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Collaborative, P. Gorg, "{Pancreatic surgery outcomes: multicentre prospective snapshot study in 67 countries}", British Journal of Surgery, pp. znad330, 11, 2023. AbstractWebsite

{Pancreatic surgery remains associated with high morbidity rates. Although postoperative mortality appears to have improved with specialization, the outcomes reported in the literature reflect the activity of highly specialized centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following pancreatic surgery worldwide.This was an international, prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional snapshot study of consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic operations worldwide in a 3-month interval in 2021. The primary outcome was postoperative mortality within 90 days of surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore relationships with Human Development Index (HDI) and other parameters.A total of 4223 patients from 67 countries were analysed. A complication of any severity was detected in 68.7 per cent of patients (2901 of 4223). Major complication rates (Clavien–Dindo grade at least IIIa) were 24, 18, and 27 per cent, and mortality rates were 10, 5, and 5 per cent in low-to-middle-, high-, and very high-HDI countries respectively. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate was 5.4 per cent (229 of 4223) overall, but was significantly higher in the low-to-middle-HDI group (adjusted OR 2.88, 95 per cent c.i. 1.80 to 4.48). The overall failure-to-rescue rate was 21 per cent; however, it was 41 per cent in low-to-middle- compared with 19 per cent in very high-HDI countries.Excess mortality in low-to-middle-HDI countries could be attributable to failure to rescue of patients from severe complications. The authors call for a collaborative response from international and regional associations of pancreatic surgeons to address management related to death from postoperative complications to tackle the global disparities in the outcomes of pancreatic surgery (NCT04652271; ISRCTN95140761).Pancreatic surgery can sometimes lead to health problems afterwards. Although some top hospitals report good results, it is not clear how patients are doing all over the world. The aim was to find out how people are recovering after pancreatic surgery in different countries, and to see whether where they live affects their health outcomes after pancreatic surgery. The health records of 4223 patients from 67 countries who had pancreatic surgery in a 3-month interval in 2021 were studied, especially looking at how many people faced serious complications or passed away within 90 days of the surgery. Almost 7 in 10 patients faced some health problems after operation. The chance of having a major health issue or dying after the surgery was higher in countries with fewer resources and less developed healthcare. For example, 10 of 100 patients died after the surgery in these countries, but only 5 of 100 patients did in richer countries. What stands out is that countries with fewer resources have a tougher time getting patients back to health when things go wrong after surgery. It is hoped that doctors and medical groups worldwide can work together to improve these outcomes and give everyone the best chance of recovering well after pancreatic surgery.}

Collaborative, C. O. V. I. D. S., "{Impact of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on postoperative mortality in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection}", BJS Open, vol. 5, no. 6, 01, 2022. AbstractWebsite

{Dear EditorDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple theories were proposed based on the observation that countries with an ongoing national Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization programme had lower SARS-CoV-2 case rates and COVID-19 mortality than countries that had stopped BCG vaccine administration. There was, however, no evidence supporting or disputing this theory1,2. Owing to the uncertainty on the role of BCG vaccine on the outcomes of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection, this international study aimed to determine whether previous BCG vaccination was associated with reduced postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection.}

Collaborative, G. S., "Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in children: an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study", BMJ Global Health, vol. 5, no. 12: BMJ Specialist Journals, 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). However, there is a lack of data available about SSI in children worldwide, especially from low-income and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of SSI in children and associations between SSI and morbidity across human development settings.Methods A multicentre, international, prospective, validated cohort study of children aged under 16 years undergoing clean-contaminated, contaminated or dirty gastrointestinal surgery. Any hospital in the world providing paediatric surgery was eligible to contribute data between January and July 2016. The primary outcome was the incidence of SSI by 30 days. Relationships between explanatory variables and SSI were examined using multilevel logistic regression. Countries were stratified into high development, middle development and low development groups using the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI).Results Of 1159 children across 181 hospitals in 51 countries, 523 (45·1%) children were from high HDI, 397 (34·2%) from middle HDI and 239 (20·6%) from low HDI countries. The 30-day SSI rate was 6.3% (33/523) in high HDI, 12·8% (51/397) in middle HDI and 24·7% (59/239) in low HDI countries. SSI was associated with higher incidence of 30-day mortality, intervention, organ-space infection and other HAIs, with the highest rates seen in low HDI countries. Median length of stay in patients who had an SSI was longer (7.0 days), compared with 3.0 days in patients who did not have an SSI. Use of laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower SSI rates, even after accounting for HDI.Conclusion The odds of SSI in children is nearly four times greater in low HDI compared with high HDI countries. Policies to reduce SSI should be prioritised as part of the wider global agenda.

