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Ghazy, R. M., S. Al Awaidy, and S. H. N. Taha, Trends of HIV indicators in Egypt from 1990 to 2021: time-series analysis and forecast toward UNAIDS 90–90–90 targets, , vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 625, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Infection with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pose severe threats to public health across the world. This study aimed to describe and forecast the trend of HIV indicators, including progress towards the 90–90–90 targets in Egypt since 1990.

Hussein, O. G., Y. Rostom, M. A. Kawy, M. R. Rezk, and D. A. Ahmed, "Spectrophotometric Platform Windows' Exploitation for the Green Determination of Alcaftadine in Presence of its Oxidative Degradation Product", Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 297, pp. 122737, 2023.
Rostom, Y., M. R. Rezk, M. Wadie, E. M. Abdel-Moety, and H. M. Marzouk, "State-of-the-art mathematically induced filtration approaches for smart spectrophotometric assessment of silodosin and solifenacin mixture in their new challenging formulation: Multi-tool greenness and whiteness evaluation", Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 307, pp. 123650, 2024.
Rostom, Y., O. G. Hussein, A. M. Mahmoud, M. A. Kawy, M. R. Rezk, and D. A. Ahmed, "Novel Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Modified Carbon Paste Electrochemical Sensor for Antazoline Determination in aqueous humor", Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 171, issue 3, pp. 037510, 2024.
Ahmed, D. A., O. G. Hussein, M. A. Kawy, M. R. Rezk, and Y. Rostom, "A novel Green Spectrofluorimetric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Antazoline and Tetryzoline in their Ophthalmic Formulation", Luminescence, vol. 39, pp. e4728, 2024.
Wadie, W., S. S. Mohamed, E. A. Abd El-Haleim, and M. T. Khayyal, "Niacin modulates depressive-like behavior in experimental colitis through GPR109A-dependent mechanisms.", Life sciences, vol. 330, pp. 122004, 2023. Abstract

AIMS: Depression is one of the common neurological comorbidities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study aimed to investigate the potential impact of niacin on colitis-induced depressive-like behavior in rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were given 5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for one week to induce colitis. Niacin (80 mg/kg), with or without mepenzolate bromide (GPR109A blocker), was administered once per day throughout the experimental period. Rats were tested for behavioral changes using open field and forced swimming tests.

KEY FINDINGS: Niacin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced behavioral deficits and alleviated macroscopic and microscopic colonic inflammatory changes. It also augmented the hippocampal levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 proteins, indicating the ability of niacin to restore the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Moreover, niacin decreased hippocampal IL-1ꞵ and NF-ĸB contents but increased GSH, Sirt-1, Nrf-2, HO-1 concentrations. All these beneficial effects were partially abolished by the co-administration of mepenzolate bromide.

SIGNIFICANCE: The neuroprotective effect of niacin against DSS-induced depressive-like behavior was partially mediated through GPR109A-mediated mechanisms. Such mechanisms are also involved in modulating neuronal oxidative stress and inflammation via Sirt-1/Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling pathways.

