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Cox, J. V., N. Naher, Y. M. AbdelRahman, and R. J. Belland, "Host HDL biogenesis machinery is recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells and regulates chlamydial growth", Cellular Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 10: Wiley Online Library, pp. 1497–1512, 2012. Abstract
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Cox, B., and S. Ghoneim, "EDI, Theoretical Framework and Lessons from Experience", Egyptian Exports and Challenges in the 21st Century, Cairo, Center for Economics and Financial Research Studies, Cairo University, 2000.
COVIDSurg Collaborative, G. S. C., "SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study", British Journal of Surgery, vol. 108, no. 9: Oxford University Press, pp. 1056–1063, 2021. Abstract
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Cousien, A., D. Obach, S. Deuffic-Burban, A. Mostafa, G. Esmat, V. Canva, M. El Kassas, M. El-Sayed, W. A. Anwar, A. Fontanet, et al., "Is expert opinion reliable when estimating transition probabilities? The case of HCV-related cirrhosis in Egypt.", BMC medical research methodology, vol. 14, pp. 39, 2014. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Data on HCV-related cirrhosis progression are scarce in developing countries in general, and in Egypt in particular. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability of death and transition between different health stages of HCV (compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) for an Egyptian population of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis.

METHODS: We used the "elicitation of expert opinions" method to obtain collective knowledge from a panel of 23 Egyptian experts (among whom 17 were hepatologists or gastroenterologists and 2 were infectiologists). The questionnaire was based on virtual medical cases and asked the experts to assess probability of death or probability of various cirrhosis complications. The design was a Delphi study: we attempted to obtain a consensus between experts via a series of questionnaires interspersed with group response feedback.

RESULTS: We found substantial disparity between experts' answers, and no consensus was reached at the end of the process. Moreover, we obtained high death probability and high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The annual transition probability to death was estimated at between 10.1% and 61.5% and the annual probability of occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated at between 16.8% and 58.9% (depending on age, gender, time spent in cirrhosis and cirrhosis severity).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that eliciting expert opinions is not suited for determining the natural history of diseases due to practitioners' difficulties in evaluating quantities. Cognitive bias occurring during this type of study might explain our results.

Coscia, L., P. Causa, E. Giuliani, and A. Nunziata, "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds.", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 25, issue 9, pp. 1436-42, 1975 Sep. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Coscia, L., P. Causa, E. Giuliani, and A. Nunziata, "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds.", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 25, issue 9, pp. 1436-42, 1975 Sep. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Correia, R., C. Matos, M. El-Ramly, and R. Heckel, "Rule-based Model Extraction from Source Code", Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings: Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2007. Abstract
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Correia, R., C. Matos, M. El-Ramly, and R. Heckel, "Rule-based Model Extraction from Source Code", Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings: Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2007. Abstract
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Correia, R., C. M. P. Matos, R. Heckel, and M. El-Ramly, "Architecture migration driven by code categorization", European Conference on Software Architecture: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 115–122, 2007. Abstract
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Correia, R., C. Matos, M. El-Ramly, R. Heckel, G. Koutsoukos, and L. Andrade, "Software Reengineering at the Architectural Level: Transformation of Legacy Systems", Bericht, Department of Computer Science, University of Leicester, UK: Citeseer, 2006. Abstract
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Cordie, A., A. Salama, M. A. R. W. A. EL-SHARKAWY, S. M. El-Nahaas, M. Khairy, A. Elsharkawy, M. Hassany, and G. Esmat, "Comparing the efficiency of Fib-4, Egy-score, APRI and GUCI in liver fibrosis staging in Egyptians with chronic hepatitis C.", Journal of medical virology, 2018 Feb 24. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Assessment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus patients by liver biopsy is not widely accepted despite its accuracy, being invasive, carrying complications and adding cost. This paved the way to development and use of non-invasive markers of fibrosis in diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis.

AIM: Evaluating the efficiency of Fib-4, Egy-score, Aspartate-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI) in comparison to liver biopsy, in the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients Methods: Cross sectional study including 200 chronic HCV patients were divided into two groups according to stage of fibrosis (Metavir score) into non-significant fibrosis (1.27, APRI >0.48, Egy-score >0.73 and GUCI >0.57 significantly predict significant fibrosis (p <0.01). Fib-4 carries the best performance and significant reliability with AUROC 0.783, sensitivity 74%, specificity 69%, PPV 0.55 and NPV 0.86. The addition of BMI to Fib-4 improved the significant fibrosis AUROC curve performance but didn't reach statistical significant improvement.

