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Talaat, N. B., and B. T. Shawky, "24-Epibrassinolide alleviates salt-induced inhibition of productivity by increasing nutrients and compatible solutes accumulation and enhancing antioxidant system in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)", Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, vol. 35, issue 3, pp. 729-740, 2013. Abstract

Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Sids 1 and Giza 168, were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (4.7 and 9.4 dS m-1) and were sprayed with 0.00, 0.05 and 0.10 mg l-1 24-epibrassinolide (EBL). Salt stress markedly decreased plant productivity and N, P, and K uptake, particularly in Giza 168. A follow-up treatment with 0.1 mg l-1 EBL detoxified the stress generated by salinity and considerably improved the above parameters, especially in Sids 1. Organic solutes (soluble sugars, free amino acids, proline and glycinebetaine), antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase), antioxidant molecules (glutathione and ascorbate) and Ca and Mg levels were increased under saline condition, and these increases proved to be more significant in salt-stressed plants sprayed with EBL, par- ticularly at 0.1 mg l-1 EBL with Sids 1. Sodium concen- tration, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content and electrolyte leakage were increased under salt stress and significantly decreased when 0.1 mg l-1 EBL was sprayed. Clearly, EBL alleviates salt-induced inhibition of pro- ductivity by altering the physiological and biochemical properties of the plant.

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Todorova, D., N. B. Talaat, Z. Katerova, V. Alexieva, and B. T. Shawky, 35. Polyamines and brassinosteroids in drought stress responses and tolerance in plants, : Wily Online Library , 2016. AbstractWebsite

This review highlights the recent advances concerning the role of polyamines and brassinosteroids in stress tolerance of plants with a special accent on drought. Alterations of the endogenous polyamine and brassinosteroid levels and their function in alleviation of drought stress are discussed. Possibilities for application of exogenous polyamines and brassinosteroids to lessen the stress injuries and to increase drought tolerance are also summarized. Genetic and molecular approaches for improving plant tolerance to drought via modification of polyamine levels and involvement of brassinosteroids in signal transduction pathways under stress are presented. Interaction of polyamines and brassinosteroids with phytohormones and osmolytes under drought stress is reviewed. We describe also the recent investigations in Bulgaria and Egypt concerning the modulation of plant reactions to drought stress by application of polyamines and brassinosteroids.

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Talaat, N. B., "Abiotic Stresses-Induced Physiological Alteration in Wheat", Wheat Production in Changing Environments.Responses, Adaptation and Tolerance: Springer, 2019.
Talaat, N. B., B. T. Shawky, and A. S. Ibrahim, "Alleviation of drought-induced oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays L.) plants by dual application of 24-epibrassinolide and spermine", Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol. 113, pp. 47 - 58, 2015. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Dual application [24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and spermine (Spm)] influence on the antioxidant machinery in water-stressed plants has received no attention. The present study, as a first investigation, was conducted with an aim to investigate the effects of EBL, Spm and their dual application on the \{ROS\} scavenging antioxidant defense machinery in plants subjected to drought conditions. This approach was assessed as possible mechanisms of drought tolerance and how these applications protect plants against oxidative stress. To achieve this goal, two maize hybrids (Giza 10 and Giza 129) were subjected to well-watered conditions and water-stressed conditions (75% and 50% of field capacity) with and without \{EBL\} and/or Spm foliar application. The grains were sown in plastic pots containing clay-loam (sand 37%, silt 28%, clay 35%) soil (Inceptisols; FAO), under greenhouse condition. Water deficiency significantly reduced growth, productivity, and membrane stability index, particularly in hybrid Giza 10. However, the follow-up treatment with the dual application (25 mg l?1 Spm + 0.1 mg l?1 EBL) detoxified the stress generated by drought and significantly improved the above parameters, particularly in hybrid Giza 129. Drought stress significantly increased \{H2O2\} and \{O2\} ? contents and caused oxidative stress to lipids assessed by the increase in \{MDA\} content. However, they were significantly decreased in stressed plants treated with the dual application. Moreover, dual application alleviated the detrimental effects of drought on the electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase and levels of ascorbate, glutathione, proline, and glycinebetaine were increased in response to drought treatments as well as foliar applications. Dual application significantly alleviated drought-induced inhibition in the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase as well as in the ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. Overall, dual application improved the plant drought tolerance and decreased the accumulation of \{ROS\} by enhancing their scavenging through elevation of antioxidant enzymes activity and improving the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione.