Ghazy, R. M., S. A. Ibrahim, S. H. N. Taha, A. Elshabrawy, S. W. Elkhadry, S. Abdel-Rahman, M. A. Hassaan, and N. Fadl, Attitudes of parents towards influenza vaccine in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A multilevel analysis, , vol. 41, issue 36, pp. 5253 - 5264, 2023. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundSeasonal influenza vaccines (SIVs) can protect against influenza and substantially reduce the risk of influenza-related hospitalizations and fatalities in children. This study aimed to assess parental attitudes towards SIVs in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).
Through an anonymous online survey conducted in 19 countries in the EMR, parents or caregivers over 18 years who had at least one child above 6 months filled out the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines questionnaire. As data had two levels; country and individual factors, we utilized multilevel binary logistic regression models.
In total, 6992 respondents filled out the questionnaire. Of them, 47.4 % were residents of middle-income countries, 72.4 % of the mothers were between 26 and 45 years old, 56.5 % had at least a university degree, and approximately 51.6 % were unemployed. Nearly 50.8 % of the respondents were hesitant to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza. Parental attitudes towards seasonal influenza vaccination differed significantly between countries, p < 0.001. The main predictors of parental seasonal influenza vaccine hesitancy (VH) were parents vaccination (odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95 % CI = 0.32–0.55, p < 0.001)), the mother's education if mother educated vs. who did not receive any education (OR ranged from 0.48 to 0.64, p < 0.05), living in low-income countries (OR = 0.52, 95 % CI = 0.35–0.77, p < 0.01), mountain residence (0.69, 95 % CI = 0.49–0.99, p < 0.05), health workers as a source of information (OR = 0.70, 95 % CI = 0.58–0.85, p < 0.001), children vaccination against COVID-19 (OR = 0.52, 95 % CI = 0.41–0.65, p < 0.001), not receiving routine vaccinations (OR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.09–3.44, p = 0.025), and if parents respondents could not remember whether their child had suffered from seasonal influenza in the previous year (OR = 1.57, 95 % CI = 1.33–1.84, p < 0.001).
A high seasonal influenza VH rate was found in the EMR. Health authorities should implement different interventions targeting the identified modifiable risk factor to increase vaccine uptake among children, especially those at risk of complication from seasonal influenza infection.

Wadie, W., G. S. Ahmed, A. M. A. N. I. N. SHAFIK, and M. El-Sayed, "Effects of insulin and sitagliptin on early cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats.", Life sciences, vol. 299, pp. 120542, 2022. Abstract

AIMS: Cardiac affection is common in diabetic patients. Although insulin exerts a cardioprotective role, it may not be enough to totally prevent this affection. The current study aimed to compare the cardioprotective effect of insulin alone or combined with sitagliptin in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated with insulin (3 IU), insulin (6 IU), or insulin (3 IU) + sitagliptin (10 mg/kg) for 42 days.

KEY FINDINGS: Diabetic rats exhibited significant systolic and diastolic cardiac affection with significant elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Treatment with insulin prevented the deterioration of diabetes-induced cardiac condition, an effect that was significantly potentiated by the combined use of sitagliptin.

SIGNIFICANCE: The combined use of sitagliptin and insulin significantly improved the cardioprotective effect of insulin and prevented the early cardiac dysfunction in STZ diabetic rats.

Mokhtar, K., S. Hamed, M. Hamdy, E. E. Zohairy, I. Fathy, and N. Elsayed, Study of possible relation between chronic use of tobacco, cannabis, and tramadol on semen quality in a sample of Egyptian subfertile males, , 2023. AbstractWebsite

Infertility/subfertility affects up to 15% of couples. Tobacco, cannabis, and tramadol misuse is prevalent in our society mainly among men who are at ages likely to be seeking infertility treatment. However, the effect of these substances on male fertility is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of tobacco, cannabis, and tramadol on the semen quality of subfertile males. Our study is a case-control study that included eighty-five subfertile male patients. The following tests were performed on each patient: a full history, local examination of the genital organs, semen analysis, and qualitative and quantitative assessments of tobacco (cotinine), cannabis (tetrahydrocannabinol) metabolites, and tramadol in urine samples.
In our study, the tobacco group showed a significant decrease in sperm motility, while the cannabis and tramadol groups showed significantly higher sperm motility measured by both conventional and computer-assisted semen analysis.
Tobacco, cannabis, and tramadol negatively affect semen quality via different mechanisms. Tobacco decreases both the progressive and total motility of sperm. However, the mechanism through which cannabis and tramadol cause infertility is not fully understood. Our study indicates that cannabis and tramadol induce increased sperm motility (hyperactivation). Hyperactivation is required as the sperm approaches the egg. Premature hyperactivation may lead to early sperm burnout, reducing the fertilization capacity.

