M.Khalaf, M., and H. M. Kama, "Does Stationary Cycling Improve Muscular Strength and Endurance for Pediatric Burned Patients? ", Bull. Fac. Ph. Th. Cairo Univ., vol. 17, issue 2, pp. 17-23, 2012. Abstractjuly_2012.pdf

Background: Burn injury is a major problem facing physiotherapists who deal with pediatric burned patients. Management of burned children should be emphasized on quick return to normal function and back to school. Objective: This study was performed to examine the effect of a stationary cycling intervention on muscle strength and endurance in children with lower extremity burns. Intervention: Thirty burned children with 30-40% burn of total body surface area, aged 10-14 years old were randomly assigned to cycling (study) or traditional physical therapy program (control) groups. Thirty-six intervention sessions occurred over 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were peak knee extensor torque using a Biodex System-3 dynamometer and 30 seconds walk test. Results: Significant post-intervention improvementwas found for the peak knee extensor at 150º/second and in the 30 seconds walk test in the studygroup while in the control group significant improvement was recorded in the peak knee extensor at 150º/second only. Also significant difference was recorded post treatment between the two groups in the two evaluation procedures in favor of the study group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that stationary cycling can be used as an effective procedure in improvement of muscle strength and endurance of pediatric burned patient. Key words: Bicycle ergometer, Endurance, Strength, Burned children.

Abdel-Kafy, E. M., H. M. Kamal, and S. A. Elshemy, "Effect of modified constrained induced movement therapy on improving arm function in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, vol. 14, pp. 299–305, 2013. Abstractejmhg126.pdf

Many children who sustain birth injuries to the brachial plexus suffer significant func- tional limitations due to various sequelae affecting the shoulder and elbow or forearm. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a treatment program based on the elements of the modified constraint induced movement therapy (MCIMT) to encourage use of the affected arm of a child with obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). Thirty children with OBPI from both sexes ranging in age from three to five years were assigned into two groups of equal number. The control group (group A) who received the exercise program which focused on improving the arm function as well as shoulder abduction and external rotation and the study group (group B) received MCIMT in addition to the same exercise program given to the control group. The arm function was evaluated by the Mallet score system, while active abduction and external rotation range of motion were mea- sured by a standard universal goniometer. The results revealed no significant difference when com- paring the pretreatment mean values of the two groups (study and control), while a significant improvement was observed in measuring variables of the two groups when comparing their pre and post treatment mean values. A significant difference was also observed when comparing the post treatment results of the two groups in favor of the study group (group B). The modified con- straint movement therapy is an effective method on improving the arm function in children with OBPI.

El-Meniawy, G. H., H. M. Kamal, and S. A. Elshemy, "Role of treadmill training versus suspension therapy on balance in children with Down syndrome", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics , vol. 13, pp. 37–43, 2012. Abstractejmhg53.pdf

Background and purpose: Maintaining balance is a subordinate but necessary require- ment for most human actions. Most Down syndrome (DS) children, who constitute a large portion in our country, continue to evidence deficits in balance, co-ordination, and gait throughout child- hood and adulthood. So, it is essential to seek an ideal physical therapy program to help in solving such a widespread problem. The present study was conducted to compare between the effect of treadmill training and suspension therapy on balance in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Thirty children born with DS from both sexes ranging in age from eight to ten years old were assigned into two groups of equal number. Study group I received treadmill training in addition to a designed exercises therapy program and study group II received suspension therapy in addition to the same exercises program given to the study group I. Stability indices were evaluated via using Biodex instrument system before and after three months of treatment. Results: Theresultsrevealednosignificantdifferencewhencomparingthepre-treatmentmeanvalues of the two groups (study I and study II), while significant improvement was observed in all the
measuringvariablesofthetwogroupswhencomparingtheirpreandposttreatmentmeanvalues.Sig- nificant difference was also observed when comparing the post treatment results of the two groups in favor of the study group II. Conclusion: Suspension therapy for children with DS is an excellent supplement to regularly sched- uled physical therapy intervention for the purpose of improving the degree of stability in those patients.

Thabet, N. S., and H. M. Kamal, "Modulation of Balance and Gait in Children with Down Syndrome via Gravity Force Stimulation Program Training ", Bull. Fac. Ph. Th. Cairo Univ., vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 87-98, 2011. Abstractejmhg53.pdf

Background and purpose: Down Syndrome (DS) is one of genetic disorders characterized by some common clinical and functional features. Most children with Down syndrome have deficits in balance, co-ordination, and gait throughout childhood and adulthood. So, it is essential to seek an ideal physical therapy program to help in solving such widespread problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of twelve- week Gravity Force Stimulation (GFS) program on balance and gait in children with Down syndrome. Subjects: Thirty children with DS from both sexes, ranging in age from eight to ten years represented the sample of this study. They were divided randomly into two groups of equal number A (control) and B (study). Procedures: Evaluation before and after three months of treatment for each child of the two groups was conducted via using Biodex stability system to evaluate balance and using foot print method to evaluate selected gait variables (stride length and step width). Group A received a selected exercise program, while group B received GFS program training in addition to the same exercise program given to group A. Results: The results revealed no significant differences in all the measured variables when comparing the pre-treatment results of the two groups, while significant improvement was observed in the two groups when comparing their pre and post-treatment mean values. Significant difference was also observed when comparing the post-treatment results of the two groups in favor of group B. Discussion and Conclusion: Gravity Force Stimulation program utilization provides sensory feedback and may be used as a therapeutic intervention for improving balance and gait in children with DS. Key words: Down Syndrome, Gravity Force Stimulation, Balance, Gait Parameters.

Kamal, H. M., and M. M.Khalaf, "Efficacy of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Urinary Incontinence in Children with Spina Bifida ", Bull. Fac. Ph. Th. Cairo Univ, vol. 15, issue 2, pp. 133-138, 2010. Abstractefficacy_of_sacral_nerve_stimulation_for_controlling_urinary_incontinence_in_children_with_spina_bifida.pdf

Background: Urinary incontinence is defined as involuntary loss of urine. It is a common problem affecting children and interferes with style of life. Urinary incontinence is one of the complications of spina bifida. Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation on controlling urinary incontinence in children with spina bifida. Intervention: Twenty spina bifida children with urinary incontinence were enrolled in this study, aged between 4 and 8 years. They were divided randomly into two groups. Group (A) which is the control group received medical care and standard urotherapy only. And Group (B) which is the study group received medical care and standard urotherapy in addition to sacral nerve stimulation. The children received 36 sessions over 12 successive weeks. 24-hour pad test was used to obtain the outcome measures for the groups. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in urinary loss before and after treatment for each group, also showed no significant difference between control and study groups after the treatment. Conclusion: It can be concluded that sacral nerve stimulation conducted through transcutaneous electrical nerve roots stimulation with the parameters used in this study has no role in controlling urinary incontinence in children with spina bifida. Key words: Urinary incontinence, Sacral nerve Stimulation, Spina bifida, TENS.