Collaborative, C. O. V. I. D. S., and G. S. Collaborative, "SARS-CoV-2 infection and venous thromboembolism after surgery: an international prospective cohort study", Anaesthesia, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 28-39, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Summary SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients. Since surgical patients are already at higher risk of venous thromboembolism than general populations, this study aimed to determine if patients with peri-operative or prior SARS-CoV-2 were at further increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We conducted a planned sub-study and analysis from an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study of elective and emergency patients undergoing surgery during October 2020. Patients from all surgical specialties were included. The primary outcome measure was venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis) within 30 days of surgery. SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was defined as peri-operative (7 days before to 30 days after surgery); recent (1–6 weeks before surgery); previous (≥7 weeks before surgery); or none. Information on prophylaxis regimens or pre-operative anti-coagulation for baseline comorbidities was not available. Postoperative venous thromboembolism rate was 0.5% (666/123,591) in patients without SARS-CoV-2; 2.2% (50/2317) in patients with peri-operative SARS-CoV-2; 1.6% (15/953) in patients with recent SARS-CoV-2; and 1.0% (11/1148) in patients with previous SARS-CoV-2. After adjustment for confounding factors, patients with peri-operative (adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95%CI 1.1–2.0)) and recent SARS-CoV-2 (1.9 (95%CI 1.2–3.3)) remained at higher risk of venous thromboembolism, with a borderline finding in previous SARS-CoV-2 (1.7 (95%CI 0.9–3.0)). Overall, venous thromboembolism was independently associated with 30-day mortality (5.4 (95%CI 4.3–6.7)). In patients with SARS-CoV-2, mortality without venous thromboembolism was 7.4% (319/4342) and with venous thromboembolism was 40.8% (31/76). Patients undergoing surgery with peri-operative or recent SARS-CoV-2 appear to be at increased risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism compared with patients with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Optimal venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment are unknown in this cohort of patients, and these data should be interpreted accordingly.

of Collaboration, G. B. D. C., "{Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study}", JAMA Oncology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1749-1768, 12, 2019. AbstractWebsite

{Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97\%), and only 3\% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.}

Collaboration, C. M. S., S. Chatrchyan, V. Khachatryan, A. M. Sirunyan, A. Tumasyan, W. Adam, T. Bergauer, M. Dragicevic, J. Erö, C. Fabjan, et al., Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, , 2011. Abstract
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Cole, J., N. van Sorge, K. Kuipers, A. Henningham, R. Aziz, A. Kasirer-Friede, L. Lin, E. Berends, M. Davies, G. Dougan, et al., "Genetics and virulence role of the classical group A Streptococcus Lancefield antigen (790.2)", The FASEB Journal, vol. 28, no. 1 Supplement: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, pp. 790–2, 2014. Abstract
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Cole, J. N., R. K. Aziz, K. Kuipers, A. M. Timmer, V. Nizet, and N. M. van Sorge, "A conserved UDP-glucose dehydrogenase encoded outside the hasABC operon contributes to capsule biogenesis in group A Streptococcus", Journal of bacteriology, vol. 194, no. 22: American Society for Microbiology, pp. 6154–6161, 2012. Abstract
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Cohen, N., R. Lubart, S. Rubinstein, and H. Breitbart, "Light irradiation of mouse spermatozoa: stimulation of in vitro fertilization and calcium signals", Photochemistry and photobiology, vol. 68, issue 3: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Oxford, UK, pp. 407-413, 1998. Abstract
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Cohen, D., M. Lindvall, and P. Costa, "An {Introduction} to {Agile} {Methods}", Advances in Computers, vol. 62, pp. 1–66, 2004. Abstract
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Coffman, R. A., R. M. El-Sherbiny, A. F. Rauch, and R. E. Olson, "Measured horizontal capacity of suction caissons", Offshore Technology Conference, 2004. Abstract