Shendy, H. M., S. S. Mohamed, E. A. Abd El-Haleim, O. Galal, W. Wadie, A. Helal, and M. T. Khayyal, "Rice bran extract mitigates depressive-like behavior in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis: Involvement of the gut-brain axis and Sirt1 signaling pathway.", Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, vol. 184, pp. 114386, 2024. Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients frequently suffer from depressive disorders as well. The present study was carried out to explore whether treatment with a standardized rice bran extract (RBE) could affect depression-like behavior in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Wistar rats were treated with RBE (100 mg/kg/day; p.o.) for 2 weeks. During the second week, colitis was induced by feeding the rats with 5 % (w/v) DSS in drinking water. RBE protected against DSS-induced body weight loss as well as against the macro- and microscopic inflammatory changes of the colon. Additionally, RBE mitigated DSS-induced dysregulation in blood-brain barrier tight junctional proteins, preserved the hippocampal histopathological architecture and improved the animal behavior in the forced swimming test. This was associated with modulation of hippocampal oxidative stress marker; GSH as well as hippocampal pro-inflammatory mediators; NF-ĸB and IL-1β. Treatment with RBE also led to a profound increase in the hippocampal levels of Sirt1, PGC-1α, Nrf2, and HO-1, which were drastically dropped by DSS. In conclusion, the study revealed the protective effect of RBE against DSS-induced depressive-like behavior through modulation of different parameters along the gut-brain axis and up-regulated the Sirt1/PGC-1α/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Ibrahim, W. W., R. H. Sayed, E. S. R. A. A. A. KANDIL, and W. Wadie, "Niacin mitigates blood-brain barrier tight junctional proteins dysregulation and cerebral inflammation in ketamine rat model of psychosis: Role of GPR109A receptor.", Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, vol. 119, pp. 110583, 2022. Abstract

Dysregulated inflammatory responses and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction are recognized as central factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of niacin on BBB integrity in ketamine-induced model of psychosis. Meanwhile, mepenzolate bromide (MPN), a GPR109A receptor blocker, was used to investigate the role of this receptor on the observed niacin's effect. Male Wistar rats received ketamine (30 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 5 consecutive days and then niacin (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), with or without MPN (5 mg/kg/day, i.p), was given for the subsequent 15 days. Three days before the end of experiment, rats were behaviorally tested using open field, novel object recognition, social interaction, and forced swimming tests. Niacin significantly ameliorated ketamine-induced behavioral deficits, amended gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate concentration, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metallopeptidase 9 levels, and increased netrin-1 contents in the hippocampus of rats. Niacin also augmented the hippocampal expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 proteins, indicating the ability of niacin to restore the BBB integrity. Moreover, the histopathologic changes in hippocampal neurons were alleviated. Since all the beneficial effects of niacin in the present investigation were partially abolished by the co-administration of MPN; GPR109A receptor was proven to partially mediate the observed antipsychotic effects of niacin. These data revealed that GPR109A-mediated signaling pathways might represent potential targets for therapeutic interventions to prevent or slow the progression of psychosis.

Mahmoud, N., M. - E. F. Hegazy, W. Wadie, M. Elbadawi, E. Fleischer, A. Klinger, G. Bringmann, M. T. Khayyal, and T. Efferth, "Naphthoquinone derivatives as P-glycoprotein inducers in inflammatory bowel disease: 2D monolayers, 3D spheroids, and in vivo models.", Pharmacological research, vol. 179, pp. 106233, 2022. Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by an overreaction of immune responses and damage at the intestinal mucosal barrier. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a key role to protect the intestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation and suppressing excessive immune responses. Therefore, induction/activation of P-gp function could serve as a novel therapeutic target to treat IBD. This study aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic values of naphthoquinone derivatives (NQ-1 - NQ-8) as P-gp modulators to counterbalance intestinal inflammation. The data indicate that NQ-2, NQ-3, and NQ-4 act as P-gp inducers/activators and are recognized as substrates for P-gp. The three derivatives possess anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of NF-κB and HDAC6 activity in Caco2 monolayer cells. Besides, they reversed LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction by enhancing the expression of P-gp and ZO-1 tight junction proteins in a Caco-2 spheroid model. NQ-2, NQ-3, and NQ-4 showed a robust inhibitory effect on IL-1β maturation in LPS-primed THP-1 cells. This effect may contribute to alleviate the inflammatory cascades associated with IBD. Distinctively, NQ-2 and NQ-3 exerted anti-NLRP3 inflammasome activity evidenced by the inhibition of CASP-1 activity and the promotion of autophagy. Both compounds induced disruptions of the microtubule network in transfected U2OS-GFP-α-tubulin cells. Treatment with NQ-2 remarkably attenuated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats by suppressing changes in colon length, colon mass index, and intestinal histopathology scores. Thus, 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives such as NQ-2 may provide potential therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects for IBD patients and for other NLRP3-associated inflammatory diseases.

