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Fouad, M. M., V. Snasel, and A. E. Hassanien, "Energy-Aware Sink Node Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks", International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, , vol. 2015, 2015. Website
Fouad, M. M. M., N. El-Bendary, R. A. Ramadan, and A. E. Hassanien, "Wireless sensor Networks: a medical perspective", Wireless Sensor Networks: From Theory to Applications: CRC Press, 2013. Abstract
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Fouad, M. M., and M. A. Ramadan, "Serum intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-8 as predictors of pulmonary impairment among workers in secondary copper smelters.", International archives of occupational and environmental health, vol. 95, issue 2, pp. 365-375, 2022. Abstractfouad-ramadan2022_article_serumintracellularadhesionmole.pdf

OBJECTIVE: Copper smelter workers are exposed to harmful chemical agents in dust and fumes which contain harmful metals such as copper and arsenic. These substances are known to be respiratory irritants.

METHODS: This study aimed at investigating the effect of occupational exposure to copper and arsenic on the respiratory system. A group of 75 male exposed workers, and 75 male administrative employees (control group) were recruited from a secondary copper smelting factory. Full history, complete clinical examination, ventilatory function parameters (FVC, FEV1, FVC/FEV1 and FEF), and chest X-ray were done for both groups. Serum levels of ICAM-1 and IL8 (as markers of epithelial injury) were measured by ELISA. Serum copper and arsenic were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

RESULTS: The exposed group was associated with increased respiratory symptoms, higher serum copper, arsenic, and ICAM-1and Il-8 as compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in ventilatory parameters among the exposed group: 58.7% of the exposed group had restrictive lung impairment, 40% had obstructive impairment. In the exposed group a positive correlation between serum copper, arsenic and serum ICAM and IL8 was found. While a negative correlation was observed between both serum ICAM, IL8 and ventilatory parameters among the exposed group. Moreover, 36% of the exposed group had radiological infiltrates on chest X.ray.

CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to copper and arsenic was associated with ventilatory and radiological impairment, with a corresponding increase in the serum level of ICAM-1 and IL8, which can be used as biomarkers for pulmonary impairment among copper smelter workers.

Fouad, H., and W. Kortam, "The impact of perceived quality of after-sales services on post- purchase evaluation outcomes of passenger automobiles customers in Egypt", International Journal of Business and emerging markets, vol. 9, issue 2, pp. 148-173, 2017.
Fouad, H. H., A. B. Demery, H. M. Yehia, and R. M. El-Badawy, "Molecular markers as a prognostic system for hepatocellular carcinoma", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 2, no. 4: Elsevier, pp. 333–339, 2011. Abstract
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Fouad, H. M., A. A. Mohamed, M. Sabry, H. A. Aziz, B. Eysa, and M. Rabea, "The effectiveness of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in youth with genotype 4 hepatitis C virus: a single Egyptian center study", The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 38, no. 1: LWW, pp. 22–25, 2019. Abstract
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Fouad, A., A. Rafea, and H. A. Hassan, "Automatic generation of explanation for expert systems implemented with different knowledge representations", WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on SYSTEMS, vol. Volume 8, issue Issue 1, 2009.
Fouad, H., D. Sabry, K. Elsetohy, N. Fathy, and D. I. N. A. OMAR, "Potential therapeutic effect of amniotic stem cell transplantation on ovarian function and folliculogenesis in rats with induced ovarian failure", Journal of Evidence-Based Women’s Health Journal Society, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 99-110, 2015.
Fouad, H. - A. A. - A., E. F. El-Khashab, A. Setta, and W. H. Kilany, "CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON CO-INFECTION BETWEEN LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS H9N2 AND HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS H5N1", J.Egy.Vet.Med.Assoc., vol. 28, issue 1, pp. 122-143, 2021.
Fouad, G. I., and K. A. Ahmed, "Neuroprotective Potential of Berberine Against Doxorubicin‑Induced Toxicity in Rat’s Brain", Neurochemical Research, vol. 46, pp. 3247–3263, 2021.
Fouad, R., I. Hamza, M. Khairy, M. Elsharkawy, and A. A. Helmy, "Role of Serum Soluble CD163 in the Diagnosis, Risk of Bleeding, and Prognosis of Gastro-Esophageal Varices in Cirrhotic Patients.", Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 37, issue 3, pp. 112-118, 2017 Mar. Abstract

Research is continuous for noninvasive tools for the prediction of portal hypertension than upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Serum sCD163 correlates with hepatic venous pressure gradient, aiding in the prediction of portal hypertension. We aimed at investigating the role of sCD163 in the prediction of the presence and size of varices as well as a stratification tool for surveillance or prophylaxis by assessment of prognosis and risk of bleeding. Two hundred forty-three cirrhotic patients were divided into 3 groups: group I: no varices, group II: small-sized varices, and group III: medium-sized and large-sized varices. Serum sCD163 levels were assessed and correlated with abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigations. Follow-up for 1 year was conducted to assess the risk of bleeding, and band ligation was performed for significant varices with follow-up of obliteration. sCD163 levels were significantly higher in patients with varices requiring prophylactic interventions (P = 0.03) and in large varices (P = 0.012), patients at risk of bleeding (P = 0.04), and the bleeder patients (P = 0.001). No relationship between the sCD163 levels and the rate of variceal obliteration was reported. sCD163 levels were positively correlated with the Child score (P = 0.05), the portal vein diameter (P = 0.02), and the splenic size (P = 0.04). Although sCD163 level cannot predict the development of varices, it serves as a good predictor for the detection of size of varices (large varices), the need of prophylactic interventions, and risk of variceal bleeding. sCD163 level is a helpful indicator with the progression of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Fouad, R., M. Abdo, H. G. E. deen, D. Sabry, Mira Atef, R. Ahmed, and N. Zayed, "Influence of delta virus infection on the virologic status in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis B virus genotype D.", Journal of medical virology, vol. 88, issue 5, pp. 837-42, 2016 May. Abstract

