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El-Kadi, R. A., N. F. Abdelkader, H. F. Zaki, and A. S. Kamel, "Influence of β-catenin signaling on neurogenesis in neuropsychiatric disorders: Anxiety and depression.", Drug development research, vol. 85, issue 1, pp. e22157, 2024. Abstract

It has been proven that stress, mainly in the early years of life, can lead to anxiety and mood problems. Current treatments for psychiatric disorders are not enough, and some of them show intolerable side effects, emphasizing the urgent need for new treatment targets. Hence, a better understanding of the different brain networks, which are involved in the response to anxiety and depression, may evoke treatments with more specific targets. One of these targets is β-catenin that regulates brain circuits. β-Catenin has a dual response toward stress, which may influence coping or vulnerability to stress response. Indeed, β-catenin signaling involves several processes such as inflammation-directed brain repair, inflammation-induced brain damage, and neurogenesis. Interestingly, β-catenin reduction is accompanied by low neurogenesis, which leads to anxiety and depression. However, in another state, this reduction activates a compensatory mechanism that enhances neurogenesis to protect against depression but may precipitate anxiety. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanism of β-catenin could enhance our knowledge about anxiety and depression's pathophysiology, potentially improving clinical results by targeting it. Herein, the different states of β-catenin were discussed, shedding light on possible drugs that showed action on psychiatric disorders through β-catenin.

Ibrahim, W. W., R. H. Sayed, M. F. Abdelhameed, E. A. Omara, M. I. Nassar, N. F. Abdelkader, M. A. Farag, A. I. Elshamy, and S. M. Afifi, "Neuroprotective potential of Erigeron bonariensis ethanolic extract against ovariectomized/D-galactose-induced memory impairments in female rats in relation to its metabolite fingerprint as revealed using UPLC/MS.", Inflammopharmacology, vol. 32, issue 2, pp. 1091-1112, 2024. Abstract

Erigeron bonariensis is widely distributed throughout the world's tropics and subtropics. In folk medicine, E. bonariensis has historically been used to treat head and brain diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most widespread form of dementia initiated via disturbances in brain function. Herein, the neuroprotective effect of the chemically characterized E. bonariensis ethanolic extract is reported for the first time in an AD animal model. Chemical profiling was conducted using UPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Female rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX) followed by 42 days of D-galactose (D-Gal) administration (150 mg/kg/day, i.p) to induce AD. The OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats received either donepezil (5 mg/kg/day) or E. bonariensis at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, given 1 h prior to D-Gal. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified 42 chemicals, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenes, and nitrogenous constituents. Several metabolites, such as isoschaftoside, casticin, velutin, pantothenic acid, xanthurenic acid, C18-sphingosine, linoleamide, and erucamide, were reported herein for the first time in Erigeron genus. Treatment with E. bonariensis extract mitigated the cognitive decline in the Morris Water Maze test and the histopathological alterations in cortical and hippocampal tissues of OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats. Moreover, E. bonariensis extract mitigated OVX/D-Gal-induced Aβ aggregation, Tau hyperphosphorylation, AChE activity, neuroinflammation (NF-κBp65, TNF-α, IL-1β), and apoptosis (Cytc, BAX). Additionally, E. bonariensis extract ameliorated AD by increasing α7-nAChRs expression, down-regulating GSK-3β and FOXO3a expression, and modulating Jak2/STAT3/NF-ĸB p65 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades. These findings demonstrate the neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects of E. bonariensis extract in the OVX/D-Gal rat model, highlighting its potential as a promising candidate for AD management.

El-Kadi, R. A., N. F. Abdelkader, H. F. Zaki, and A. S. Kamel, "Vilazodone Alleviates Neurogenesis-Induced Anxiety in the Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Female Rat Model: Role of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.", Molecular neurobiology, 2024. Abstract

