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COVID-19 infection and the kidneys: Learning the lesson., Soliman, Neveen A. , Journal of infection and public health, Volume 14, Issue 7, p.922-926, (2021) Abstract

The novel coronavirus 2019 pandemic has become a global health crisis. In an attempt to decipher how kidneys are affected by COVID-19 infection, this review focuses on pathogenic and clinical links between COVID-19 infection and the kidneys. SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are target for kidney affection, renal tropism, among other multiorgan complications. COVID-19 related kidney affection is reported not only in infected chronic kidney disease patients but also in those with no prior history of kidney disease. As nephrologists try to keep up with the rapidly evolving, sometimes hasty, reports on renal affection in COVID-19, kidneys continue to be deleteriously affected particularly in critical care settings. This review aims to briefly portray renal involvement in COVID-19 amid this unprecedented deluge of scientific data. Based on gained knowledge and expertise, it is prudent to develop and regularly update preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to improve clinical outcome and reduce mortality.

Multisystem inflammation and susceptibility to viral infections in human ZNFX1 deficiency., Vavassori, Stefano, Chou Janet, Faletti Laura Eva, Haunerdinger Veronika, Opitz Lennart, Joset Pascal, Fraser Christopher J., Prader Seraina, Gao Xianfei, Schuch Luise A., et al. , The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, (2021) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recognition of viral nucleic acids is one of the primary triggers for a type I interferon-mediated antiviral immune response. Inborn errors of type I interferon immunity can be associated with increased inflammation and/or increased susceptibility to viral infections as a result of dysbalanced interferon production. NFX1-type zinc finger-containing 1 (ZNFX1) is an interferon-stimulated double-stranded RNA sensor that restricts the replication of RNA viruses in mice. The role of ZNFX1 in the human immune response is not known.

OBJECTIVE: We studied 15 patients from 8 families with an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency characterized by severe infections by both RNA and DNA viruses and virally triggered inflammatory episodes with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like disease, early-onset seizures, and renal and lung disease.

METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on 13 patients from 8 families. We investigated the transcriptome, posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and predisposition to viral infections in primary cells from patients and controls stimulated with synthetic double-stranded nucleic acids.

RESULTS: Deleterious homozygous and compound heterozygous ZNFX1 variants were identified in all 13 patients. Stimulation of patient-derived primary cells with synthetic double-stranded nucleic acids was associated with a deregulated pattern of expression of ISGs and alterations in the half-life of the mRNA of ISGs and also associated with poorer clearance of viral infections by monocytes.

CONCLUSION: ZNFX1 is an important regulator of the response to double-stranded nucleic acids stimuli following viral infections. ZNFX1 deficiency predisposes to severe viral infections and a multisystem inflammatory disease.

Mutations in Are a Novel Cause of Galloway-Mowat Syndrome., Mann, Nina, Mzoughi Slim, Schneider Ronen, Kühl Susanne J., Schanze Denny, Klämbt Verena, Lovric Svjetlana, Mao Youying, Shi Shasha, Tan Weizhen, et al. , Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, Volume 32, Issue 3, p.580-596, (2021) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects and a progressive nephropathy, which typically manifests as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The prognosis of GAMOS is poor, and the majority of children progress to renal failure. The discovery of monogenic causes of GAMOS has uncovered molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease.

METHODS: Homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and linkage analysis were used to identify mutations in four families with a GAMOS-like phenotype, and high-throughput PCR technology was applied to 91 individuals with GAMOS and 816 individuals with isolated nephrotic syndrome. and studies determined the functional significance of the mutations identified.

RESULTS: Three biallelic variants of the transcriptional regulator were detected in six families with proteinuric kidney disease. Four families with a variant in the protein's zinc-finger (ZNF) domain have additional GAMOS-like features, including brain anomalies, cardiac defects, and skeletal defects. All variants destabilize the PRDM15 protein, and the ZNF variant additionally interferes with transcriptional activation. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Prdm15 in embryos disrupted pronephric development. Human wild-type RNA rescued the disruption, but the three variants did not. Finally, CRISPR-mediated knockout of in human podocytes led to dysregulation of several renal developmental genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Variants in can cause either isolated nephrotic syndrome or a GAMOS-type syndrome on an allelic basis. PRDM15 regulates multiple developmental kidney genes, and is likely to play an essential role in renal development in humans.

Recessive variants impair actin remodeling and cause glomerulopathy in humans and mice., Majmundar, Amar J., Buerger Florian, Forbes Thomas A., Klämbt Verena, Schneider Ronen, Deutsch Konstantin, Kitzler Thomas M., Howden Sara E., Scurr Michelle, Tan Ker Sin, et al. , Science advances, Volume 7, Issue 1, (2021) Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. We found recessive variants in two families with early-onset NS by exome sequencing. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) , but not cDNA constructs bearing patient variants, increased active CDC42 and promoted filopodia and podosome formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of CDC42 or its effectors, formin proteins, reduced NOS1AP-induced filopodia formation. knockdown reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR), which was rescued by overexpression of WT but not by constructs bearing patient variants. PMR in knockdown podocytes was also rescued by constitutively active or the formin Modeling a patient variant in knock-in human kidney organoids revealed malformed glomeruli with increased apoptosis. mice recapitulated the human phenotype, exhibiting proteinuria, foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis. These findings demonstrate that recessive variants impair CDC42/DIAPH-dependent actin remodeling, cause aberrant organoid glomerulogenesis, and lead to a glomerulopathy in humans and mice.