CONCLUSIONS: Age and BMI are good predictors of hepatic fibrosis. Fib-4 (>1.27) is the best method of prediction of significant fibrosis compared to Egy-score, APRI and GUCI. Addition of BMI to Fib-4 didn't improve diagnostic value of Fib-4. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Cordie, A., M. - T. - A. El-Kotamy, and G. Esmat, "Antiretroviral therapy optimisation in the time of COVID-19: Is it really different in North and South Africa?", Southern African journal of HIV medicine, vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 1118, 2020.
Cordie, A., A. Elsharkawy, S. A. Alem, S. Meshaal, W. elakel, Z. abdellatif, W. Kamal, M. A. Askalany, S. Kamel, H. A. Aziz, et al., Sustained virologic response and changes in liver fibrosis parameters following 12-wk administration of generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with HCV genotype 4 infection, , Egypt, 2020. trz120.pdf
Cordie, A., Y. Gaber, M. Abdallah, A. Vergori, B. Kharono, S. Omran, shimaa afify, M. Karkouri, M. Chakroun, S. Musa, et al., "Gastrointestinal manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus and coronavirus disease 2019: Understanding the intersecting regions between the two epidemics.", Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, issue 2, pp. 75-87, 2021. Abstract

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic. As of February 2021, there were 107 million COVID-19 cases worldwide. As a comparison, there are approximately 38 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) worldwide. The coexistence of both epidemics, and the syndemic effect of both viruses could lead to a delirious impact both at individual and community levels. Many intersecting points were found between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, and HIV; among which, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are the most notable. GI manifestations represent a common clinical presentation in both HIV and SARS-CoV-2. The emergence of GI symptoms as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection provides a new dynamic to COVID-19 diagnosis, management, and infection control measures, and adds an additional diagnostic challenge in case of coinfection with HIV. The presence of GI manifestations in PLHIV during the COVID-19 pandemic could be referred to HIV enteropathy, presence of opportunistic infection, adverse effect of antiretrovirals, or coinfection with COVID-19. Thus, it is important to exclude SARS-CoV-2 in patients who present with new-onset GI manifestations, especially in PLHIV, to avoid the risk of disease transmission during endoscopic interventions. Structural similarities between both viruses adds a valuable intersecting point, which has mutual benefits in the management of both viruses. These similarities led to the hypothesis that antiretrovirals such as lopinavir/Rironavir have a role in the management of COVID-19, which was the target of our search strategy using the available evidence. These similarities may also facilitate the development of an efficient HIV vaccine in the future using the advances in COVID-19 vaccine development.

Cordie, A., M. Abdallah, E. E. Desouky, S. G. M. Kheir, I. Kooli, M. Awad Mousnad, F. H. Idris, H. Abdella, M. Chakroun, and G. Esmat, "The evolving challenges confronting adults living with HIV in three North African countries during the COVID-19 crisis: a survey-based study", Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2021. Abstract
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Cordie, A., A. Salama, M. El‐Sharkawy, S. M. El‐Nahaas, M. Khairy, A. Elsharkawy, M. Hassany, and G. Esmat, "Comparing the efficiency of Fib-4, Egy-score, APRI, and GUCI in liver fibrosis staging in Egyptians with chronic hepatitis C.", Journal of Medical virology, vol. 90(6), 2018.
Cordie, A., R. Mohamed, M. W. Sonderup, C. Wendy Spearman, M. A. Medhat, N. Debzi, H. Desalegn, and G. Esmat, "Hepatitis C elimination in Africa: Seizing the moment for hepatitis-C free future.", Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 249-251, 2021.
Cordie, A., A. Elsharkawy, S. A. Alem, S. Meshaal, W. elakel, Z. abdellatif, W. Kamal, M. A. Askalany, S. Kamel, H. A. Aziz, et al., "Sustained virologic response and changes in liver fibrosis parameters following 12-wk administration of generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with HCV genotype 4 infection.", Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 114, issue 4, pp. 232-240, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Novel direct-acting antiviral agents have shown great efficacy and tolerability in HCV-monoinfected patients. However, data are lacking regarding their efficacy and safety in HIV/HCV-genotype (GT) 4-coinfected patients.