Defective β-catenin signaling is accompanied with compensatory neurogenesis process that may pave to anxiety. β-Catenin has a distinct role in alleviating anxiety in adolescence; however, it undergoes degradation by the degradation complex Axin and APC. Vilazodone (VZ) is a fast, effective antidepressant with SSRI activity and 5-HT partial agonism that amends somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety. Yet, there is no data about anxiolytic effect of VZ on anxiety-related neurogenesis provoked by stress-reduced β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, females have specific susceptibility toward psychopathology. The aim of the present study is to uncover the molecular mechanism of VZ relative to Wnt/β-catenin signaling in female rats. Stress-induced anxiety was conducted by subjecting the rats to different stressful stimuli for 21 days. On the 15th day, stressed rats were treated with VZ(10 mg/kg, p.o.) alone or concomitant with the Wnt inhibitor: XAV939 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Anxious rats showed low β-catenin level turned over by Axin-1 with unanticipated reduction of APC pursued with elevated protein levels of neurogenesis-stimulating proteins: c-Myc and p-Erk likewise gene expressions of miR-17-5p and miR-18. Two weeks of VZ treatment showed anxiolytic effect figured by alleviation of hippocampal histological examination. VZ protected β-catenin signal via reduction in Axin-1 and elevation of APC conjugated with modulation of β-catenin downstream targets. The cytoplasmic β-catenin turnover by Axin-1 was restored by XAV939. Herein, VZ showed anti-anxiety effect, which may be in part through regaining the balance of the reduced β-catenin and its subsequent exaggerated response of p-Erk, c-Myc, Dicer-1, miR-17-5p, and miR-18.

Atta, A. A., W. W. Ibrahim, A. F. Mohamed, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Microglia polarization in nociplastic pain: mechanisms and perspectives.", Inflammopharmacology, vol. 31, issue 3, pp. 1053-1067, 2023. Abstract

Nociplastic pain is the third classification of pain as described by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), in addition to the neuropathic and nociceptive pain classes. The main pathophysiological mechanism for developing nociplastic pain is central sensitization (CS) in which pain amplification and hypersensitivity occur. Fibromyalgia is the prototypical nociplastic pain disorder, characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Much scientific data suggest that classical activation of microglia in the spinal cord mediates neuroinflammation which plays an essential role in developing CS. In this review article, we discuss the impact of microglia activation and M1/M2 polarization on developing neuroinflammation and nociplastic pain, besides the molecular mechanisms engaged in this process. In addition, we mention the impact of microglial modulators on M1/M2 microglial polarization that offers a novel therapeutic alternative for the management of nociplastic pain disorders. Illustrating the mechanisms underlying microglia activation in central sensitization and nociplastic pain. LPS lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α, INF-γ Interferon gamma, ATP adenosine triphosphate, 49 P2Y12/13R purinergic P2Y 12/13 receptor, P2X4/7R purinergic P2X 4/7 receptor, SP Substance P, NK-1R Neurokinin 1 receptor, CCL2 CC motif ligand 2, CCR2 CC motif ligand 2 receptor, CSF-1 colony-stimulating factor 1, CSF-1R colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, CX3CL1 CX3C motif ligand 1, CX3XR1 CX3C motif ligand 1 receptor, TLR toll-like receptor, MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinases, JNK jun N-terminal kinase, ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinase, iNOS Inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β interleukin-1β, IL-6 interleukin-6, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA γ-Aminobutyric acid, GABAR γ-Aminobutyric acid receptor, NMDAR N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, AMPAR α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropi-onic acid receptor, IL-4 interleukin-4, IL-13 interleukin-13, IL-10 interleukin-10, Arg-1 Arginase 1, FGF fibroblast growth factor, GDNF glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor-1, NGF nerve growth factor, CD Cluster of differentiation.

Abdelghany, T. M., S. A. Hedya, C. D. Santis, S. A. S. El-Rahman, J. H. Gill, N. F. Abdelkader, and M. C. Wright, "Potential for cardiac toxicity with methylimidazolium ionic liquids", Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 249, pp. 114439, 2023.
Atta, A. A., W. W. Ibrahim, A. F. Mohamed, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Targeting α7-nAChR by galantamine mitigates reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like symptoms in rats: Involvement of cAMP/PKA, PI3K/AKT, and M1/M2 microglia polarization.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 952, pp. 175810, 2023. Abstract

