Seoudi, N., "The management of sharps injuries in a dental healthcare setting", British Dental Conference, Manchester, UK, 27 May 2016.
Pankhurst, C., R. Rautemaa-Richardson, N. Seoudi, A. Smith, and M. Wilson, "Antimicrobial resistance: Antibiotics and consultant oral microbiologist posts.", British dental journal, vol. 220, issue 1, pp. 2-3, 2016 Jan 15.
Seoudi, N., N. Hojjat, C. Wilkinson, W. Turner, and J. Buchanan, "Antimicrobial prescribing patterns in secondary dental care ", Federation of Infection Societies, Glasgow, UK, 21 November 2015.
Senusi, A., N. Seoudi, L. A. Bergmeier, and F. Fortune, "Genital ulcer severity score and genital health quality of life in Behçet's disease.", Orphanet journal of rare diseases, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 117, 2015. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Behçet's Disease (BD) is a chronic auto-inflammatory, multisystem relapsing/remitting disorder of unknown aetiology. Oro-genital ulceration is a key feature of the disease and has a major impact on the patients' quality of life. Other clinical manifestations include ocular inflammation, rheumatologic and skin involvement, while CNS and vascular complications can lead to considerable morbidity. The availability of a valid monitoring tool for BD activity is crucial in evaluating the impact of the disease on daily life activity. The aims of this study were to validate a novel tool for monitoring genital ulceration severity in BD and to assess the impact of genital ulcers on the Genital Health Quality of Life (GHQoL).

METHODS: Genital Ulcer Severity Score (GUSS) was developed using six genital ulcer characteristics: number, size, duration, ulcer-free period, pain and site. A total of 207 BD patients were examined, (137 females: mean age ± SD: 39.83 ± 13.42 and 70 males: mean age ± SD: 39.98 ± 11.95) from the multidisciplinary Behçet's Centre of Excellence at Barts Health NHS Trust. GUSS was used in conjunction with Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF).

RESULTS: The over-all score of GUSS showed a strong correlation with all genital ulcer characteristics, and the strongest correlation was with the pain domain (r = 0.936; P < 0.0001). Ulcer average size and ulcer pain were the major predicting factors in GUSS (β = 0.284; β = 0.275) respectively, and P-values were significant. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the ulcer pain, size and site are the main ulcer characteristics having an influence on the GHQoL (R(2): 0.600; P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: This study established the practicality of GUSS as a severity monitoring tool for BD genital ulcers and validated its use in 207 patients. Genital ulcers of BD have a considerable impact on the patients GHQoL.

Seoudi, N., Oral Health Status of Behcet's Syndrome Patients in the UK, , London, Queen Mary University of London, 2013.
Wali, M., A. E. El-Arab, and N. Seoudi, "A Novel Effect Of Emdogain On Epithelial Proliferation.", Egyptian Dental Journal, vol. 47, pp. 691-705, 2001.
Seoudi, N., L. A. Bergmeier, E. Hagi-Pavli, D. Bibby, and F. Fortune, "The seroprevalence and salivary shedding of herpesviruses in Behçet's syndrome and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.", Journal of oral microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 27156, 2015. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Behçet's syndrome (BS) is one of the multisystemic diseases that presents with oral ulceration and several other systemic manifestations including genital ulceration, folliculitis, erythema nodosum-like lesions, uveitis, and arthropathy. Ocular manifestation, central nervous system involvement, and gastrointestinal manifestation account for most of the complications of this disease, whereas orogenital ulceration and dermatological involvement affects the quality of life. The cause of the disease is not fully elucidated; however, herpesviruses have long been thought to play a pivotal role in the disease pathogenesis.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence and salivary shedding of herpesviruses in BS.

METHOD: The levels of specific immunoglobulin G in six different herpesviruses in serum samples collected from 54 BS, 28 healthy controls (HC), and 7 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients were investigated. Salivary viral load was also quantified for these viruses in matched saliva samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: The BS had lower cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG level in comparison to HC (p=0.0226) and RAS (p=0.0450). There was statistically significant higher salivary shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in BS in comparison to HC (p=0.0052), but not RAS (p=0.3318).

