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Corcoran, J., and H. Dawood, Applied Logic Flowchart, , December, 2018. Abstractapplied_logic_flowchart.pdf

The dynamically combined deductive and hypothetico-deductive method has been available to objective investigators since ancient times. Only in the last half-century has it been taught in courses on scientific method and critical thinking. The below chart for teaching and applying it is only about thirty years old.

Corcoran, J., and H. Dawood, Logical Methodology Chart, , December, 2018. Abstractlogical_methodology_chart.pdf

Readers of this chart will note its similarity to another which charts a very different method with very different goals.This method aims at knowledge of validity and invalidity; the other aims at knowledge of truth and falsity.

Corchado, E. S., V. Snasel, J. Sedano, A. E. Hassanien, J. L. Calvo, and D. Slezak, Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications, 6th International Conference SOCO 2011, : Springer Science & Business Media, 2011. Abstract
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Corchado, E. S., V. Snasel, J. Sedano, A. E. Hassanien, J. L. Calvo, and D. Slezak, Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications, 6th International Conference SOCO 2011, : Springer Science & Business Media, 2011. Abstract
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Conzelmanu, H., M. Schluckebier, T. Pfeiffer, K. Muskalla, W. Schmiilling, D. Kamke, M. A. Harith, J. P. Zhang, S. U. Campisano, H. J. Klaar, et al., "N 2 Laser Frequency Conversion by Stimulated Raman Scattering in H 2", Applied Physics A, vol. 42, no. 1: Springer, 1987. Abstract
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Conway, J., O. Miera, R. Kirk, and M. Hassan, "World-Wide Experience of a Durable Centrifugal Flow Pump in Pediatric Patients", Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular surgery, vol. 30, issue 3, pp. 327 - 335, 2018.
Contractor, D. N., S. M. A. El-Didy, and A. S. El-Ansary, Numerical modeling of groundwater flow and water quality at underground coal gasification sites. Final technical report, , Tucson (USA), Arizona Univ., 1986.
Conti, S., R. Nicolosi, S. Rizzo, and H. Zeineldin, "Optimal Dispactiching of Distributed Generators and Storage Systems for MV Islanded Micro-Grids", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, issue 3, pp. 1243-1251, 2012.
Contaifer, D., D. E. Carl, U. O. Warncke, E. J. Martin, B. M. Mohammed, B. Van Tassell, D. F. Brophy, C. Chalfant, and D. S. Wijesinghe, Unsupervised analysis of combined lipid and coagulation data reveal coagulopathy subtypes among dialysis patients, : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. jlr - P068833, 2016. Abstract
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Contaifer, D., D. E. Carl, U. O. Warncke, E. J. Martin, B. M. Mohammed, B. Van Tassell, D. F. Brophy, C. E. Chalfant, and D. S. Wijesinghe, "Unsupervised analysis of combined lipid and coagulation data reveals coagulopathy subtypes among dialysis patients", Journal of lipid research, vol. 58, issue 3: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. 586-599, 2017. Abstract
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Constantinescu, O. A., and E. H. Taha, "Alternative Lagrangians obtained by scalar deformations", International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics, vol. 17, issue 4, 2020.
Conlogue, G., S. Saleem, and P. Zádori, "Development of Study Strategies -Section 5: Interpretation Strategies . ", Advances in Paleoimaging. Applications for paleoanthropology, Bioarchaeology, Forensics, and cultural artefacts, Boca Raton, CRC, 2020.
Conja, P., V. Khadkikar, and H. Zeineldin, "A Non-Iterative Optimized Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter under Distorted and Unbalanced Supply Voltages", accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics, 2013.
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Aymé, S., D. Bockenhauer, S. Day, O. Devuyst, L. M. Guay-Woodford, J. R. Ingelfinger, J. B. Klein, N. V. A. M. Knoers, R. D. Perrone, J. Roberts, et al., "Common Elements in Rare Kidney Diseases: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.", Kidney international, vol. 92, issue 4, pp. 796-808, 2017 Oct. Abstract

Rare kidney diseases encompass at least 150 different conditions, most of which are inherited. Although individual rare kidney diseases raise specific issues, as a group these rare diseases can have overlapping challenges in diagnosis and treatment. These challenges include small numbers of affected patients, unidentified causes of disease, lack of biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, and need for complex care. To address common clinical and patient issues among rare kidney diseases, the KDIGO Controversies Conference entitled, Common Elements in Rare Kidney Diseases, brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical providers and patient advocates to address five central issues for rare kidney diseases. These issues encompassed diagnostic challenges, management of kidney functional decline and progression of chronic kidney disease, challenges in clinical study design, translation of advances in research to clinical care, and provision of practical and integrated patient support. Thus, by a process of consensus, guidance for addressing these challenges was developed and is presented here.