METHODS: A single-centre, prospective study including HIV/HCV-GT 4-coinfected patients who were treated with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) was conducted for 12 wk. Sustained virological response (SVR) at week 12 post-treatment (SVR12), adverse events (AEs) and changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) at SVR12 in comparison with baseline were evaluated.

RESULTS: SVR12 was achieved in 46 of 50 patients (92%). No significant difference in SVR12 was noticed among patients who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens compared with those who did not receive ART regimens or between those with insignificant fibrosis (

Cordie, A., A. Salama, M. A. R. W. A. EL-SHARKAWY, Saeed M. El- Nahaas, M. Khairy, A. Elsharkawy, M. Hassany, and G. Esmat, "Comparing the efficiency of Fib-4, Egy-score, APRI and GUCI in liver fibrosis staging in Egyptians with chronic hepatitis C", Journal of Medical Virology , vol. 90, issue 6, pp. 1106-1111, 2018.
Cordie, A., A. Salama, M. A. R. W. A. EL-SHARKAWY, S. M. El-Nahaas, M. Khairy, A. Elsharkawy, M. Hassany, and G. Esmat, "• Comparing the efficiency of Fib-4, Egy-score, APRI, and GUCI in liver fibrosis staging in Egyptians with chronic hepatitis C", Journal of Medical Virology , vol. 90, pp. 1106-1111, 2018.
Cordie, A., M. Abdallah, A. Vergori, B. Kharono, M. Karkouri, and G. Esmat, "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and coronavirus disease 2019; impact on vulnerable populations and harnessing lessons learnt from HIV programmes.", New microbes and new infections, vol. 41, pp. 100857, 2021. Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can act as a dual prong attack against management of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); it induces harm on both individual and national levels. People living with HIV may show rapid deterioration in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a result of physiological or psychological vulnerability. Additionally, the spread of COVID-19-especially in low- and middle-income countries-may limit HIV control measures, delivery and linkage to HIV care and prevention. Attention should be given to pregnant women and the LGBTQI+ community for their higher susceptibility to poor outcomes. Engagement of both governmental and non-governmental organizations is encouraged for better results.

Cordie, A., A. Salama, M. El‐Sharkawy, S. M. El‐Nahaas, M. Khairy, A. Elsharkawy, M. Hassany, and G. Esmat, Comparing the efficiency of Fib‐4, Egy‐score, APRI, and GUCI in liver fibrosis staging in Egyptians with chronic hepatitis C, , vol. 90, issue 6: Wiley Online Library, pp. 1106 - 1111, 2018. Abstract
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Cordes, M., P. Bucichowski, A. S. Alfaar, S. H. Tsang, S. Almedawar, N. Reichhart, and O. Strauß, "Inhibition of Ca2+ channel surface expression by mutant bestrophin-1 in RPE cells.", FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, issue May 2019, pp. fj.201901202RR - fj.201901202RR, 2020/01//. AbstractWebsite

The BEST1 gene product bestrophin-1, a Ca2+ -dependent anion channel, interacts with CaV 1.3 Ca2+ channels in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). BEST1 mutations lead to Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. A common functional defect of these mutations is reduced trafficking of bestrophin-1 into the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that this defect affects the interaction partner CaV 1.3 channel affecting Ca2+ signaling and altered RPE function. Thus, we investigated the protein interaction between CaV 1.3 channels and bestrophin-1 by immunoprecipitation, CaV 1.3 activity in the presence of mutant bestrophin-1 and intracellular trafficking of the interaction partners in confluent RPE monolayers. We selected four BEST1 mutations, each representing one mutational hotspot of the disease: T6P, F80L, R218C, and F305S. Heterologously expressed L-type channels and mutant bestrophin-1 showed reduced interaction, reduced CaV 1.3 channel activity, and changes in surface expression. Transfection of polarized RPE (porcine primary cells, iPSC-RPE) that endogenously express CaV 1.3 and wild-type bestrophin-1, with mutant bestrophin-1 confirmed reduction of CaV 1.3 surface expression. For the four selected BEST1 mutations, presence of mutant bestrophin-1 led to reduced CaV 1.3 activity by modulating pore-function or decreasing surface expression. Reduced CaV 1.3 activity might open new ways to understand symptoms of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy such as reduced electro-oculogram, lipofuscin accumulation, and vision impairment.