CONCLUSIONS: A high EBV shedding was observed in both BS and RAS and a lower level of CMV IgG was observed in BS only. The reason for the observed lower level of CMV IgG in BS is not clear. However, one explanation might be a defect in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immune responses which was suggested by a previously described defect in the toll-like receptor 1 and 2 heterodimer formation and function, this being the initial receptor sensing of CMV.

Seoudi, N., L. A. Bergmeier, F. Drobniewski, B. Paster, and F. Fortune, "The oral mucosal and salivary microbial community of Behçet's syndrome and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.", Journal of oral microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 27150, 2015. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a multisystem immune-related disease of unknown etiology. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is characterized by the presence of idiopathic oral ulceration without extraoral manifestation. The interplay between the oral microbial communities and the immune response could play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of both BS and RAS.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the salivary and oral mucosal microbial communities in BS and RAS.

METHODS: Purified microbial DNA isolated from saliva samples (54 BS, 25 healthy controls [HC], and 8 RAS) were examined by the human oral microbe identification microarray. Cultivable salivary and oral mucosal microbial communities from ulcer and non-ulcer sites were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. Mycobacterium spp. were detected in saliva and in ulcer and non-ulcer oral mucosal brush biopsies following culture on Lowenstein-Jensen slopes and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes.

RESULTS: There was increased colonization with Rothia denticariosa of the non-ulcer sites of BS and RAS patients (p<0.05). Ulcer sites in BS were highly colonized with Streptococcus salivarius compared to those of RAS (p<0.05), and with Streptococcus sanguinis compared to HC (p<0.0001). Oral mucosa of HC were more highly colonized with Neisseria and Veillonella compared to all studied groups (p<0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the uncertainty whether the reported differences in the oral mucosal microbial community of BS and RAS are of causative or reactive nature, it is envisaged that restoring the balance of the oral microbial community of the ulcer sites may be used in the future as a new treatment modality for oral ulceration.

Vartoukian, S. R., W. M. Tilakaratne, N. Seoudi, M. Bombardieri, L. Bergmeier, A. R. Tappuni, and F. Fortune, "Dysregulation of the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 pathway in the aetiopathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome.", Clinical and experimental immunology, vol. 177, issue 3, pp. 618-29, 2014 Sep. Abstract

The suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)/interleukin (IL)-17 pathway. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 is over-expressed in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and is a key factor in its pathogenesis. We hypothesized that IL-17 over-expression in SS results from ineffective regulation by SOCS3. The expression of SOCS3 was analysed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SS cases, sicca controls (SC) and healthy controls (HC) and tissue samples from SS, SC and healthy salivary glands (HSG). PBMC and salivary gland tissue from SS and controls were dual-immunostained for SOCS3 and IL-17. IL-6-stimulated PBMC from SS and controls were evaluated for time-dependent STAT-3 activation and SOCS3 induction, and for IL-17 expression. Immunoblotting revealed greater levels of SOCS3 in PBMC from SS than SC (P = 0·017) or HC (P < 0·001). Similarly, the proportion of salivary-gland tissue cells staining for SOCS3 was significantly higher in SS than SC (P = 0·029) or HSG (P = 0·021). The cells in PBMC/salivary gland samples from controls predominantly expressed either SOCS3 or IL-17. However, there was a high frequency of SOCS3/IL-17 co-expression within cells of SS samples. IL-6-stimulation of PBMC from SS cases revealed prolonged activation of STAT-3 with reduced negative regulation by SOCS3, and enhanced expression of IL-17. This study showed that SOCS3 expression is up-regulated in SS. However, the absence in SS of the normal inverse relationship between SOCS3 and pSTAT-3/IL-17 indicates a functional disturbance in this signalling cascade. Consequently, a reduction in function, rather than a reduction in expression of SOCS3 accounts for the unregulated expression of IL-17 in SS, and may play a crucial role in aetiopathogenesis.