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Colman, A., D. Davcev, S. Dekeyser, N. Di Mauro, J. Dirnberger, U. Draisbach, A. El-Bastawissy, E. El-Dawy, F. Esposito, J. Forbes, et al., Addie, Ronald G., 47, , Submitted. Abstract
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Collier, N., H. Radwan, L. Dalcin, and V. M. Calo, "Time adaptivity in the diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations", Journal of Computational Science, vol. 4, no. 3: Elsevier, pp. 152–156, 2013. Abstract
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Collier, N., H. Radwan, L. Dalcin, and V. M. Calo, "Diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations: computational approach", Procedia Computer Science, vol. 4: Elsevier, pp. 1828–1833, 2011. Abstract
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Collaborators., G. B. D. D. 2021, "Global, regional, and national burden of diabetes from 1990 to 2021, with projections of prevalence to 2050: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021.", Lancet (London, England), 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and affects people regardless of country, age group, or sex. Using the most recent evidentiary and analytical framework from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD), we produced location-specific, age-specific, and sex-specific estimates of diabetes prevalence and burden from 1990 to 2021, the proportion of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in 2021, the proportion of the type 2 diabetes burden attributable to selected risk factors, and projections of diabetes prevalence through 2050.

METHODS: Estimates of diabetes prevalence and burden were computed in 204 countries and territories, across 25 age groups, for males and females separately and combined; these estimates comprised lost years of healthy life, measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; defined as the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]). We used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach to estimate deaths due to diabetes, incorporating 25 666 location-years of data from vital registration and verbal autopsy reports in separate total (including both type 1 and type 2 diabetes) and type-specific models. Other forms of diabetes, including gestational and monogenic diabetes, were not explicitly modelled. Total and type 1 diabetes prevalence was estimated by use of a Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, to analyse 1527 location-years of data from the scientific literature, survey microdata, and insurance claims; type 2 diabetes estimates were computed by subtracting type 1 diabetes from total estimates. Mortality and prevalence estimates, along with standard life expectancy and disability weights, were used to calculate YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs. When appropriate, we extrapolated estimates to a hypothetical population with a standardised age structure to allow comparison in populations with different age structures. We used the comparative risk assessment framework to estimate the risk-attributable type 2 diabetes burden for 16 risk factors falling under risk categories including environmental and occupational factors, tobacco use, high alcohol use, high body-mass index (BMI), dietary factors, and low physical activity. Using a regression framework, we forecast type 1 and type 2 diabetes prevalence through 2050 with Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and high BMI as predictors, respectively.

FINDINGS: In 2021, there were 529 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 500-564) people living with diabetes worldwide, and the global age-standardised total diabetes prevalence was 6·1% (5·8-6·5). At the super-region level, the highest age-standardised rates were observed in north Africa and the Middle East (9·3% [8·7-9·9]) and, at the regional level, in Oceania (12·3% [11·5-13·0]). Nationally, Qatar had the world's highest age-specific prevalence of diabetes, at 76·1% (73·1-79·5) in individuals aged 75-79 years. Total diabetes prevalence-especially among older adults-primarily reflects type 2 diabetes, which in 2021 accounted for 96·0% (95·1-96·8) of diabetes cases and 95·4% (94·9-95·9) of diabetes DALYs worldwide. In 2021, 52·2% (25·5-71·8) of global type 2 diabetes DALYs were attributable to high BMI. The contribution of high BMI to type 2 diabetes DALYs rose by 24·3% (18·5-30·4) worldwide between 1990 and 2021. By 2050, more than 1·31 billion (1·22-1·39) people are projected to have diabetes, with expected age-standardised total diabetes prevalence rates greater than 10% in two super-regions: 16·8% (16·1-17·6) in north Africa and the Middle East and 11·3% (10·8-11·9) in Latin America and Caribbean. By 2050, 89 (43·6%) of 204 countries and territories will have an age-standardised rate greater than 10%.

INTERPRETATION: Diabetes remains a substantial public health issue. Type 2 diabetes, which makes up the bulk of diabetes cases, is largely preventable and, in some cases, potentially reversible if identified and managed early in the disease course. However, all evidence indicates that diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, primarily due to a rise in obesity caused by multiple factors. Preventing and controlling type 2 diabetes remains an ongoing challenge. It is essential to better understand disparities in risk factor profiles and diabetes burden across populations, to inform strategies to successfully control diabetes risk factors within the context of multiple and complex drivers.

FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Collaborators., G. B. D. H. 2019 B., "Global, regional, and national burden of hepatitis B, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.", The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. 796-829, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Combating viral hepatitis is part of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and WHO has put forth hepatitis B elimination targets in its Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis (WHO-GHSS) and Interim Guidance for Country Validation of Viral Hepatitis Elimination (WHO Interim Guidance). We estimated the global, regional, and national prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), as well as mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to HBV, as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. This included estimates for 194 WHO member states, for which we compared our estimates to WHO elimination targets.