Refining genotype-phenotype correlations in 304 patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and PKHD1 gene variants., Burgmaier, Kathrin, Brinker Leonie, Erger Florian, Beck Bodo B., Benz Marcus R., Bergmann Carsten, Boyer Olivia, Collard Laure, Dafinger Claudia, Fila Marc, et al. , Kidney international, (2021) Abstract

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a severe disease of early childhood that is clinically characterized by fibrocystic changes of the kidneys and the liver. The main cause of ARPKD are variants in the PKHD1 gene encoding the large transmembrane protein fibrocystin. The mechanisms underlying the observed clinical heterogeneity in ARPKD remain incompletely understood, partly due to the fact that genotype-phenotype correlations have been limited to the association of biallelic null variants in PKHD1 with the most severe phenotypes. In this observational study we analyzed a deep clinical dataset of 304 patients with ARPKD from two independent cohorts and identified novel genotype-phenotype correlations during childhood and adolescence. Biallelic null variants frequently show severe courses. Additionally, our data suggest that the affected region in PKHD1 is important in determining the phenotype. Patients with two missense variants affecting amino acids 709-1837 of fibrocystin or a missense variant in this region and a null variant less frequently developed chronic kidney failure, and patients with missense variants affecting amino acids 1838-2624 showed better hepatic outcome. Variants affecting amino acids 2625-4074 of fibrocystin were associated with poorer hepatic outcome. Thus, our data expand the understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in pediatric ARPKD patients and can lay the foundation for more precise and personalized counselling and treatment approaches.

DAAM2 Variants Cause Nephrotic Syndrome via Actin Dysregulation., Schneider, Ronen, Deutsch Konstantin, Hoeprich Gregory J., Marquez Jonathan, Hermle Tobias, Braun Daniela A., Seltzsam Steve, Kitzler Thomas M., Mao Youying, Buerger Florian, et al. , American journal of human genetics, Volume 107, Issue 6, p.1113-1128, (2020) Abstract

The discovery of >60 monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) has revealed a central role for the actin regulators RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 and their effectors, including the formin INF2. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we here discovered bi-allelic variants in the formin DAAM2 in four unrelated families with steroid-resistant NS. We show that DAAM2 localizes to the cytoplasm in podocytes and in kidney sections. Further, the variants impair DAAM2-dependent actin remodeling processes: wild-type DAAM2 cDNA, but not cDNA representing missense variants found in individuals with NS, rescued reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR) and restored reduced filopodia formation in shRNA-induced DAAM2-knockdown podocytes. Filopodia restoration was also induced by the formin-activating molecule IMM-01. DAAM2 also co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with INF2, which is intriguing since variants in both formins cause NS. Using in vitro bulk and TIRF microscopy assays, we find that DAAM2 variants alter actin assembly activities of the formin. In a Xenopus daam2-CRISPR knockout model, we demonstrate actin dysregulation in vivo and glomerular maldevelopment that is rescued by WT-DAAM2 mRNA. We conclude that DAAM2 variants are a likely cause of monogenic human SRNS due to actin dysregulation in podocytes. Further, we provide evidence that DAAM2-associated SRNS may be amenable to treatment using actin regulating compounds.

Severe neurological outcomes after very early bilateral nephrectomies in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)., Burgmaier, Kathrin, Ariceta Gema, Bald Martin, Buescher Anja Katrin, Burgmaier Mathias, Erger Florian, Gessner Michaela, Gokce Ibrahim, König Jens, Kowalewska Claudia, et al. , Scientific reports, Volume 10, Issue 1, p.16025, (2020) Abstract

To test the association between bilateral nephrectomies in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and long-term clinical outcome and to identify risk factors for severe outcomes, a dataset comprising 504 patients from the international registry study ARegPKD was analyzed for characteristics and complications of patients with very early (≤ 3 months; VEBNE) and early (4-15 months; EBNE) bilateral nephrectomies. Patients with very early dialysis (VED, onset ≤ 3 months) without bilateral nephrectomies and patients with total kidney volumes (TKV) comparable to VEBNE infants served as additional control groups. We identified 19 children with VEBNE, 9 with EBNE, 12 with VED and 11 in the TKV control group. VEBNE patients suffered more frequently from severe neurological complications in comparison to all control patients. Very early bilateral nephrectomies and documentation of severe hypotensive episodes were independent risk factors for severe neurological complications. Bilateral nephrectomies within the first 3 months of life are associated with a risk of severe neurological complications later in life. Our data support a very cautious indication of very early bilateral nephrectomies in ARPKD, especially in patients with residual kidney function, and emphasize the importance of avoiding severe hypotensive episodes in this at-risk cohort.