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain disorder marked by generalized musculoskeletal pain accompanied by depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Galantamine (Gal) is a positive allosteric modulator of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase. The current study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of Gal against reserpine (Res)-induced FM-like condition along with investigating the α7-nAChR's role in Gal-mediated effects. Rats were injected with Res (1 mg/kg/day; sc) for 3 successive days then Gal (5 mg/kg/day; ip) was given alone and with the α7-nAChR blocker methyllycaconitine (3 mg/kg/day; ip), for the subsequent 5 days. Galantamine alleviated Res-induced histopathological changes and monoamines depletion in rats' spinal cord. It also exerted analgesic effect along with ameliorating Res-induced depression and motor-incoordination as confirmed by behavioral tests. Moreover, Gal produced anti-inflammatory effect through modulating AKT1/AKT2 and shifting M1/M2 macrophage polarization. The neuroprotective effects of Gal were mediated through activating cAMP/PKA and PI3K/AKT pathways in α7-nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, Gal can ameliorate Res-induced FM-like symptoms and mitigate the associated monoamines depletion, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration through α7-nAChR stimulation, with the involvement of cAMP/PKA, PI3K/AKT, and M1/M2 macrophage polarization.

Kamel, A. S., A. Wahid, N. F. Abdelkader, and W. W. Ibrahim, "Boosting amygdaloid GABAergic and neurotrophic machinery via dapagliflozin-enhanced LKB1/AMPK signaling in anxious demented rats.", Life sciences, vol. 310, pp. 121002, 2022. Abstract

Anxiety is a neuropsychiatric disturbance that is commonly manifested in various dementia forms involving Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanisms underlying AD-associated anxiety haven't clearly recognized the role of energy metabolism in anxiety represented by the amygdala's autophagic sensors; liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK). Dapagliflozin (DAPA), a SGLT2 inhibitor, acts as an autophagic activator through LKB1 activation in several diseases including AD. Herein, the propitious yet undetected anxiolytic potential of DAPA as an autophagic enhancer was investigated in AD animal model with emphasis on amygdala's GABAergic neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Alzheimer's disease was induced by ovariectomy (OVX) along with seventy-days-D-galactose (D-Gal) administration (150 mg/kg/day, i.p). On the 43rd day of D-Gal injection, OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats received DAPA (1 mg/kg/day, p.o) alone or with dorsomorphin the AMPK inhibitor (DORSO, 25 μg/rat, i.v.). In the amygdala, LKB1/AMPK were activated by DAPA inducing GABA receptor stimulation; an effect that was abrogated by DORSO. Dapagliflozin also replenished the amygdala GABA, NE, and 5-HT levels along with glutamate suppression. Moreover, DAPA triggered BDNF production with consequent activation of its receptor, TrkB through activating GABA-related downstream phospholipase C/diacylglycerol/protein kinase C (PLC/DAG/PKC) signaling. This may promote GABA expression, verifying the crosstalk between GABA and GABA. The DAPA's anxiolytic effect was visualized by improved behavioral traits in elevated plus maze together with amendment of amygdala' histopathological abnormalities. Thus, the present study highlighted DAPA's anxiolytic effect which was attributed to GABA activation and its function to induce BDNF/TrkB and GABA expression through PLC/DAG/PKC pathway in AMPK-dependent manner.

Ibrahim, W. W., A. S. Kamel, A. Wahid, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Dapagliflozin as an autophagic enhancer via LKB1/AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in ovariectomized/D-galactose Alzheimer's rat model.", Inflammopharmacology, 2022. Abstract

Autophagy and mitochondrial deficits are characteristics of early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have been nominated as a promising class against AD hallmarks. However, there are no available data yet to discuss the impact of gliflozins on autophagic pathways in AD. Peripherally, dapagliflozin's (DAPA) effect is mostly owed to autophagic signals. Thus, the goal of this study is to screen the power of DAPA centrally on LKB1/AMPK/SIRT1/mTOR signaling in the ovariectomized/D-galactose (OVX/D-Gal) rat model. Animals were arbitrarily distributed between 5 groups; the first group undergone sham operation, while remaining groups undergone OVX followed by D-Gal (150 mg/kg/day; i.p.) for 70 days. After 6 weeks, the third, fourth, and fifth groups received DAPA (1 mg/kg/day; p.o.); concomitantly with the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin (DORSO, 25 µg/rat, i.v.) in the fourth group and the SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 (10 µg/rat, i.v.) in the fifth group. DAPA mitigated cognitive deficits of OVX/D-Gal rats, as mirrored in neurobehavioral task with hippocampal histopathological examination and immunohistochemical aggregates of p-Tau. The neuroprotective effect of DAPA was manifested by elevation of energy sensors; AMP/ATP ratio and LKB1/AMPK protein expressions along with autophagic markers; SIRT1, Beclin1, and LC3B expressions. Downstream the latter, DAPA boosted mTOR and mitochondrial function; TFAM, in contrary lessened BACE1. Herein, DORSO or EX-527 co-administration prohibited DAPA's actions where DORSO elucidated DAPA's direct effect on LKB1 while EX-527 mirrored its indirect effect on SIRT1. Therefore, DAPA implied its anti-AD effect, at least in part, via boosting hippocampal LKB1/AMPK/SIRT1/mTOR signaling in OVX/D-Gal rat model.