METHODS: The primary data sources were population-based serosurveys, claims and hospital discharges, cancer registries, vital registration systems, and published case series. We estimated chronic HBV infection and the burden of HBV-related diseases, defined as an aggregate of cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, liver cancer due to hepatitis B, and acute hepatitis B. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian mixed-effects meta-regression tool, to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, cirrhosis, and aetiological proportions of cirrhosis. We used mortality-to-incidence ratios modelled with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression to estimate the incidence of liver cancer. We used the Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) model, a tool that selects models and covariates on the basis of out-of-sample performance, to estimate mortality due to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute hepatitis B.

FINDINGS: In 2019, the estimated global, all-age prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·7 to 4·5), corresponding to 316 million (284 to 351) infected people. There was a 31·3% (29·0 to 33·9) decline in all-age prevalence between 1990 and 2019, with a more marked decline of 76·8% (76·2 to 77·5) in prevalence in children younger than 5 years. HBV-related diseases resulted in 555 000 global deaths (487 000 to 630 000) in 2019. The number of HBV-related deaths increased between 1990 and 2019 (by 5·9% [-5·6 to 19·2]) and between 2015 and 2019 (by 2·9% [-5·9 to 11·3]). By contrast, all-age and age-standardised death rates due to HBV-related diseases decreased during these periods. We compared estimates for 2019 in 194 WHO locations to WHO-GHSS 2020 targets, and found that four countries achieved a 10% reduction in deaths, 15 countries achieved a 30% reduction in new cases, and 147 countries achieved a 1% prevalence in children younger than 5 years. As of 2019, 68 of 194 countries had already achieved the 2030 target proposed in WHO Interim Guidance of an all-age HBV-related death rate of four per 100 000.

INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of chronic HBV infection declined over time, particularly in children younger than 5 years, since the introduction of hepatitis B vaccination. HBV-related death rates also decreased, but HBV-related death counts increased as a result of population growth, ageing, and cohort effects. By 2019, many countries had met the interim seroprevalence target for children younger than 5 years, but few countries had met the WHO-GHSS interim targets for deaths and new cases. Progress according to all indicators must be accelerated to meet 2030 targets, and there are marked disparities in burden and progress across the world. HBV interventions, such as vaccination, testing, and treatment, must be strategically supported and scaled up to achieve elimination.

FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Collaborators, G. B. D. D. M. 2019, "Diabetes mortality and trends before 25 years of age: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.", The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology, 2022. Abstract1-s2.0-s2213858721003491-main.pdf

BACKGROUND: Diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes, at younger ages can be a largely preventable cause of death with the correct health care and services. We aimed to evaluate diabetes mortality and trends at ages younger than 25 years globally using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.

METHODS: We used estimates of GBD 2019 to calculate international diabetes mortality at ages younger than 25 years in 1990 and 2019. Data sources for causes of death were obtained from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and other surveillance systems for 1990-2019. We estimated death rates for each location using the GBD Cause of Death Ensemble model. We analysed the association of age-standardised death rates per 100 000 population with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and a measure of universal health coverage (UHC) and described the variability within SDI quintiles. We present estimates with their 95% uncertainty intervals.

FINDINGS: In 2019, 16 300 (95% uncertainty interval 14 200 to 18 900) global deaths due to diabetes (type 1 and 2 combined) occurred in people younger than 25 years and 73·7% (68·3 to 77·4) were classified as due to type 1 diabetes. The age-standardised death rate was 0·50 (0·44 to 0·58) per 100 000 population, and 15 900 (97·5%) of these deaths occurred in low to high-middle SDI countries. The rate was 0·13 (0·12 to 0·14) per 100 000 population in the high SDI quintile, 0·60 (0·51 to 0·70) per 100 000 population in the low-middle SDI quintile, and 0·71 (0·60 to 0·86) per 100 000 population in the low SDI quintile. Within SDI quintiles, we observed large variability in rates across countries, in part explained by the extent of UHC (r=0·62). From 1990 to 2019, age-standardised death rates decreased globally by 17·0% (-28·4 to -2·9) for all diabetes, and by 21·0% (-33·0 to -5·9) when considering only type 1 diabetes. However, the low SDI quintile had the lowest decline for both all diabetes (-13·6% [-28·4 to 3·4]) and for type 1 diabetes (-13·6% [-29·3 to 8·9]).

INTERPRETATION: Decreasing diabetes mortality at ages younger than 25 years remains an important challenge, especially in low and low-middle SDI countries. Inadequate diagnosis and treatment of diabetes is likely to be major contributor to these early deaths, highlighting the urgent need to provide better access to insulin and basic diabetes education and care. This mortality metric, derived from readily available and frequently updated GBD data, can help to monitor preventable diabetes-related deaths over time globally, aligned with the UN's Sustainable Development Targets, and serve as an indicator of the adequacy of basic diabetes care for type 1 and type 2 diabetes across nations.

FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.