Mutations in Are a Novel Cause of Galloway-Mowat Syndrome.

Mutations in Are a Novel Cause of Galloway-Mowat Syndrome., Mann, Nina, Mzoughi Slim, Schneider Ronen, Kühl Susanne J., Schanze Denny, Klämbt Verena, Lovric Svjetlana, Mao Youying, Shi Shasha, Tan Weizhen, et al. , Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, Volume 32, Issue 3, p.580-596, (2021)


BACKGROUND: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects and a progressive nephropathy, which typically manifests as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The prognosis of GAMOS is poor, and the majority of children progress to renal failure. The discovery of monogenic causes of GAMOS has uncovered molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease.

METHODS: Homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and linkage analysis were used to identify mutations in four families with a GAMOS-like phenotype, and high-throughput PCR technology was applied to 91 individuals with GAMOS and 816 individuals with isolated nephrotic syndrome. and studies determined the functional significance of the mutations identified.

RESULTS: Three biallelic variants of the transcriptional regulator were detected in six families with proteinuric kidney disease. Four families with a variant in the protein's zinc-finger (ZNF) domain have additional GAMOS-like features, including brain anomalies, cardiac defects, and skeletal defects. All variants destabilize the PRDM15 protein, and the ZNF variant additionally interferes with transcriptional activation. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Prdm15 in embryos disrupted pronephric development. Human wild-type RNA rescued the disruption, but the three variants did not. Finally, CRISPR-mediated knockout of in human podocytes led to dysregulation of several renal developmental genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Variants in can cause either isolated nephrotic syndrome or a GAMOS-type syndrome on an allelic basis. PRDM15 regulates multiple developmental kidney genes, and is likely to play an essential role in renal development in humans.