Abdelkader, N. F., M. A. Elbaset, P. E. Moustafa, and S. M. Ibrahim, "Empagliflozin mitigates type 2 diabetes-associated peripheral neuropathy: a glucose-independent effect through AMPK signaling.", Archives of pharmacal research, vol. 45, issue 7, pp. 475-493, 2022. Abstract

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) represents a severe microvascular condition that dramatically affects diabetic patients despite adequate glycemic control, resulting in high morbidity. Thus, recently, anti-diabetic drugs that possess glucose-independent mechanisms attracted attention. This work aims to explore the potentiality of the selective sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin (EMPA), to ameliorate streptozotocin-induced DPN in rats with insight into its precise signaling mechanism. Rats were allocated into four groups, where control animals received vehicle daily for 2 weeks. In the remaining groups, DPN was elicited by single intraperitoneal injections of freshly prepared streptozotocin and nicotinamide (52.5 and 50 mg/kg, respectively). Then EMPA (3 mg/kg/p.o.) was given to two groups either alone or accompanied with the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin (0.2 mg/kg/i.p.). Despite the non-significant anti-hyperglycemic effect, EMPA improved sciatic nerve histopathological alterations, scoring, myelination, nerve fibers' count, and nerve conduction velocity. Moreover, EMPA alleviated responses to different nociceptive stimuli along with improved motor coordination. EMPA modulated ATP/AMP ratio, upregulated p-AMPK while reducing p-p38 MAPK expression, p-ERK1/2 and consequently p-NF-κB p65 as well as its downstream mediators (TNF-α and IL-1β), besides enhancing SOD activity and lowering MDA content. Moreover, EMPA downregulated mTOR and stimulated ULK1 as well as beclin-1. Likewise, EMPA reduced miR-21 that enhanced RECK, reducing MMP-2 and -9 contents. EMPA's beneficial effects were almost abolished by dorsomorphin administration. In conclusion, EMPA displayed a protective effect against DPN independently from its anti-hyperglycemic effect, probably via modulating the AMPK pathway to modulate oxidative and inflammatory burden, extracellular matrix remodeling, and autophagy.

Kamel, A. S., A. F. Mohamed, M. A. Rabie, M. E. Elsherbiny, K. A. Ahmed, M. M. Khattab, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Experimental Evidence for Diiodohydroxyquinoline-Induced Neurotoxicity: Characterization of Age and Gender as Predisposing Factors.", Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 15, issue 2, 2022. Abstract

Though quinoline anti-infective agents-associated neurotoxicity has been reported in the early 1970s, it only recently received regulatory recognition. In 2019, the European Medicines Agency enforced strict use for quinoline antibiotics. Thus, the current study evaluates the relation between subacute exposure to diiodohydroxyquinoline (DHQ), a commonly misused amebicide, with the development of motor and sensory abnormalities, highlighting age and gender as possible predisposing factors. Eighty rats were randomly assigned to eight groups according to their gender, age, and drug exposure; namely, four control groups received saline (adult male, adult female, young male, and young female), and the other four groups received DHQ. Young and adult rats received DHQ in doses of 176.7 and 247.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 4 weeks, rats were tested for sensory abnormality using analgesiometer, hot plate, and hind paw cold allodynia tests, and for motor function using open field and rotarod tests. Herein, the complex behavioral data were analyzed by principal component analysis to reduce the high number of variables to a lower number of representative factors that extracted components related to sensory, motor, and anxiety-like behavior. Behavioral outcomes were reflected in a histopathological examination of the cerebral cortex, striatum, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve, which revealed degenerative changes as well demyelination. Noteworthy, young female rats were more susceptible to DHQ's toxicity than their counterparts. Taken together, these findings confirm previous safety concerns regarding quinoline-associated neurotoxicity and provide an impetus to review risk/benefit balance for their use.

