Neuroprotective potential of Erigeron bonariensis ethanolic extract against ovariectomized/D-galactose-induced memory impairments in female rats in relation to its metabolite fingerprint as revealed using UPLC/MS.

Citation:
Ibrahim, W. W., R. H. Sayed, M. F. Abdelhameed, E. A. Omara, M. I. Nassar, N. F. Abdelkader, M. A. Farag, A. I. Elshamy, and S. M. Afifi, "Neuroprotective potential of Erigeron bonariensis ethanolic extract against ovariectomized/D-galactose-induced memory impairments in female rats in relation to its metabolite fingerprint as revealed using UPLC/MS.", Inflammopharmacology, vol. 32, issue 2, pp. 1091-1112, 2024.

Abstract:

Erigeron bonariensis is widely distributed throughout the world's tropics and subtropics. In folk medicine, E. bonariensis has historically been used to treat head and brain diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most widespread form of dementia initiated via disturbances in brain function. Herein, the neuroprotective effect of the chemically characterized E. bonariensis ethanolic extract is reported for the first time in an AD animal model. Chemical profiling was conducted using UPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Female rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX) followed by 42 days of D-galactose (D-Gal) administration (150 mg/kg/day, i.p) to induce AD. The OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats received either donepezil (5 mg/kg/day) or E. bonariensis at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, given 1 h prior to D-Gal. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified 42 chemicals, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenes, and nitrogenous constituents. Several metabolites, such as isoschaftoside, casticin, velutin, pantothenic acid, xanthurenic acid, C18-sphingosine, linoleamide, and erucamide, were reported herein for the first time in Erigeron genus. Treatment with E. bonariensis extract mitigated the cognitive decline in the Morris Water Maze test and the histopathological alterations in cortical and hippocampal tissues of OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats. Moreover, E. bonariensis extract mitigated OVX/D-Gal-induced Aβ aggregation, Tau hyperphosphorylation, AChE activity, neuroinflammation (NF-κBp65, TNF-α, IL-1β), and apoptosis (Cytc, BAX). Additionally, E. bonariensis extract ameliorated AD by increasing α7-nAChRs expression, down-regulating GSK-3β and FOXO3a expression, and modulating Jak2/STAT3/NF-ĸB p65 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades. These findings demonstrate the neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects of E. bonariensis extract in the OVX/D-Gal rat model, highlighting its potential as a promising candidate for AD management.

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