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Coad, P., and E. Yourdon, Object-{Oriented} {Design}, , Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1991. Abstract
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and Co Authors paper, M. M., "Social Justice Discourses and its Implementation: Egypt as a case study 2005-2013", Middle East and North Africa (MENA) social policy conference, Bath University- UK, 21 November 2014.
CMS Collaboration Chatrchyan, S., V. Khachatryan, A. M. Sirunyan, A. Tumasyan, W. Adam, E. Aguilo, T. Bergauer, M. Dragicevic, J. Erö, C. Fabjan, et al., "Search for excited leptons in pp collisions at s= 7 TeV", Physics Letters B, vol. 720, pp. 309–329, 2013. Abstract
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CM, Z. R., A. latif R, and S. II., In vitro and in vivo evaluation of hydroxyzine hydrochloride microsponges for topical delivery., , vol. 12, issue 3, 2011. Abstractcu_pdf.pdf

Hydroxyzine HCl is used in oral formulations for the treatment of urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Dizziness, blurred vision, and anticholinergic responses, represent the most common side effects. It has been shown that controlled release of the drug from a delivery system to the skin could reduce the side effects while reducing percutaneous absorption. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce an effective drug-loaded dosage form that is able to control the release of hydroxyzine hydrochloride into the skin. The Microsponge Delivery System is a unique technology for the controlled release of topical agents, and it consists of porous polymeric microspheres, typically 10-50 μm in diameter, loaded with active agents. Eudragit RS-100 microsponges of the drug were prepared by the oil in an oil emulsion solvent diffusion method using acetone as dispersing solvent and liquid paraffin as the continuous medium. Magnesium stearate was added to the dispersed phase to prevent flocculation of Eudragit RS-100 microsponges. Pore inducers such as sucrose and pregelatinized starch were used to enhance the rate of drug release. Microsponges of nearly 98% encapsulation efficiency and 60-70% porosity were produced. The pharmacodynamic effect of the chosen preparation was tested on the shaved back of histamine-sensitized rabbits. Histopathological studies were driven for the detection of the healing of inflamed tissues.

Clements, A. C. A., D. U. Pfeiffer, V. Martin, and J. M. Otte, "A Rift Valley fever atlas for Africa", Preventive veterinary medicine, vol. 82, issue 1-2: Elsevier, pp. 72-82, 2007. Abstract
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Clemente, C. S., A. Mahgoub, D. Davino, and C. Visone, EQUIVALENTE 3-PORTE DI UN DISPOSITIVO DI ENERGY HARVESTING, , Submitted. Abstract
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Clemente, C. S., A. Mahgoub, D. Davino, and C. Visone, Multiphysics circuit of a magnetostrictive energy harvesting device, , vol. 28, issue 17: SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, pp. 2317 - 2330, 2017. Abstract
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Clemente, C. S., A. Mahgoub, D. Davino, and C. Visone, EQUIVALENTE 3-PORTE DI UN DISPOSITIVO DI ENERGY HARVESTING, , 2016. Abstract

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Clegg, S. R., and G. Palmer, The {Polititics} of {Management} {Knowledge}, , London, Sage, 1996. Abstract
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Cleary, C., Y. Li, M. Tang, N. S. E. Gendy, and D. Huang, "Predicting Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy Outcomes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography", cornea, vol. 33, issue 3, pp. 280-287, 2014.
Clark, P. A., Action {Research} and {Organisational} {Change}, , London, Harper & Row, 1972. Abstract
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Clark, S. C., KrishnaG.Rampal, VenkateshThuppil, SandyM.Roda, PaulSuccop, W. M. a, ChinK.Chen, E. O.Adebamowo, OluwoleA.Agbede, MynepalliK.C., et al., "Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.", journal homepage, www.elsevier.com/locate/envres, 2009. CU-PDF
Clark, S., W. Menrath, Y. Zakaria, Amal El-Safty, S. Roda, C. Lind, and E. Abdel-Rafaa, "Follow-up on High Lead Concentrations in New Decorative Enamel Paints Available in Egypt", Environment and Pollution, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 33-40, 2014.
Clark, S. C., K. G. Rampal, VenkateshThuppil, S. M. Roda, PaulSuccop, W. Menrath, C. K. Chen, E. O. Adebamowo, O. A. Agbede, M. K. C. Sridhar, et al., "Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.", Environmental research, vol. 109, issue 7, pp. 930-6, 2009 Oct. Abstract

In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.

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