Abdelkader, N. F., S. M. Ibrahim, P. E. Moustafa, and M. A. Elbaset, "Inosine mitigated diabetic peripheral neuropathy via modulating GLO1/AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB/Nrf2 and TGF-β/PKC/TRPV1 signaling pathways.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 145, pp. 112395, 2022. Abstract

Inosine is a dietary supplement that is widely used for managing numerous central neurological disorders. Interestingly, recent experimental investigation of inosine revealed its potential to promote peripheral neuroprotection after sciatic nerve injury. Such investigation has guided the focus of the current study to expose the potential of inosine in mitigating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in rats and to study the possible underlying signaling pathways. Adult male Wistar rats were arbitrarily distributed into four groups. In the first group, animals received saline daily for 15 days whereas rats of the remaining groups received a single injection of both nicotinamide (50 mg/Kg/i.p.) and streptozotocin (52.5 mg/Kg/i.p.) for DPN induction. Afterward, inosine (10 mg/Kg/p.o.) was administered to two groups, either alone or in combination with caffeine (3.75 mg/Kg/p.o.), an adenosine receptor antagonist. As a result, inosine showed a hypoglycemic effect, restored the sciatic nerve histological structure, enhanced myelination, modulated conduction velocities and maintained behavioral responses. Furthermore, inosine increased GLO1, reduced AGE/RAGE axis and oxidative stress which in turn, downregulated NF-κB p65 and its phosphorylated form in the sciatic nerves. Inosine enhanced Nrf2 expression and its downstream molecule HO-1, resulting in increased CAT and SOD along with lowered MDA. Moreover, pain was relieved due to suppression of PKC and TRPV1 expression, which ultimately lead to reduced SP and TGF-β. The potential effects of inosine were nearly blocked by caffeine administration; this emphasizes the role of adenosine receptors in inosine-mediated neuroprotective effects. In conclusion, inosine alleviated hyperglycemia-induced DPN via modulating GLO1/AGE/RAGE/NF-κB p65/Nrf2 and TGF-β/PKC/TRPV1/SP pathways.

Abdelkader, N. F., A. I. El-Batal, Y. M. Amin, A. M. Hawas, S. H. M. Hassan, and N. I. Eid, "Neuroprotective Effect of Gold Nanoparticles and Alpha-Lipoic Acid Mixture against Radiation-Induced Brain Damage in Rats", INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 23, pp. 9640, 2022.
Ammar, R. A., A. F. Mohamed, M. M. Kamal, M. M. Safar, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Neuroprotective effect of liraglutide in an experimental mouse model of multiple sclerosis: role of AMPK/SIRT1 signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome.", Inflammopharmacology, vol. 30, issue 3, pp. 919-934, 2022. Abstract

The heterogeneous nature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the unavailability of treatments addressing its intricate network and reversing the disease state is yet an area that needs to be elucidated. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, recently exhibited intriguing potential neuroprotective effects. The currents study investigated its potential effect against mouse model of MS and the possible underlying mechanisms. Demyelination was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by cuprizone (400 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 5 weeks. Animals received either liraglutide (25 nmol/kg/day i.p.) or dorsomorphin, an AMPK inhibitor, (2.5 mg/Kg i.p.) 30 min before the liraglutide dose, for 4 weeks (starting from the second week). Liraglutide improved the behavioral profile in cuprizone-treated mice. Furthermore, it induced the re-myelination process through stimulating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiation via Olig2 transcription activation, reflected by increased myelin basic protein and myelinated nerve fiber percentage. Liraglutide elevated the protein content of p-AMPK and SIRT1, in addition to the autophagy proteins Beclin-1 and LC3B. Liraglutide halted cellular damage as manifested by reduced HMGB1 protein and consequently TLR-4 downregulation, coupled with a decrease in NF-κB. Liraglutide also suppressed NLRP3 transcription. Dorsomorphin pre-administration indicated a possible interplay between AMPK/SIRT1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation as it partially reversed liraglutide's effects. Immunohistochemical examination of Iba microglia emphasized these findings. In conclusion, liraglutide exerts neuroprotection against cuprizone-induced demyelination via anti-inflammatory, autophagic flux activation, NLRP3 inflammasome suppression, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, possibly mediated, at least in part, via AMPK/SIRT1, autophagy, TLR-4/ NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling. The potential mechanistic insight of Lira in alleviating Cup-induced neurotoxicity via: (1) AMPK/SIRT1 pathways activation resulting in the stimulation of brain autophagy flux (confirmed by lowering Beclin-1 and LC3-B protein expression). (2) Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as evidenced by reduced HMGB1, TLR-4, NF-κB and NLRP3 protein expression, alongside diminishing the activation of its downstream cascade as reflected by reduced levels of caspase-1 and IL-1β protein expression. (3) A possible modulating interplay between the previously mentioned two pathways.

