Ground potential rise of faulty substations having equal and unequal spacing grounding grids conductors

Abstract: Grounding of power substations is to provide safety for personnel during normal and fault-to-ground conditions
by limiting step and touch potentials, to dissipate lightning strokes and to stabilise voltage during transient conditions.
One important goal of this study is to present simplified approaches for the earth surface potentials and ground
potential rise (GPR) of substation grounding in case of uniform and non-uniform soils. The equalisation of the current