Talaat, N. B., and D. Todorova, "Antioxidant Machinery and Glyoxalase System Regulation Confers Salt Stress Tolerance to Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Plants Treated with Melatonin and Salicylic Acid", Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 3527–3540, 2022.
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Talaat, N. B., "Co-application of Melatonin and Salicylic Acid Counteracts Salt Stress-Induced Damage in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Photosynthetic Machinery", Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , vol. 21, pp. 2893–2906, 2021.
Talaat, N. B., A. W. M. Mahmoud, and A. M. A. Hanafy, "Co‑application of salicylic acid and spermine alleviates salt stress toxicity in wheat: growth, nutrient acquisition, osmolytes accumulation, and antioxidant response", Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, vol. 45, issue 1, pp. 1-15, 2023.
D
Talaat, N. B., and B. T. Shawky, "Dual Application of 24-Epibrassinolide and Spermine Confers Drought Stress Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.) by Modulating Polyamine and Protein Metabolism", Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 518–533, 2016. AbstractWebsite

No information is available concerning the influence of dual application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and spermine (Spm) on the nitrogen metabolism in plants subjected to drought conditions. As a first report, this investigation assesses the role of EBL, Spm, and their dual application on polyamine and protein pools in water-stressed plants. It explores the ameliorative effects of these foliar applications under water deficiency. Two maize hybrids (Giza 10 and Giza 129) were treated with or without EBL and/or Spm foliar applications under well-irrigated and drought-stressed conditions (75 and 50 {%} of field capacity). Dual application (25 mg l−1 Spm + 0.1 mg l−1 EBL) significantly relieved the drought-induced inhibition on the activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and nitrate reductase and the contents of relative water, nitrate, and protein, particularly in hybrid Giza 129. Changes in the content of free polyamines and in the activity of polyamine biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes were detected when water-stressed plants were treated with EBL and/or Spm. Putrescine content and arginine decarboxylase activity were significantly increased in stressed hybrid Giza 10 plants treated by the dual application. However, spermidine and Spm levels as well as ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activities were significantly increased in stressed hybrid Giza 129 plants treated with the dual application. Diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase, protease activity, carbonyl content, and ethylene formation were increased in response to water stress and significantly decreased when stressed plants were treated by the dual application. Total free amino acids, phenols, and flavonoids concentration were increased with the increasing water stress level; moreover, they further increased in stressed plants treated with the dual application. Overall, the combined utilization of EBL and Spm serves as complementary tools to confer plant drought tolerance by altering polyamine, ethylene, and protein levels.

E
Talaat, N. B., "Effective microorganisms enhance the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in salty soils.", Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Société française de physiologie végétale, vol. 80, pp. 136-43, 2014 Jul. Abstract

No information is available regarding effective microorganisms (EM) influence on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under saline conditions. Therefore, as a first approach, this article focuses on the contribution of EM to the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in salt-stressed plants. It investigates some mechanisms underlying alleviation of salt toxicity by EM application. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Nebraska plants were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (2.5 and 5.0 dSm(-1)) with and without EM application. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content were significantly increased in response to salinity, while they decreased with EM application in both stressed and non-stressed plants. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) increased under saline conditions; these increases were more significant in salt-stressed plants treated by EM. Activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.1) decreased in response to salinity; however, they were significantly increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased with the increasing salt concentration; moreover they further increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG decreased under saline conditions, whereas they were significantly increased with EM treatment in the presence or in the absence of soil salinization. The EM treatment detoxified the stress generated by salinity and significantly improved plant growth and productivity. Enhancing the H2O2-scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in EM-treated plants may be an efficient mechanism to attenuate the activation of plant defences.

Talaat, N. B., "Effective microorganisms modify protein and polyamine pools in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown under saline conditions", Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 190, pp. 1 - 10, 2015. AbstractWebsite

Abstract No information is available regarding the influence of effective microorganisms (EM) on protein synthesis and polyamine balance in plants grown under saline conditions. Thus, as a first approach, this study sheds light on some different mechanisms that may protect EM-treated plants against salt excess. The response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Nebraska to soil salinization [0.1 dS m?1 (non-saline), 2.5 and 5.0 dS m?1] and/or \{EM\} application was investigated. Plants grown in saline soils exhibited a significant decline in productivity, membrane stability index, nitrate reductase activity, nitrate and protein content, K+ concentration, and K+/Na+ ratio. However, \{EM\} application ameliorated the deleterious effects of salinity and significantly improved the above parameters. Soil salinity induced oxidative damage through increased lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide content. \{EM\} application significantly reduced the oxidative damage. Polyamines responded to salinity stress by increasing its content, particularly putrescine level. The \{EM\} treatment changed the polyamine balance under saline conditions, a high increase in spermidine and spermine levels was observed. Moreover, \{EM\} application significantly reduced the activities of diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase in salt-stressed plants. Both the modulation of polyamine pool and the regulation of protein synthesis can be one of the most important mechanisms used by EM-treated plants to improve plant adaptation to saline soils.

Shawky, B. T., N. B. Talaat, and S. Mohapatra, "Enzymes in Fuel Biotechnology", Bioprospecting of Enzymes in Industry, Healthcare and Sustainable Environment: Springer, 2021.
Talaat, N. B., "Exploring Halotolerant Rhizomicrobes as a Pool of Potent Genes for Engineering Salt Stress Tolerance in Crops", Salinity Responses and Tolerance in Plants, Volume 2: Exploring RNAi, Genome Editing and Systems Biology, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2018. Abstract