Subtle cardiac dysfunction in nephropathic cystinosis: insight from tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography., Afify, Mohamed H., Abdelrahman Safaa M., Mohamed Hossam I., Helmy Rasha, GaserAbdelmohsen, AbdElAziz Osama, and Soliman Neveen A. , Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany), Volume 35, Issue 12, p.2307-2317, (2020) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that initially affects the kidney progressing to multi-organ failure due to accumulation of cystine in all tissue compartments.

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is the evaluation of cardiac function in cystinosis patients using non-conventional echocardiographic modalities like pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE).

METHODS: This is a case control study conducted on fifteen patients with cystinosis and 15 normal controls. Echocardiography was done for all participants and PW-TDI was performed for measurement of S', E', A' velocities and myocardial performance index (MPI) at basal parts of septal, left ventricle (LV), and right ventricle (RV) free walls. 2D-STE was done for evaluation of global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) of LV. Mitral E and A velocities and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were also measured.

RESULTS: The GLS, GRS, and S' velocity at basal septum and LV lateral wall were significantly lower in patients denoting LV systolic dysfunction (p = 0.005, p < 0.0001, p = 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively), while E/E' were significantly higher in patients group denoting LV diastolic dysfunction (p < 0.001). For RV function, TAPSE, S', and E' velocity were significantly lower in patients group (p 0.013, p < 0.01, p = 0.05, respectively) indicating RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The TDI-derived MPI for both LV and RV were significantly higher in patients group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.01, respectively) indicating both ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. For prediction of cardiac dysfunction among patients, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that GRS ≤ 29% had sensitivity 93.3% and specificity 100%, GLS > - 20.1% had sensitivity 66.7% and specificity 93.3%, LV-E/E' >7.87 had sensitivity 73.3% and specificity 93.3%, and MPI-LV > 0.36 had sensitivity 100% and specificity 93.3% while MPI-RV > 0.29 had sensitivity 80% and specificity 93.3% and TAPSE ≤ 19 mm had sensitivity 80% and specificity 73.3%.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cystinosis have significant both left and right ventricular dysfunction, which can be better evaluated using the non-conventional echocardiographic modalities like TDI and 2D-STE for early detection of subtle cardiac dysfunction.

ADPedKD: A Global Online Platform on the Management of Children With ADPKD., De Rechter, Stéphanie, Bockenhauer Detlef, Guay-Woodford Lisa M., Liu Isaac, Mallett Andrew J., Soliman Neveen A., Sylvestre Lucimary C., Schaefer Franz, Liebau Max C., and Mekahli Djalila , Kidney international reports, Volume 4, Issue 9, p.1271-1284, (2019) Abstract

Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic cause of renal failure. For several decades, ADPKD was regarded as an adult-onset disease. In the past decade, it has become more widely appreciated that the disease course begins in childhood. However, evidence-based guidelines on how to manage and approach children diagnosed with or at risk of ADPKD are lacking. Also, scoring systems to stratify patients into risk categories have been established only for adults. Overall, there are insufficient data on the clinical course during childhood. We therefore initiated the global ADPedKD project to establish a large international pediatric ADPKD cohort for deep characterization.

Methods: Global ADPedKD is an international multicenter observational study focusing on childhood-diagnosed ADPKD. This collaborative project is based on interoperable Web-based databases, comprising 7 regional and independent but uniformly organized chapters, namely Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, and the United Kingdom. In the database, a detailed basic data questionnaire, including genetics, is used in combination with data entry from follow-up visits, to provide both retrospective and prospective longitudinal data on clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings, as well as therapeutic interventions.

Discussion: The global ADPedKD initiative aims to characterize in detail the most extensive international pediatric ADPKD cohort reported to date, providing evidence for the development of unified diagnostic, follow-up, and treatment recommendations regarding modifiable disease factors. Moreover, this registry will serve as a platform for the development of clinical and/or biochemical markers predicting the risk of early and progressive disease.

Dominant PAX2 mutations may cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and FSGS in children., Vivante, Asaf, Chacham Orna Staretz, Shril Shirlee, Schreiber Ruth, Mane Shrikant M., Pode-Shakked Ben, Soliman Neveen A., Koneth Irene, Schiffer Mario, Anikster Yair, et al. , Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany), Volume 34, Issue 9, p.1607-1613, (2019) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous PAX2 mutations cause renal coloboma syndrome (RCS) [OMIM no. 120330]. RCS is a renal syndromic disease encompassing retinal coloboma and sensorineural hearing loss. Recently, a causative role for PAX2 was reported in adult-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, the prevalence of PAX2 mutations among large cohort of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and FSGS has not been systematically studied.

