currently being applied in commercial poultry, four wild-bird-origin NDV strains were characterized biologically, based on mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index, and genetically, based on the cleavage motif (RRQKRF) in the fusion (F) protein. Based on these features, all of the isolates were characterized as velogenic strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequence revealed clustering of these isolates within class II, genotype VII. This class of NDV remains the predominant genotype in the Egyptian poultry industry, as well as in those of many Asian and African countries. To investigate the potential of these wild-bird-origin NDV isolates to cause infection in domesticated poultry and to assess the efficacy of currently available vaccines for protection of commercial poultry, an extensive animal challenge experiment was performed. Cumulative clinicopathological and immunological investigations of virus-challenged chickens indicate that these isolates can potentially be transmitted between chicken and cause systemic infections, and the currently applied vaccines are unable to prevent clinical disease and virus shedding. Taken together, the data represent a comprehensive evaluation of the ability of Egyptian wild-bird-origin NDV strains to cause infection in commercial poultry and highlights the need for a continuous and large-scale surveillance as well as revised vaccine approaches. These integrated and multifaceted strategies would be crucial in any efforts to control and eradicate the disease globally.

F, H., and Elsisi, "Response of Parathyroid Hormone And Blood Calcium Level to Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Elderly", 19th International scientific conference of faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, 22/32018.
F, M. - A., G. S, E. S, K. M, R. MM, S. N, and L. I, "Exercise restores coronary vascular function independent of myogenic tone orhyperglycemic status in db/db mice", Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, vol. 295, issue 4, pp. H1470-80, 2008.
F, M., N. M, H. S, and S. S, "Reliability and validity of Arabic version of the brief international cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis: Egyptian dialect", The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, vol. 57, issue 51, 2021.
F, G. I., F. SA, Z. NH, and R. LA, "1 hydroxypyrene and interleukin 8 for biologically monitoring the vehicle exhaust exposure/effect among gas station workers.", Egyptian Journal of occupational medicine., vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 241-265, 2004.
F, G. I., and F. SA, "Chromosomal aberrations and lymphocytes subsets in workers chronically exposed to formaldehyde vapor.", Medical Journal of Cairo University. , vol. 69, issue 4, pp. 802-810, 2001.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Insulin Resistance and Nitric Oxide Response to Low Volume High Intensity Interval Exercise versus Continuous Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus", International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research, vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 15-22, 2016.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Non-Surgical Management for Class II Obesity in Adult People (Systematic Review)", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 84, issue 2, pp. 307-314, 2016.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Cortisol and Quality of Life Responses to Endurance Versus Resistive Exercises in Young Depressed Elderly", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 86, pp. 55-61, 2018.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Cardiac Troponin Response to Aerobic Versus Resisted Exercises in Obese Women", 19th International scientific conference of faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, 22/3/2018.
F, M. - A., G. S, E. S, R. MM, S. N, K. M, K. TJ, B. RW, and L. I, "Exercise restores endothelial function independently of weight loss or hyperglycaemic status in db/db mice", Diabetologia, vol. 51, issue 7, pp. 1327-37, 2008.
F, G. I., and F. SA, "Health profile of workers in the paint industry.", Egyptian Journal of occupational medicine., vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 71-89, 2002.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Forced Vital Capacity Response to Focused Ultrasound Cavitation in Prehypertensive Centrally Obese Men", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 83, issue 2, pp. 129-138, 2015.
F, S. M., M. AA, I. MSM, and B. SWG, "Do MDR1 and SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms Influence the Therapeutic Response to Atorvastatin? A Study on a Cohort of Egyptian Patients with Hypercholesterolemia", Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy, vol. 17, issue 2, pp. 299-309, 2013.
F, H., and Elsisi, "VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF SIX MINUTE WALK TEST IN MODERATE OBESE", Egypt.J.of appl.Sci, vol. 31, issue 2, pp. 78-88, 2016.
F, A. M. M., H. A. M. A. Saleh, and M. A. Khater, "Detection of genetic variations in orobanche crenata using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers", Bulletin of the National Research Centre, vol. 44, issue 139, pp. 1-6, 2020.
F, H., and Elsisi, "The blood pressure response to foot reflexology adjunct to transcendental meditation training on postmenopausal hypertension", Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 4, 2017.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Cortisol Level Response to Aerobic Versus Resistive Exercises in Hypertensive Patients", 19th International scientific conference of faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, 22/3/2018.
F, H., and Elsisi, "Response of lipids, estradiol level, and liver size to diet and high-intensity interval training in postmenopausal women with fatty liver", Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy, vol. 23, issue 2, pp. 69-76, 2018.