Abdelkader, N. F., and P. E. Moustafa, "Rhizomatous Plants: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale in Affording Immunity", Plants and Phytomolecules for Immunomodulation : Springer Singapore, 2022.
Abdulwahab, D. K., W. W. Ibrahim, R. A. A. El-Aal, H. A. Abdel-Latif, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Grape Seed Extract Improved the Fertility-Enhancing Effect of Atorvastatin in High Fat Diet-Induced Testicular Injury in Rats: Involvement of Anti-oxidant and Anti-Apoptotic Effects", Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 73, pp. 366-376, 2021.
Saad, M. A., M. A. E. Ahmed, N. N. Elbadawy, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Nano-ivabradine averts behavioral anomalies in Huntington's disease rat model via modulating Rhes/m-tor pathway.", Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, vol. 111, pp. 110368, 2021. Abstract

Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by abnormal involuntary movements together with cognitive impairment and disrupted mood changes. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is one of the chemo-toxic models used to address the striatal neurotoxicity pattern encountered in HD. This study aims to explain the neuroprotective effect of nano-formulated ivabradine (nano IVA) in enhancing behavioral changes related to 3-NP model and to identify the involvement of ras homolog enriched striatum (Rhes)/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-Tor) mediated autophagy pathway. Rats were divided into 6 groups, the first 3 groups received saline (control), ivabradine (IVA), nano IVA respectively, the fourth received a daily dose of 3-NP (20 mg/kg, s.c) for 2 weeks, the fifth received 3-NP + IVA (1 mg/kg, into the tail vein, every other day for 1 week) and the last group received 3-NP + nano IVA (1 mg/kg, i.v, every other day for 1 week). Interestingly, nano IVA reversed motor disabilities, improved memory function and overcame the psychiatric changes. It boosted expression of autophagy markers combined with down regulation of Rhes, m-Tor and b-cell lymphoma 2 protein levels. Also, it restored the normal level of neurotransmitters and myocardial function related-proteins. Histopathological examination revealed a preserved striatal structure with decreased number of darkly-degenerated neurons. In conclusion, the outcomes of this study provide a well-recognized clue for the promising neuroprotective effect of IVA and the implication of autophagy and Rhes/m-Tor pathways in the 3-NP induced HD and highlight the fact that nano formulations of IVA would be an auspicious approach in HD therapy.

Safar, M. M., N. F. Abdelkader, E. Ramadan, M. A. Kortam, and A. F. Mohamed, "Novel mechanistic insights towards the repositioning of alogliptin in Parkinson's disease.", Life sciences, vol. 287, pp. 120132, 2021. Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that impairs people's lives tremendously. The development of innovative treatment modalities for PD is a significant unmet medical need. The critical function of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in neurodegenerative diseases has raised impetus in investigating the repositioning of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin (ALO), as an effective treatment for PD. As a result, the focus of this research was to assess the effect of ALO in a rat rotenone (ROT) model of PD. For 21 days, ROT (1.5 mg/kg) was delivered subcutaneously every other day. ALO (30 mg/kg/day), delivered by gavage for 21 days, recovered motor performance and improved motor coordination in the open-field and rotarod testing. These impacts were highlighted by restoring striatal dopamine content and correcting histological changes that occurred concurrently. The ALO molecular signaling was determined by increasing the quantity of GLP-1 and the protein expression of its downstream signaling pathway, pT172-AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α. Furthermore, it curbed neuroinflammation via hampering HMGB1/TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and conquered striatal microglia activation. Pre-administration of dorsomorphin reversed the neuroprotective effects. In conclusion, the promising neuroprotective effect of ALO highlights the repositioning of ALO as a prospective revolutionary candidate for combating PD.