METHODS: We employed whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify the percentage of SRNS cases explained by monogenic mutations in known genes of SRNS/FSGS. As PAX2 mutations are not an established cause of childhood FSGS, we evaluated a cohort of 215 unrelated families with SRNS, in whom no underlying genetic etiology had been previously established.

RESULTS: Using WES, we identified 3 novel causative heterozygous PAX2 mutations in 3 out of the 215 unrelated index cases studied (1.3%). All three cases were detected in individuals from families with more than one affected and compatible with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (3/57 familial cases studied (5.2%)). The clinical diagnosis in three out of four pediatric index patients was done during routine medical evaluation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate high frequency of PAX2 mutations in familial form of SRNS (5.2%) and further expand the phenotypic spectrum of PAX2 heterozygous mutations to include autosomal dominant childhood-onset FSGS. These results highlight the importance of including PAX2 in the list of genes known to cause FSGS in children.

Management of bone disease in cystinosis: Statement from an international conference., Hohenfellner, Katharina, Rauch Frank, Ariceta Gema, Awan Atif, Bacchetta Justine, Bergmann Carsten, Bechtold Susanne, Cassidy Noelle, Deschenes Geroges, Elenberg Ewa, et al. , Journal of inherited metabolic disease, Volume 42, Issue 5, p.1019-1029, (2019) Abstract

Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive storage disease due to impaired transport of cystine out of lysosomes. Since the accumulation of intracellular cystine affects all organs and tissues, the management of cystinosis requires a specialized multidisciplinary team consisting of pediatricians, nephrologists, nutritionists, ophthalmologists, endocrinologists, neurologists' geneticists, and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment with cysteamine can delay or prevent most clinical manifestations of cystinosis, except the renal Fanconi syndrome. Virtually all individuals with classical, nephropathic cystinosis suffer from cystinosis metabolic bone disease (CMBD), related to the renal Fanconi syndrome in infancy and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) later in life. Manifestations of CMBD include hypophosphatemic rickets in infancy, and renal osteodystrophy associated with CKD resulting in bone deformities, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, fractures, and short stature. Assessment of CMBD involves monitoring growth, leg deformities, blood levels of phosphate, electrolytes, bicarbonate, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase, periodically obtaining bone radiographs, determining levels of critical hormones and vitamins, such as thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, 25(OH) vitamin D, and testosterone in males, and surveillance for nonrenal complications of cystinosis such as myopathy. Treatment includes replacement of urinary losses, cystine depletion with oral cysteamine, vitamin D, hormone replacement, physical therapy, and corrective orthopedic surgery. The recommendations in this article came from an expert meeting on CMBD that took place in Salzburg, Austria, in December 2016.

Treatment and long-term outcome in primary distal renal tubular acidosis., Lopez-Garcia, Sergio Camilo, Emma Francesco, Walsh Stephen B., Fila Marc, Hooman Nakysa, Zaniew Marcin, Bertholet-Thomas Aurélia, Colussi Giacomo, Burgmaier Kathrin, Levtchenko Elena, et al. , Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, Volume 34, Issue 6, p.981-991, (2019) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare disorder, and we aimed to gather data on treatment and long-term outcome.

METHODS: We contacted paediatric and adult nephrologists through European professional organizations. Responding clinicians entered demographic, biochemical, genetic and clinical data in an online form.

RESULTS: Adequate data were collected on 340 patients (29 countries, female 52%). Mutation testing had been performed on 206 patients (61%); pathogenic mutations were identified in 170 patients (83%). The median (range) presentation age was 0.5 (0-54) years and age at last follow-up was 11.0 (0-70.0) years. Adult height was slightly below average with a mean (SD score) of -0.57 (±1.16). There was an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage ≥2 in children (35%) and adults (82%). Nephrocalcinosis was reported in 88%. Nephrolithiasis was more common with SLC4A1 mutations (42% versus 21%). Thirty-six percent had hearing loss, particularly in ATP6V1B1 (88%). The median (interquartile range) prescribed dose of alkali (mEq/kg/day) was 1.9 (1.2-3.3). Adequate metabolic control (normal plasma bicarbonate and normocalciuria) was achieved in 158 patients (51%), more commonly in countries with higher gross domestic product (67% versus 23%), and was associated with higher height and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

CONCLUSION: Long-term follow-up from this large dRTA cohort shows an overall favourable outcome with normal adult height for most and no patient with CKD Stage 5. However, 82% of adult patients have CKD Stages 2-4. Importance of adequate metabolic control was highlighted by better growth and renal function but was achieved in only half of patients.

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Causative Mutations in Families with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract., van der Ven, Amelie T., Connaughton Dervla M., Ityel Hadas, Mann Nina, Nakayama Makiko, Chen Jing, Vivante Asaf, Hwang Daw-Yang, Schulz Julian, Braun Daniela A., et al. , Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, 2018 Sep, Volume 29, Issue 9, p.2348-2361, (2018) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most prevalent cause of kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Previous gene panel studies showed monogenic causation in up to 12% of patients with CAKUT.

