Neuroprotective effect of hesperidin against emamectin benzoate-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in rats.

Noshy, P. A., and R. A. Azouz, "Neuroprotective effect of hesperidin against emamectin benzoate-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in rats.", Neurotoxicology and teratology, vol. 86, pp. 106981, 2021.


Emamectin Benzoate (EMB) is an avermectin insecticide widely used in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Hesperidin (HSP) is a flavanone glycoside predominantly found in citrus fruits and has various beneficial health effects. The current research was conducted to study the neurobehavioral toxic effects of EMB in rats and also to evaluate the protective effect of HSP against these toxic effects. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control group, EMB group, HSP group, and EMB + HSP group. EMB (8.8. mg/kg) and/or HSP (100 mg/kg) were administered daily by gavage for 8 weeks. The behavioral assessment demonstrated the adverse effects of EMB on the behavioral, motor, and cognitive brain functions. Exposure to EMB also decreased the activity of antioxidants (catalase and reduced glutathione) and increased the malondialdehyde level in nervous tissue. Moreover, EMB increased the level of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in rats' brains. On the other hand, concurrent administration of HSP ameliorated the toxic effects of EMB as indicated by improvements in neural functions and reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. The study concluded that exposure to EMB induces toxic effects in the brain of rats and that HSP has a protective effect against these toxic effects.