Priapism as a result of chronic myeloid leukemia: case report, pathology, and review of the literature.

Shaeer, O. K. Z. M., K. Z. M. Shaeer, I. F. S. AbdelRahman, M. S. El-Haddad, and O. M. Selim, "Priapism as a result of chronic myeloid leukemia: case report, pathology, and review of the literature.", The journal of sexual medicine, vol. 12, issue 3, pp. 827-34, 2015 Mar.


INTRODUCTION: Priapism is rare-presenting feature in male patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several hypotheses for pathogenesis have been described. Management has been controversial; some authors described resolution following priapism-specific interventions, and others recommended addition of CML-specific therapy or even CML-specific therapy alone.

AIM: In this report, we describe presentation and management of a man with refractory priapism that was the first presenting manifestation of CML. We also report, for the first time, the pathology sections of the sinusoidal tissue in such cases. Literature is reviewed for similar cases and their outcome.

METHODS: A 21-year-old male patient presented with painful priapism that started 6 days earlier and failed aspiration-irrigation. CBC revealed marked leucocytosis. Oncology care diagnosed CML, and treatment with Imatinib was commenced with prior semen cryopreservation. Following remission, a penile prosthesis was implanted, assisted by optical corporotomy. Sinusoidal tissue biopsy was stained by hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) and CD34.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathology sections of cavernous tissue following CML-induced priapism.

RESULTS: The penile implant survived without complications. H&E examination of the sinusoidal tissue biopsy revealed leukemic infiltration associated with vascular endothelial damage. CD34 staining showed the mixed picture of leukemic infiltrates, intact vascular endothelium with lumena showing leukemic cells, alternating with destroyed vessels, and no vascular lumena and ruminants of endothelial cells.

CONCLUSION: Priapism can be the first manifestation of previously undetected CML. The pathological picture of sinusoidal tissue in such cases is presented. In the case at hand, a complete blood picture was helpful in early diagnosis of CML and early initiation of targeted chemotherapy along with the corporal irrigation/aspiration or shunt surgery. It is therefore recommended to have a CBC examined at presentation of any case of ischemic priapism of unknown etiology, early initiation of CML therapy along with aspiration/irrigation, preferably cryopreserving a semen sample before CML therapy.