METHODS: We applied whole-exome sequencing to analyze the genotypes of individuals from 232 families with CAKUT, evaluating for mutations in single genes known to cause human CAKUT and genes known to cause CAKUT in mice. In consanguineous or multiplex families, we additionally performed a search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT.

RESULTS: In 29 families (13%), we detected a causative mutation in a known gene for isolated or syndromic CAKUT that sufficiently explained the patient's CAKUT phenotype. In three families (1%), we detected a mutation in a gene reported to cause a phenocopy of CAKUT. In 15 of 155 families with isolated CAKUT, we detected deleterious mutations in syndromic CAKUT genes. Our additional search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT in consanguineous and multiplex families revealed a potential single, novel monogenic CAKUT gene in 19 of 232 families (8%).

CONCLUSIONS: We identified monogenic mutations in a known human CAKUT gene or CAKUT phenocopy gene as the cause of disease in 14% of the CAKUT families in this study. Whole-exome sequencing provides an etiologic diagnosis in a high fraction of patients with CAKUT and will provide a new basis for the mechanistic understanding of CAKUT.

Combined liver-kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria type I in children: Single Center Experience., Kotb, Magd A., Hamza Alaa F., Abd El Kader Hesham, El Monayeri Magda, Mosallam Dalia S., Ali Nazira, Basanti ChristineWilliam Shaker, Bazaraa Hafez, Rahman Hany Abdel, Nabhan Marwa M., et al. , Pediatric transplantation, 2018 Nov 26, p.e13313, (2018) Abstract

Primary hyperoxalurias are rare inborn errors of metabolism with deficiency of hepatic enzymes that lead to excessive urinary oxalate excretion and overproduction of oxalate which is deposited in various organs. Hyperoxaluria results in serious morbid-ity, end stage kidney disease (ESKD), and mortality if left untreated. Combined liver kidney transplantation (CLKT) is recognized as a management of ESKD for children with hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). This study aimed to report outcome of CLKT in a pediatric cohort of PH1 patients, through retrospective analysis of data of 8 children (2 girls and 6 boys) who presented by PH1 to Wadi El Nil Pediatric Living Related Liver Transplant Unit during 2001-2017. Mean age at transplant was 8.2 ± 4 years. Only three of the children underwent confirmatory genotyping. Three patients died prior to surgery on waiting list. The first attempt at CLKT was consecutive, and despite initial successful liver transplant, the girl died of biliary peritonitis prior to scheduled renal transplant. Of the four who underwent simultaneous CLKT, only two survived and are well, one with insignificant complications, and other suffered from abdominal Burkitt lymphoma managed by excision and resection anastomosis, four cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The other two died, one due to uncontrollable bleeding within 36 hours of procedure, while the other died awaiting renal transplant after loss of renal graft to recurrent renal oxalosis 6 months post-transplant. PH1 with ESKD is a rare disease; simultaneous CLKT offers good quality of life for afflicted children. Graft shortage and renal graft loss to oxalosis challenge the outcome.

Whole Exome Sequencing of Patients with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome., Warejko, Jillian K., Tan Weizhen, Daga Ankana, Schapiro David, Lawson Jennifer A., Shril Shirlee, Lovric Svjetlana, Ashraf Shazia, Rao Jia, Hermle Tobias, et al. , Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 2018 Jan 06, Volume 13, Issue 1, p.53-62, (2018) Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome overwhelmingly progresses to ESRD. More than 30 monogenic genes have been identified to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We previously detected causative mutations using targeted panel sequencing in 30% of patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Panel sequencing has a number of limitations when compared with whole exome sequencing. We employed whole exome sequencing to detect monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in an international cohort of 300 families.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Three hundred thirty-five individuals with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome from 300 families were recruited from April of 1998 to June of 2016. Age of onset was restricted to <25 years of age. Exome data were evaluated for 33 known monogenic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes.

RESULTS: In 74 of 300 families (25%), we identified a causative mutation in one of 20 genes known to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. In 11 families (3.7%), we detected a mutation in a gene that causes a phenocopy of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This is consistent with our previously published identification of mutations using a panel approach. We detected a causative mutation in a known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene in 38% of consanguineous families and in 13% of nonconsanguineous families, and 48% of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. A total of 68 different mutations were detected in 20 of 33 steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. Fifteen of these mutations were novel.,,, andwere the most common genes in which we detected a mutation. In another 28% of families, we detected mutations in one or more candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS: Whole exome sequencing is a sensitive approach toward diagnosis of monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A molecular genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome may have important consequences for the management of treatment and kidney transplantation in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Whole exome sequencing frequently detects a monogenic cause in early onset nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis., Daga, Ankana, Majmundar Amar J., Braun Daniela A., Gee Heon Yung, Lawson Jennifer A., Shril Shirlee, Jobst-Schwan Tilman, Vivante Asaf, Schapiro David, Tan Weizhen, et al. , Kidney international, 2018 Jan, Volume 93, Issue 1, p.204-213, (2018) Abstract