Abdel-Latif, R. T., W. Wadie, Y. Abdel-Mottaleb, D. M. Abdallah, N. N. El-Maraghy, and H. S. El-Abhar, "Reposition of the anti-inflammatory drug diacerein in an colorectal cancer model.", Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society, vol. 30, issue 1, pp. 72-90, 2022. Abstract

Excessive interleukin (IL)-6 production is a driver for malignancy and drug resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our study investigated a seven-week post-treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug, Diacerein (Diac), alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using a 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) rat model of CRC. Diac alone and 5-FU+Diac reduced serum levels of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), while all regimens decreased serum levels of colon cancer-specific antigen (CCSA), a more specific CRC biomarker. Additionally, Diac, 5-FU and their combination suppressed colonic content/gene expression of IL-6, its downstream oncogene, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), and consequently Notch intracellular domain and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65. In turn, NF-κB downstream factors, , matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), c-Myc, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) were also downregulated, while E-cadherin was elevated. Additionally, the drugs reduced the immunoreactivity of CD31 to prove their anti-angiogenic effect, while the TUNEL assay confirmed the apoptotic effect. The apoptotic effect was confirmed by transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Moreover, these drugs inhibited colon content of -Akt, β-catenin, and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity. The drugs also activated the tumor suppressor glycogen synthase kinase 3- β (GSK3-β) and upregulated the expression of the Nur77 gene, which represents the second arm of IL-6 signaling. However, only 5-FU upregulated miR-200a, another K-Ras downstream factor. The cytotoxic and migration/invasion assays verified the molecular trajectories. Accordingly, we evaluated the antineoplastic effect of Diac alone and its possible chemosensitization effect when added to 5-FU. This combination may target critical oncogenic pathways, including the IL-6/K-Ras/Notch/NF-κB p65 axis, -Akt/GSK3-β/β-catenin/cyclin D-1 hub, and Nur77.

Monier, A., B. Guo, Q. Zhao, Z. Guo, T. S. Mahmoud, and I. El-Mahallawi, "The effects of structured grinding wheel designed parameters on the geometries of ground structured surfaces", The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 120, issue 7, pp. 5551-5571, 2022.
El-Mahallawi, I., E. Elshazly, M. Ramadan, R. Nasser, M. Yasser, S. El-Badry, M. Elthakaby, O. T. Oladinrin, and M. Q. Rana, "Solar pv panels-self-cleaning coating material for egyptian climatic conditions", Sustainability, vol. 14, issue 17, 2022.
Elshamy, A. I., E. Elshazly, O. T. Oladinrin, M. Q. Rana, R. S. A. el-Lateef, S. T. El-Badry, M. Elthakaby, A. M. R. Elbaz, K. Dewidar, and I. El-Mahallawi, "Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating RE Systems in Egyptian Building Stocks", Energies, vol. 15, issue 23, 2022.
Farag, M. M., H. B. El-Nassan, H. A. Merey, B. M. Eltanany, M. M. Galal, W. Wadie, D. M. El-Tanbouly, M. A. Khattab, L. A. Rashed, and A. N. ElMeshad, "Comparative pharmacodynamic study delineating the efficacy of amantadine loaded nano-emulsified organogel via intranasal versus transdermal route in rotenone-induced Parkinson ", Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 86, pp. 104765, 2023.
Salem, S., I. El-Mahallawi, M. Shazly, H. Abouzeid, A. Elbshbeshy, and Y. Reda, "Investigation on Offshore Floating Mooring Chains Failure", Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 22, issue 6, pp. 2173-2180, 2022.
Elshazly, E., AA Abdel-Rehim, and I. El-Mahallawi, "4E study of experimental thermal performance enhancement of flat plate solar collectors using MWCNT, Al2O3, and hybrid MWCNT/Al2O3 nanofluids", Results in Engineering, vol. 16, 2022.