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) usually have an unfavorable clinical outcome in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients. In Egypt, data about epidemiology, the spectrum of disease, and impact of HDV on HBV infection are rare. To assess the prevalence, clinical and virological characteristics of HDV infection among Egyptian patients with chronic HBV. Adult patients with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive were evaluated for the presence of HDV using anti HDV-IgG and HDV RNA by RT-PCR. Routine laboratory investigations, genotypes and subtypes for both HBV and HDV, abdominal sonography, and transient elastography (TE) were done. Liver biopsy was performed only in whenever indicated. One hundred and twenty-one treatment-naïve chronic HBV patients were included. Wild HBV genotype-D2 was found in 98.2% and 81.9% were HBeAg negative. Prevalence of HDV was 8.3% by anti-HDV IgG and 9.9% by RT-PCR. Wild HDV genotype-IIb was reported in 83.3%. HDV infection was more common in males, 90.9% of delta patients were HBeAg negative. Compared to the mono-infected HBV, concomitant HBV/HDV infection was not associated with more derangment in ALT nor advanced stage of fibrosis. 66.7% of HDV patients had significantly lower HBV-DNA level compared to the non-delta patients (P < 0.001). HDV is not uncommon in Egypt. HBV genotype-D was associated with HDV genotype-IIb. Delta infection was associated with negative HBeAg status, reduction of HBV replication, but neither influenced the clinical course nor increased significant liver damage risk. J. Med. Virol. 88:837-842, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Fouad, Y., J. V. Lazarus, F. Negro, M. Peck-Radosavljevic, S. K. Sarin, P. Ferenci, G. Esmat, H. Ghazinian, A. Nakajima, M. Silva, et al., "MAFLD considerations as a part of the global hepatitis C elimination effort: an international perspective.", Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 53, issue 10, pp. 1080-1089, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) set a goal to eliminate hepatitis C (HCV) infection globally by 2030, with specific targets to reduce new viral hepatitis infections by 80% and reduce related deaths by 65%. However, an overlooked aspect that may hinder these efforts is the impact other liver diseases could have by continuing to drive liver disease progression and offset the beneficial impact of DAAs on end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, the decrease in HCV prevalence has been countered by a marked increase in the prevalence of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD).

AIMS: To review the potential interaction of HCV and MAFLD.

METHODS: We have reviewed the literature relating to an arrange of interaction of HCV, metabolic dysfunction and MAFLD.

RESULTS: In this viewpoint, international experts suggest a holistic and multidisciplinary approach for the management of the growing number of treated HCV patients who achieved SVR, taking into consideration the overlooked impact of MAFLD for reducing morbidity and mortality in people who have had HCV.

CONCLUSIONS: This will strengthen and improve the continuum of care cascade for patients with liver disease(s) and holds the potential to alleviate the cost burden of disease; and increase quality of life for patients following DAAs treatment.

Fouad, M., A. Mohamed, H. Salah, A. Khalil, and M. ABD ELHAFEZ, "SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION AT MEKAAD RADWAN OTTOMAN PERIOD- CAIRO-EGYPT", Egyptian Journal of Archaeological and Restoration Studies "EJARS", vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 13-20, 2015. seismological_investigation_at_mekaad_radwan.pdf
Fouad, M. M. M., H. M. Zawbaa, N. El-Bendary, and A. E. Hassanien, "Automatic nile tilapia fish classification approach using machine learning techniques", Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS), 2013 13th International Conference on: IEEE, pp. 173–178, 2013. Abstract
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Fouad, H., D. Sabry, K. Elsetohy, N. Fathy, and D. I. N. A. OMAR, "Potential therapeutic effect of amniotic stem cell transplantation on ovarian function and folliculogenesis in rats with induced ovarian failure.", Evidence Based Women’s Health Journal, 2015.
Fouad, W., A. Badr, and I. Farag, "AIFSA: A New Approach for Feature Selection and Weighting", Informatics Engineering and Information Science: Springer, pp. 596–609, 2011. Abstract
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Fouad, H. H., H. Al-Dera, S. W. Bakhoum, L. A. Rashed, R. H. Sayed, M. A. Rateb, M. A. Haidara, S. Soskic, and E. R. Isenovic, "Levels of sCD40 ligand in chronic and acute coronary syndromes and its relation to angiographic extent of coronary arterial narrowing", Angiology, vol. 61, no. 6: Sage Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA, pp. 567–573, 2010. Abstract
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Fouad, A. M., Z. Awad, A. A. Shaker, and Z. M. Hayman, "Colour similarity study among small galaxy groups members ", NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 15-21, 2019.
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