The incidence of nephrolithiasis continues to rise. Previously, we showed that a monogenic cause could be detected in 11.4% of individuals with adult-onset nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis and in 16.7-20.8% of individuals with onset before 18 years of age, using gene panel sequencing of 30 genes known to cause nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. To overcome the limitations of panel sequencing, we utilized whole exome sequencing in 51 families, who presented before age 25 years with at least one renal stone or with a renal ultrasound finding of nephrocalcinosis to identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease. In 15 of 51 families, we detected a monogenic causative mutation by whole exome sequencing. A mutation in seven recessive genes (AGXT, ATP6V1B1, CLDN16, CLDN19, GRHPR, SLC3A1, SLC12A1), in one dominant gene (SLC9A3R1), and in one gene (SLC34A1) with both recessive and dominant inheritance was detected. Seven of the 19 different mutations were not previously described as disease-causing. In one family, a causative mutation in one of 117 genes that may represent phenocopies of nephrolithiasis-causing genes was detected. In nine of 15 families, the genetic diagnosis may have specific implications for stone management and prevention. Several factors that correlated with the higher detection rate in our cohort were younger age at onset of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis, presence of multiple affected members in a family, and presence of consanguinity. Thus, we established whole exome sequencing as an efficient approach toward a molecular genetic diagnosis in individuals with nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis who manifest before age 25 years.

Molecular Basis of Cystinosis: Geographic Distribution, Functional Consequences of Mutations in the CTNS Gene, and Potential for Repair., David, Dries, Berlingerio Sante Princiero, Elmonem Mohamed A., Arcolino Fanny Oliveira, neveen soliman, van den Heuvel Bert, Gijsbers Rik, and Levtchenko Elena , Nephron, 2018 Dec 14, Volume 141, Issue 2, p.1-14, (2018) Abstract

Mutations in the CTNS gene encoding the lysosomal membrane cystine transporter cystinosin are the cause of cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. More than 140 CTNS mutations have been reported worldwide. Recent studies have discovered that cystinosin exerts other key cellular functions beyond cystine transport such as regulation of oxidative state, lysosomal dynamics and autophagy. Here, we review the different mutations described in the CTNS gene and the geographical distribution of incidence. In addition, the characteristics of the various mutations in relation to the functions of cystinosin needs to be further elucidated. In this review, we highlight the functional consequences of the different mutations in correlation with the clinical phenotypes. Moreover, we propose how this understanding would be fundamental for the development of new technologies through targeted gene therapy, holding promises for a possible cure of the kidney and extra-renal phenotypes of cystinosis.

Risk Factors for Early Dialysis Dependency in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease., Burgmaier, Kathrin, Kunzmann Kevin, Ariceta Gema, Bergmann Carsten, Buescher Anja Katrin, Burgmaier Mathias, Dursun Ismail, Duzova Ali, Eid Loai, Erger Florian, et al. , The Journal of pediatrics, 2018 Aug, Volume 199, p.22-28.e6, (2018) Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for dialysis within the first year of life in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) as a basis for parental counseling after prenatal and perinatal diagnosis.

STUDY DESIGN: A dataset comprising 385 patients from the ARegPKD international registry study was analyzed for potential risk markers for dialysis during the first year of life.

RESULTS: Thirty-six out of 385 children (9.4%) commenced dialysis in the first year of life. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, the presence of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, prenatal kidney enlargement, a low Apgar score, and the need for postnatal breathing support were independently associated with an increased hazard ratio for requiring dialysis within the first year of life. The increased risk associated with Apgar score and perinatal assisted breathing was time-dependent and vanished after 5 and 8 months of life, respectively. The predicted probabilities for early dialysis varied from 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5%-4.1%) for patients with ARPKD with no prenatal sonographic abnormalities to 32.3% (95% CI, 22.2%-44.5%) in cases of documented oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, renal cysts, and enlarged kidneys.

CONCLUSIONS: This study, which identified risk factors associated with onset of dialysis in ARPKD in the first year of life, may be helpful in prenatal parental counseling in cases of suspected ARPKD.

Mutations in six nephrosis genes delineate a pathogenic pathway amenable to treatment., Ashraf, Shazia, Kudo Hiroki, Rao Jia, Kikuchi Atsuo, Widmeier Eugen, Lawson Jennifer A., Tan Weizhen, Hermle Tobias, Warejko Jillian K., Shril Shirlee, et al. , Nature communications, 2018 05 17, Volume 9, Issue 1, p.1960, (2018) Abstract

No efficient treatment exists for nephrotic syndrome (NS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here we show mutations in six different genes (MAGI2, TNS2, DLC1, CDK20, ITSN1, ITSN2) as causing NS in 17 families with partially treatment-sensitive NS (pTSNS). These proteins interact and we delineate their roles in Rho-like small GTPase (RLSG) activity, and demonstrate deficiency for mutants of pTSNS patients. We find that CDK20 regulates DLC1. Knockdown of MAGI2, DLC1, or CDK20 in cultured podocytes reduces migration rate. Treatment with dexamethasone abolishes RhoA activation by knockdown of DLC1 or CDK20 indicating that steroid treatment in patients with pTSNS and mutations in these genes is mediated by this RLSG module. Furthermore, we discover ITSN1 and ITSN2 as podocytic guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Cdc42. We generate Itsn2-L knockout mice that recapitulate the mild NS phenotype. We, thus, define a functional network of RhoA regulation, thereby revealing potential therapeutic targets.