Ibrahim, W. W., H. M. Ismail, M. M. Khattab, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Cognitive enhancing effect of diapocynin in D-galactose-ovariectomy-induced Alzheimer's-like disease in rats: Role of ERK, GSK-3β, and JNK signaling", Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 398, pp. 115028, 2020.
Abdelkader, N. F., M. Elyamany, A. M. Gad, N. A. G. L. A. A. ASSAF, H. M. Fawzy, and W. H. Elesawy, "Ellagic acid attenuates liver toxicity induced by valproic acid in rats", Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 2020.
Abdelkader, N. F., H. E. Eitah, Y. A. Maklad, A. A. Gamaleldin, M. A. Badawi, and S. A. Kenawy, "New combination therapy of gliclazide and quercetin for protection against STZ-induced diabetic rats.", Life sciences , vol. 247, pp. 117458, 2020.
Abdelkader, N. F., H. A. Farid, E. R. Youness, O. M. E. Abdel-Salam, and H. F. Zaki, "The role of KATP channel blockade and activation in the protection against neurodegeneration in the rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease", Life Sciences , vol. 257, pp. 118070, 2020.
Safar, M. M., N. N. Shahin, A. F. Mohamed, and N. F. Abdelkader, "Suppression of BACE1 and amyloidogenic/RAGE axis by sitagliptin ameliorates PTZ kindling-induced cognitive deficits in rats", Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 328, pp. 109144, 2020. Abstract

A double-blind study with intra-individual comparisons was carried out to investigate the effects of 15 mg of (8r)-3alpha-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-1alphaH-tropanium bromide(+/-)-tropate (Sch 1000), 15 mg Sch 1000 + 10 mg oxazepam, 10 mg oxazepam and placebo with oral administration in randomized sequence on gastric juice volume, amount of acid, concentration and pH values in 12 healthy volunteers. The secretion parameters were measured during a 1-h basal period and a 2-h stimulation period. The gastric juice was obtained in 15 min portions via stomach tube. Stimulation was effected by 1 mug/kg/h pentagastrin via drip infusion. The Friedman test was used for the comparative statistical evaluation, and individual comparisons were carried out by means of the Wilcoxon test (pair-differences rank). The results show that Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were equal in effect on basal and stimulated secretion volume. As compared with placebo, it was not possible to establish an effect on secretion volume for oxazepam alone. Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were found to be equipotent in reducing the amount of basal acid, while oxazepam reduced this quantity only during the first 30 min of basal secretion. None of the three active preparations was capable of inhibiting the stimulated acid, although both Sch 1000 preparations produced a clear trend towards lowered mean values. During the basal secretion period, all three test preparations had an inhibiting action on acid concentration, but none of them had a significant effect during the stimulation period. The pH value was savely increased only by Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam, and this even only during the basal period. The results are discussed.

Abdelkader, N. F., A. M. abd El-latif, and M. M. Khattab, "Telmisartan/17β-estradiol mitigated cognitive deficit in an ovariectomized rat model of Alzheimer's disease: Modulation of ACE1/ACE2 and AT1/AT2 ratio.", Life sciences , vol. 245, pp. 117388, 2020.
Leitch, A. C., T. M. Abdelghany, P. M. Probert, M. P. Dunn, S. K. Meyer, J. M. Palmer, M. P. Cooke, L. I. Blake, K. Morse, A. K. Rosenmai, et al., "The toxicity of the methylimidazolium ionic liquids, with a focus on M8OI and hepatic effects.", Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, vol. 136, pp. 111069, 2020. Abstract

Ionic liquids are a diverse range of charged chemicals with low volatility and often liquids at ambient temperatures. This characteristic has in part lead to them being considered environmentally-friendly replacements for existing volatile solvents. However, methylimidazolium ionic liquids are slow to break down in the environment and a recent study at Newcastle detected 1 octyl 3 methylimidazolium (M8OI) - an 8 carbon variant methylimidazolium ionic liquid - in soils in close proximity to a landfill site. The current M8OI toxicity database in cultured mammalian cells, in experimental animal studies and in model indicators of environmental impact are reviewed. Selected analytical data from the Newcastle study suggest the soils in close proximity to the landfill site, an urban soil lacking overt contamination, had variable levels of M8OI. The potential for M8OI - or a structurally related ionic liquid - to trigger primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), an autoimmune liver disease thought to be triggered by an unknown agent(s) in the environment, is reviewed.

Abdelkader, N., "Urso- and tauroursodeoxycholic acids as anti-apoptotic agents: Modulation of Parkinson's disease.", The Neuroscience of Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Management in Parkinson's Disease : Academic Press, 2020.