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Pennell, D. J., J. B. Porter, A. Piga, Y. - R. Lai, A. El-Beshlawy, M. Elalfy, A. Yesilipek, Y. Kilinç, D. Habr, K. M. Musallam, et al., "Sustained improvements in myocardial T2* over 2 years in severely iron-overloaded patients with beta thalassemia major treated with deferasirox or deferoxamine.", American journal of hematology, vol. 90, issue 2, pp. 91-6, 2015 Feb. Abstract

Long-term controlled studies are needed to inform on the clinical benefit of chelation therapy for myocardial iron removal in transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients. In a 1-year nonrandomized extension to the CORDELIA study, data collected from patients with myocardial siderosis provided additional information on deferasirox or deferoxamine (DFO) efficacy and safety. Myocardial (m)T2* increased from baseline 11.6 to 15.9 ms in patients receiving deferasirox for 24 months (n = 74; geometric mean [Gmean ] ratio of month 24/baseline 1.38 [95% confidence interval 1.28, 1.49]) and from 10.8 to 14.2 ms in those receiving DFO (n = 29; Gmean ratio 1.33 [1.13, 1.55]; P = 0.93 between groups). Improved mT2* with deferasirox was evident across all subgroups evaluated irrespective of baseline myocardial (mT2* < 10 vs. ≥ 10 ms) or liver (LIC <15 vs. ≥15 mg Fe/g dw) iron burden. Mean LVEF was stable and remained within normal limits with deferasirox or DFO. Liver iron concentration decreased from high baseline values of 30.6 ± 18.0 to 14.4 ± 16.6 mg Fe/g dw at month 24 in deferasirox patients and from 36.8 ± 15.6 to 11.0 ± 12.1 mg Fe/g dw in DFO patients. The long-term safety profile of deferasirox or DFO was consistent with previous reports; serious drug-related AEs were reported in 6.8% of deferasirox and 6.9% of DFO patients. Continued treatment of severely iron-overloaded beta thalassemia patients with deferasirox or DFO led to sustained improvements in myocardial iron irrespective of high or low baseline myocardial or liver iron burden, in parallel with substantial improvements in liver iron (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00600938).

Pennell, D. J., J. B. Porter, A. Piga, Y. Lai, A. El-Beshlawy, K. M. Belhoul, M. Elalfy, A. Yesilipek, Y. Kilinç, T. Lawniczek, et al., "A 1-year randomized controlled trial of deferasirox vs deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in β-thalassemia major (CORDELIA).", Blood, vol. 123, issue 10, pp. 1447-54, 2014 Mar 6. Abstract

Randomized comparison data on the efficacy and safety of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal in transfusion dependent patients are lacking. CORDELIA was a prospective, randomized comparison of deferasirox (target dose 40 mg/kg per day) vs subcutaneous deferoxamine (50-60 mg/kg per day for 5-7 days/week) for myocardial iron removal in 197 β-thalassemia major patients with myocardial siderosis (T2* 6-20 milliseconds) and no signs of cardiac dysfunction (mean age, 19.8 years). Primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal, assessed by changes in myocardial T2* after 1 year using a per-protocol analysis. Geometric mean (Gmean) myocardial T2* improved with deferasirox from 11.2 milliseconds at baseline to 12.6 milliseconds at 1 year (Gmeans ratio, 1.12) and with deferoxamine (11.6 milliseconds to 12.3 milliseconds; Gmeans ratio, 1.07). The between-arm Gmeans ratio was 1.056 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.998, 1.133). The lower 95% CI boundary was greater than the prespecified margin of 0.9, establishing noninferiority of deferasirox vs deferoxamine (P = .057 for superiority of deferasirox). Left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable in both arms. Frequency of drug-related adverse events was comparable between deferasirox (35.4%) and deferoxamine (30.8%). CORDELIA demonstrated the noninferiority of deferasirox compared with deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600938.