A homozygous missense variant in VWA2, encoding an interactor of the Fraser-complex, in a patient with vesicoureteral reflux., van der Ven, Amelie T., Kobbe Birgit, Kohl Stefan, Shril Shirlee, Pogoda Hans-Martin, Imhof Thomas, Ityel Hadas, Vivante Asaf, Chen Jing, Hwang Daw-Yang, et al. , PloS one, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 1, p.e0191224, (2018) Abstract

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause (40-50%) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. About 40 monogenic causes of CAKUT have so far been discovered. To date less than 20% of CAKUT cases can be explained by mutations in these 40 genes. To identify additional monogenic causes of CAKUT, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and homozygosity mapping (HM) in a patient with CAKUT from Indian origin and consanguineous descent. We identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1336C>T, p.Arg446Cys) in the gene Von Willebrand factor A domain containing 2 (VWA2). With immunohistochemistry studies on kidneys of newborn (P1) mice, we show that Vwa2 and Fraser extracellular matrix complex subunit 1 (Fras1) co-localize in the nephrogenic zone of the renal cortex. We identified a pronounced expression of Vwa2 in the basement membrane of the ureteric bud (UB) and derivatives of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM). By applying in vitro assays, we demonstrate that the Arg446Cys mutation decreases translocation of monomeric VWA2 protein and increases translocation of aggregated VWA2 protein into the extracellular space. This is potentially due to the additional, unpaired cysteine residue in the mutated protein that is used for intermolecular disulfide bond formation. VWA2 is a known, direct interactor of FRAS1 of the Fraser-Complex (FC). FC-encoding genes and interacting proteins have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic and/or isolated CAKUT phenotypes in humans. VWA2 therefore constitutes a very strong candidate in the search for novel CAKUT-causing genes. Our results from in vitro experiments indicate a dose-dependent neomorphic effect of the Arg446Cys homozygous mutation in VWA2.

Advillin acts upstream of phospholipase C ϵ1 in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome., Rao, Jia, Ashraf Shazia, Tan Weizhen, van der Ven Amelie T., Gee Heon Yung, Braun Daniela A., Fehér Krisztina, George Sudeep P., Esmaeilniakooshkghazi Amin, Choi Won-Il, et al. , The Journal of clinical investigation, 2017 Oct 23, (2017) Abstract

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here, we identified recessive mutations in the gene encoding the actin-binding protein advillin (AVIL) in 3 unrelated families with SRNS. While all AVIL mutations resulted in a marked loss of its actin-bundling ability, truncation of AVIL also disrupted colocalization with F-actin, thereby leading to impaired actin binding and severing. Additionally, AVIL colocalized and interacted with the phospholipase enzyme PLCE1 and with the ARP2/3 actin-modulating complex. Knockdown of AVIL in human podocytes reduced actin stress fibers at the cell periphery, prevented recruitment of PLCE1 to the ARP3-rich lamellipodia, blocked EGF-induced generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by PLCE1, and attenuated the podocyte migration rate (PMR). These effects were reversed by overexpression of WT AVIL but not by overexpression of any of the 3 patient-derived AVIL mutants. The PMR was increased by overexpression of WT Avil or PLCE1, or by EGF stimulation; however, this increased PMR was ameliorated by inhibition of the ARP2/3 complex, indicating that ARP-dependent lamellipodia formation occurs downstream of AVIL and PLCE1 function. Together, these results delineate a comprehensive pathogenic axis of SRNS that integrates loss of AVIL function with alterations in the action of PLCE1, an established SRNS protein.

Common Elements in Rare Kidney Diseases: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference., Aymé, Ségolène, Bockenhauer Detlef, Day Simon, Devuyst Olivier, Guay-Woodford Lisa M., Ingelfinger Julie R., Klein Jon B., Knoers Nine V. A. M., Perrone Ronald D., Roberts Julia, et al. , Kidney international, 2017 Oct, Volume 92, Issue 4, p.796-808, (2017) Abstract

Rare kidney diseases encompass at least 150 different conditions, most of which are inherited. Although individual rare kidney diseases raise specific issues, as a group these rare diseases can have overlapping challenges in diagnosis and treatment. These challenges include small numbers of affected patients, unidentified causes of disease, lack of biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, and need for complex care. To address common clinical and patient issues among rare kidney diseases, the KDIGO Controversies Conference entitled, Common Elements in Rare Kidney Diseases, brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical providers and patient advocates to address five central issues for rare kidney diseases. These issues encompassed diagnostic challenges, management of kidney functional decline and progression of chronic kidney disease, challenges in clinical study design, translation of advances in research to clinical care, and provision of practical and integrated patient support. Thus, by a process of consensus, guidance for addressing these challenges was developed and is presented here.