Soil salinization is a constant threat to crop productivity and ecology worldwide. The conventional approach, breeding salt-tolerant plant cultivars, has often failed to efficiently alleviate this devastating environmental stress factor. In contrast, the use of a diverse array of microorganisms harbored by plants has attracted increasing attention because of the remarkable beneficial effects of them on plants. Among these microorganisms, halophilic and halotolerant rhizomicrobes is one of the most important extremophilic microorganisms. They can be found in saline or hypersaline ecosystems and have developed different adaptations to survive in salty environments. Their proteins and encoding genes are magnificently engineered to function in a milieu containing 2–5 M salt and represent a valuable repository and resource for reconstruction and visualizing processes of habitat selection and adaptive evolution. Indeed, the natural occurrence of these microorganisms in saline soils opens up a possible important role of them in increasing the salt tolerance in crops. They are capable of eliciting physical, chemical, and molecular changes in plants which enhanced their tolerance and promoted their growth, and thus they can refine agricultural practices and production under saline conditions. Likewise, their ability to serve as bioinoculants could be a more ready utilizable and sustainable solution to ameliorate the deleterious salt effects on plants. However, the ecology of their interactions with plants is still under investigation and not fully understood. This chapter aims to introduce the halotolerant rhizomicrobes and shed light on their special mechanisms to adapt to salinity conditions. A special section would be dedicated for their potential to be exploited in engineering salt tolerance in crops.

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Talaat, N. B., M. R. A. Nesiem, E. G. Gadalla, and S. F. Ali, "Gibberellic Acid and Salicylic Acid Dual Application Improves Date Palm Fruit Growth by Regulating the Nutrient Acquisition, Amino Acid Profle, and Phytohormone Performance", Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 2023.
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Talaat, N. B., M. M. Rady, M. T. Abdelhamid, B. T. Shawky, and E. - S. M. Desoky, "Maize (Zea mays L.) grains extract mitigates the deleterious effects of salt stress on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth and physiology", The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, vol. 94, issue 6, pp. 777–789, 2019.
Talaat, N. B., and B. T. Shawky, "Microbe-Mediated Induced Abiotic Stress Tolerance Responses in Plants", Plant-Microbe Interactions in Agro-Ecological Perspectives, Singapore, Springer, 2017.
Talaat, N. B., and B. T. Shawky, "Modulation of nutrient acquisition and polyamine pool in salt-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.", Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, vol. 35, pp. 2601-2610, 2013. Abstract

Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Sids 1 and Giza 168, were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (4.7 and 9.4 dS m-1) with and without arbus- cular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation. Salt stress considerably decreased root colonization, plant productiv- ity and N, P, K?, Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations, while it increased Na? level, particularly in Giza 168. Mycorrhizal colonization significantly enhanced plant productivity and N, P, K?, Fe, Zn and Cu acquisition, while it diminished Na? uptake, especially in Sids 1. Salinity increased putrescine level in Giza 168, however, values of spermi- dine and spermine increased in Sids 1 and decreased in Giza 168. Mycorrhization changed the polyamine balance under saline conditions, an increase in putrescine level associated with low contents of spermidine and spermine in Giza 168 was observed, while Sids 1 showed a decrease in putrescine and high increase in spermidine and spermine. Moreover, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly reduced the activities of diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase in salt-stressed wheat plants. Modulation of nutrient acquisi- tion and polyamine pool can be one of the mechanisms used by AMF to improve wheat adaptation to saline soils. This is the first report dealing with mycorrhization effect
on diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase activities under salt stress.

Shopova, E., Z. Katerova, L. Brankova, L. Dimitrova, I. Sergiev, D. Todorova, and N. B. Talaat, "Modulation of Physiological Stress Response of Triticum aestivum L. to Glyphosate by Brassinosteroid Application", Life, vol. 11, issue 11, pp. 1156, 2021.
Talaat, N. B., and B. T. Shawky, "Modulation of the ROS-scavenging system in salt-stressed wheat plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi", Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, vol. 177, no. 2: WILEY-VCH Verlag, pp. 199–207, 2014. AbstractWebsite

Although there is evidence for a positive involvement of the antioxidant defense system in plant response to salt stress, there is poor information regarding the influence of mycorrhizal symbiosis on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense in wheat under saline conditions. The present article focuses on the contribution of mycorrhizae to antioxidant defense in salt-stressed wheat plants. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Sids 1 and Giza 168, were grown under nonsaline or two saline conditions (4.7 and 9.4 dS m–1) with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation. Salt stress considerably decreased root colonization and plant productivity, particularly in Giza 168. Interestingly, mycorrhizal colonization alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress and significantly enhanced plant productivity, especially in Sids 1. The concentration of glycinebetaine, the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) and the concentrations of antioxidant molecules (glutathione and ascorbate) were increased under saline conditions; these increases were more significant in salt-stressed mycorrhizal plants, especially in Sids 1. Salt stress induced oxidative damage through increased lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, particularly in Giza 168. Mycorrhizal colonization altered plant physiology and significantly reduced oxidative damage. Elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be one of the mechanisms how AMF improve wheat adaptation to saline soils and increase its productivity.

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Talaat, N. B., A. A. Mostafa, and S. A. N. El‑Rahman, "A Novel Plant Growth–Promoting Agent Mitigates Salt Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Activating Photosynthetic, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxifcation Machineries", Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 308–324, 2023.