Cystic kidneys in fetal Walker-Warburg syndrome with POMT2 mutation: Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in four siblings and review of literature., Nabhan, Marwa M., Elkhateeb Nour, Braun Daniela A., Eun Sungho, Saleem Sahar N., Gee Heon Yung, Hildebrandt Friedhelm, and Soliman Neveen A. , American journal of medical genetics. Part A, 2017 Oct, Volume 173, Issue 10, p.2697-2702, (2017) Abstract

Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy secondary to α-dystroglycanopathy with muscle, brain, and eye abnormalities often leading to death in the first weeks of life. It is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern, and has been linked to at least 15 different genes; including protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1), protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2), protein O-mannose beta-1,2-N acetylglucosaminyltransferase (POMGNT1), fukutin (FKTN), isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD), and other genes. We report on a consanguineous family with four consecutive siblings affected by this condition with lethal outcome in three (still birth), and termination of the fourth pregnancy based on antenatal MRI identification of brain and kidney anomalies that heralded proper and deep clinical phenotyping. The diagnosis of WWS was suggested based on the unique collective phenotype comprising brain anomalies in the form of lissencephaly, subcortical/subependymal heterotopia, and cerebellar hypoplasia shared by all four siblings; microphthalmia in one sibling; and large cystic kidneys in the fetus and another sibling. Other unshared neurological abnormalities included hydrocephalus and Dandy-Walker malformation. Whole exome sequencing of the fetus revealed a highly conserved missense mutation in POMT2 that is known to cause WWS with brain and eye anomalies.In conclusion, the heterogeneous clinical presentation in the four affected conceptions with POMT2 mutation expands the current clinical spectrum of POMT2-associated WWS to include large cystic kidneys; and confirms intra-familial variability in terms of brain, kidney, and eye anomalies.

Mutations in KEOPS-complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with primary microcephaly., Braun, Daniela A., Rao Jia, Mollet Geraldine, Schapiro David, Daugeron Marie-Claire, Tan Weizhen, Gribouval Olivier, Boyer Olivia, Revy Patrick, Jobst-Schwan Tilman, et al. , Nature genetics, 2017 Oct, Volume 49, Issue 10, p.1529-1538, (2017) Abstract

Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced apoptosis. Knockdown of OSGEP or TP53RK induced defects in the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms.

Clinical spectrum of primary hyperoxaluria type 1: Experience of a tertiary center., Soliman, Neveen A., Nabhan Marwa M., Abdelrahman Safaa M., Abdelaziz Hanan, Helmy Rasha, Ghanim Khaled, Bazaraa Hafez M., Badr Ahmed M., Tolba Omar A., Kotb Magd A., et al. , Nephrologie & therapeutique, 2017 May, Volume 13, Issue 3, p.176-182, (2017) Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary hyperoxalurias are rare inborn errors of metabolism resulting in increased endogenous production of oxalate that leads to excessive urinary oxalate excretion. Diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a challenging issue and depends on diverse diagnostic tools including biochemical analysis of urine, stone analysis, renal biopsy, genetic studies and in some cases liver biopsy for enzyme assay. We characterized the clinical presentation as well as renal and extrarenal phenotypes in PH1 patients.

METHODS: This descriptive cohort study included patients with presumable PH1 presenting with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis (NC). Precise clinical characterization of renal phenotype as well as systemic involvement is reported. AGXT mutational analysis was performed to confirm the diagnosis of PH1.

RESULTS: The study cohort included 26 patients with presumable PH1 with male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The median age at time of diagnosis was 6 years, nevertheless the median age at initial symptoms was 3 years. Thirteen patients (50%) were diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Two patients had no symptoms and were diagnosed while screening siblings of index patients. Seventeen patients (65.4%) had reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD): 6/17 (35.3%) during infancy, 4/17 (23.5%) in early childhood and 7/17 (41.29%) in late childhood. Two patients (7.7%) had clinically manifest extra renal (retina, heart, bone, soft tissue) involvement. Mutational analysis of AGXT gene confirmed the diagnosis of PH1 in 15 out of 19 patients (79%) where analysis had been performed. Fifty percent of patients with maintained renal functions had projected 10 years renal survival.

CONCLUSION: PH1 is a heterogeneous disease with wide spectrum of clinical, imaging and functional presentation. More than two-thirds of patients presented prior to the age of 5 years; half of them with the stormy course of infantile PH1. ESRD was the commonest presenting manifestation in two-thirds of our cohort.